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Fallacy on Slippery Slope

  1. What is Slippery Slope (Ruscio, Chapter 3)? Define, describe and provide a couple of real-life good examples.

Definition

According to Ruscio (2006), Slippery slope is based on logical-thinking either in one agreement or the original quarrels which results into rational fallacy, resulting in an inevitable conclusion which nevertheless was not adopted.

Explanation

Michael (2009) mentioned which the Slippery Slope is a fallacy when a person asserts that some event must undoubtedly continue from another without the discussion for the inevitability of the function in question. Most the conditions has some steps or progressions between one concern and the main one in question no reason is given as to why the intervening steps or progressions only will be bypassed.

This "argument" identifies when event X has occurred (will or might occur), event Y will definitely undoubtedly happen. This sort of "reasoning" is fallacious because there is no reason to think that one event must undoubtedly follow from another without an argument for such a case.

For occasion, "We have to avoid them from banning pornography. Once they start banning one form of literature, they'll never stop. Next thing you know, they will be burning up all the catalogs!" second, Once you begin consuming Panadol, it'll cause drug obsession.

  1. What is Specialist, as related to critical thinking in your words (Ruscio, Section 5)? Define, explain and provide one or two real life instances.

Definition

According to Ruscio (2009) array sources of information and statements that is mentioned by the person of higher-authority such as experts or influential people that has got the power to have an impact on people thoughts, behaviours and attitudes.

Explanation

Michael (2009) explained that when a person comes prey to this fallacy, some may be accepting a claim without having adequate evidence to take action. Specifically, the person is taking the say because they erroneously believe the person making the lay claim is the best expert and hence, the case is reasonable to simply accept. Determining if a person has the needed amount of expertise can often be very difficult. In academic domains (such as idea, background, etc. ), the person's formal education, academic performance, publications, membership in professional societies and so forth can all be reliable signals of competence. (Michael, 2009) Furthermore, it will not be simply assumed that a person with a diploma can be an expert. The following examples are:

  1. Tendency to simply accept all information that is stated by the lecturers or people of higher power than us, without questioning the inner validity of the foundation.
  2. Afraid to speak up even if we disagree with the assertion simply because the individual is an expert in that field.
  3. What is Plausibility, as related to critical thinking in your content material (Ruscio, section 7)? Define, describe and provide one or two real life cases.

Definition

Ruscio (2006) described that plausibility shows the probability of an argument being genuine giving a deceptive impression of fact or reliability.

Explanation

Before accepting quarrels, answers and contracts, we must always question the stability and the legitimacy of their statements. Perhaps, a few of the statements were legalized. However, we will have to compare and contrast (e. g. positive versus negative) before making a decision to trust or not.

Real-life examples

  1. We shouldn't accept anything that is directed at us without questioning how plausible the materials are such as stories from celebrities after by using a certain kind of product.
  2. Theories or research shouldn't be implemented blindly without questioning how plausible the results were regarding the particular researcher wants to find.
  1. What are relationship and Correlation as related to critical thinking in your word (Ruscio, Chapter 8)? Define, clarify and provide a couple of real life illustrations.

Definition

Correlation- a reciprocal relationship between two or more things which information representing how directly two variables co-vary; it may differ from -1 (perfect negative relationship) through 0 (no relationship) to +1 (perfect positive correlation); denotes correlated parameters increase and reduction in the same manner.

Association pertains to the meaning we make of an observed relationship. In critical thinking framework, one of the potential risks to the engineering of reasonable knowledge is assuming causality in the lands of correlation. This is a common miscalculation because correlation will not infer causation. (Ruscio, 2006)

Explanation

From my understanding, connection is used by using an observed correlation. Correlation doesn't suggest cause and result. It simply means explaining the difference in romance. For example, when varying x goes up, variable y falls. A positive relationship implies that correlated variables cut down and increase in the same course.

Real-life examples

  1. Whenever we browse the articles on the newspaper publishers, sometimes we have a tendency to correlate to the ideas we learnt and associate the materials that are useful for our research perhaps.
  2. In our everyday lives or discussion, we will always affiliate and correlate what we realize and put them in to good use if we can handle linking sentences or even ideas to add gist to everything maybe.
  1. What is Verification bias (Ruscio, Chapter 10)? Define, make clear and provide a couple of real life cases.

Definition

Ruscio (2006) explained that verification bias concerns our inclination to find proof to be able to substantiate our biasness and ideologies as the ignorance of other related confirmation.

Explanation

According to Michael (2009), whenever we are determined to label someone or create a hypothesis from the first-impression, we will actively seek things that will verify our decision or hypothesis. We will also avoid things that will disconfirm our hypothesis. Alternately, is to handle the dissonance (e. g. someone who holds two beliefs that are inconsistent with one another may feel uncomfortable) to be wrong.

We utilize this procedure both for finding our storage area and find out things in the external world.

Real-life examples

  1. After having bought a bit of clothing, we will look for the same clothing in a more expensive store to confirm that we have obtained a good deal.
  2. Stereotypes: for example, if you think that Indians are usually rude and impolite, then you will interpret everyday connections, such as encounters on a crowded train, as being more aggressive in their behavior than other ethnics.

References

  • Michael. (2009). the Nizkor Project. Retrieved 19 November 2009, from http://www. nizkor. org/features/fallacies/index. html#index
  • Ruscio. (2006). Critical thinking in mindset: Separating sense from nonsense, America: Wadsworth Publishing Company
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