This chapter described on all information and data that being collected during the research and examined to look for the research effect.
Figure 5. 1: Factors that Donate to Squatters Settlements in Kuching City
The chart 5. 1 shows the factors that contribute to squatter's negotiation in Kuching city. 50 percent of the respondent arranged that the poverty is the key reason of squatters' arrangement contribution. The poverty experienced leads the migration from rural to urban area in Sarawak since years 1960.
Most of the migration originates from the non-main city of Sarawak such as Simunjan, Serian, Sri Aman Bintulu, Sibu and Miri. Kuching as the Sarawak express capital experienced offered a great deal of job opportunity in many varieties of industries at exactly the same time needs many real human powers to works the industries functions. Many of these migrations just work at constructions, restaurant & supermarket, delivery and manufacturing market sectors predicated on their experience.
High occurrence of poverty among slum dwellers is due to the absence of a long term job which makes them does not have a housing promise as there is absolutely no monthly income affirmation and a strong financial condition. That is visible where 12 percent of the test mentioned that no everlasting job is one of the key problems of squatting settlements because they are not eligible to obtain a loan to buy a home due to no constant monthly income affirmation.
10 % of the test stated third factor that causes the existence of squatter settlements is the lifestyle of abandoned spaces. For example, government land, road reserve land, river reserve land and private land. For example kudei Old town, the largest squatter settlements in Kuching, which is about 200 houses located along Kudei River, is the website of authorities land and river reserves and similarly with the slum around Apong River, in Pending area.
No parcel to generate homes and there are no low-cost property were also one factor that donate to the existence of squatter settlements. Based on the information obtained, these two factors respectively accounted for 8% of squatter settlements. The lack of low-cost properties for the residents makes it difficult to find homes for rent. While the insufficient a land parcel restricting residents to generate their homes more comfortable and safer.
Difficulty to visit college and refused to increase the financial burden to cover bus hiring wages, drives 7% of the test choose 'no transport' as grounds for remain moving into slum areas, because children analysis at school close by.
There is also a Tenant Squatter, which, some of the squatters who build a house in the same area for hire at an inexpensive price and negotiable until reach to Malaysian ringgit, 150 monthly for a house. Just because lack of low cost cover, some people made a decision to hire a squatters house, because of its location near to the commercial and industrial areas. This will be easy for people to venture out to work.
Marriage with a family of squatters residents, also contributed to the life of squatter settlements, where they can be affected by the family to develop properties and live closer to their parents.
There are also some individuals who deliberately build squatters to get some good help from the federal government and non-governmental organizations, credited to many work that contain been made in the eradication of squatter settlements, for example, the government gives lots of state-owned land to the folks of slum areas to be developed which is equipped with complete basic facilities. In addition, the federal government has provided low-cost homes for rent. Main concern is directed at residents of squatter settlement
5. 3 Job Classification of Squatter Settlements Residents around Kuching Area, relating to Age group Factor
Figure 5. 2: Job Classification of Squatter Settlements Residents around Kuching Area, relating to Age group Factor
Figure 5. 2. shows the work classification of squatters inhabitants, women and men in different age. The categories were years 50 and above (mind of family), 30 to 49 years (already family hotel), aged 18 to 29 years of age (teens) and age 12 -17 years (under the Liability).
Those aged over 50s (males), there are extensive who are structure labor, as this is their job from a young age. For those who are not able to work in engineering, they chose to work as a security guard and the rest didn't work. Some took the wage, mailing children to institution. For female, the majority of them work as the cleaner at the nearby commercial center, fulltime housewife and some sells plants at nearby market to get money for buying food. Mainly 30-49 years of age have a family group and still hold the energy to work. Their work centered on the construction, manufacturer work and shipping and delivery, while the woman was working as a cleaner, full-time housewife and working in a supermarket close by.
Ages 18 to 29 years was a local youth including school leavers because typically end up level 5 only. As of this age, both the men and women are focused on employed in restaurants, supermarkets and creation operators. A number of the women curently have their loved ones. They just become full-time housewives.
At the age of 12 to 17 years old remain under the stage of parents dependents and still supposed to be still in school. But for many who cannot continue their schooling, they choose to are construction employees follow their dad. Some works at the supermarket and restaurant. Among women who are committed in the first young adults, some become full-time housewives.
Poor living condition
Most of the squatters houses at all pay out area were in a poor condition where a few of it had been deteriorate. The wooden plank as the pathway to reach the house also found rotten triggers by aging. A few of it was very dangerous to make use of especially for the young children and in term of emergency cases.
Lack of encircling management
The building chemical substance was very bushy with uncut grass and improper negotiation planning which permit the dangerous pet animal and insect mating.
Poor sewerage and drainage
These settlements are an likewise have a poor drainage and sewerage system. It causes a bad bordering odour and also allows the mosquito breeding. Several situations of cholera, dengue, and malaria are found in the negotiation area
poor solid waste management
Because it is illegal settlements, this negotiation is not stated in solid waste material management activities scheduled. However, in the work of the government trying to help people in this area, there are a few supplied with large trash beside the main road near housing areas
improper toilet and wash
Some of the house, they show it with another houses. But it is good enough then just passing around the bush close by. Poor cleanliness is the cause of many infectious diseases
Unlimited social activities
Because of having less enforcement of personal areas, squatter settlements tend to be used as dens of criminal offense, such as vice, drug addict or gangster. The circumstances of the bushy home area, rendering it as the most preferred hideout.
Lack of education
Dropped out of education make slum children wandering around the city to spend time with various activities. For the women, mostly married in the early teenagers, because they could not continue their studies
Lack of modern technology
Lack of information technology facilities is not a major problem for squatter settlements because they're so synonymous with poor living conditions. But when we go through the positive side, the service information system is one way that can indirectly assist in changing the thoughts slum residents.
Lack of common facilities and accommodation
Lacks of basic equipment also become an obstacle for slum residents to compete with others. The vast majority of these squatter settlements are not equipped with basic amenities such as electricity and clean drinking water. Some residents had to use generators because of their homes. There are a few families who experienced to collect rain water to use plastic
Lack of common facilities and accommodation
drum, that are not approved for use as normal water storage tank
Poor access route
The only way that gain access to some houses in slum areas are just wooden bridge pathway that began to deteriorate and holding out the time to collapse. Vehicles cannot enter the area because the route is too muddy anticipated to incorrect drainage and irrigation system. This makes difficulty to communicate with the squatter areas.
Lack of knowledge towards current technologies
Because of a poor life, the residents of squatter areas are also lag behind the currents modernization, especially in neuro-scientific technology.
Lack of encouragement from family
The difficulty is the primary constraints to squatter's people. They somewhat to handle any approaching problem. They also mostly have abandoned with the efforts, and this causes a decrease in inducement to achieve the community here.
Due to insufficient motivation, this influences competition between squatter areas with others. A lot of the slum children who are old enough will continue the tradition of a family group and community of squatters.
No possibility to improve standard of living
Lack of such competition reduces opportunities for even more development as competition for their life is only among themselves only.
Figure 5. 3: Problem Arise In Squatters Pay out in Kuching City
5. 5 Measure taken by authorities for the squatter's eviction and its impact to the squatter's people
Around the year 2007, the second largest squatter settlements in Kuching, which Tabuan Stutong Community, destroyed by open fire. This gives opportunity to the government to transfer these populations to resettlement area (Stampin Resettlement System) near Borneo Development Corporation office. The impact of the shift, many squatters individuals who work in Tabuan area, near the their original home, lost their jobs, because there are no vehicles to go down to work, and at the same time, the public vehicles company such as buses was strike by the problems from illegal transport (truck sapu) and decrease in the number of users. This required the company to reduce transportation path services. Some of the people who have relocated to a new area looking for waste material near government offices and commercial centers for recycled. These influences result in a bad view in the supervision area. (Sarawak Report, 2011: The Garbage Collector That Embarrassing Sarawak)
http://www. sarawakreport. org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/scavengers. jpg
Figure 5. 5: Figures of people sitting beyond your recycle middle to accumulate recyclable waste
Although there are low-cost cover throughout the Kuching, it didn't effect on the squatter problem and only reduce a little of squatters original inhabitants due to majority squatters population do not have a long lasting job rather than comprised with a sturdy monthly income declaration to qualify them to buy a house. In addition, low income also causes the squatters to reduce their bills as much as possible, to be able to pay the expenses of the children's education and purchase enough food with their family life. Buy or rent low-cost property will add to the burden of their expenditures.
To minimize the utilization of land in the City which now being declining, the federal government suggested to construct the low-cost flats but one problem arise, where squatters people refused to move from their house areas because they cannot farm or raise animals such as chickens as an everyday food and for sale at Pasar Minggu as their side income.
5. 5. 4 Provide OCCUPATIONS in Rural Areas and Provision of Residential Accommodation for The Workers.
The state has unveiled the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy (SCORE), where it is targeting a great deal of occupations for peoples throughout their state. Through this plan, it'll be able to raise people's incomes, specifically in the rural areas, indirectly reduce poverty and reduce migration to urban areas. Some people began to leave the town along with his family to seize the occupations offered.
In an effort to lessen costs to accommodate so many squatters, the Sarawak government has taken a new step to eradicating squatter settlements, by providing state-owned land lot to the squatters, squatter settlements restructure and offer the populace with usage of electricity, supply drinking water and garbage collection services. This gets very good response from the squatter's residents themselves because by going right through these steps, they have got the possibility to build more comfortable homes, more orderly and healthy environment.
As the final outcome, the factors that contributes the squatters settlement in Kuching area is poverty where poor family from the rural area migrated to urban due to a lot of job opportunity offers in urban spaces. At the same time, the lower on commodity price reduced their incomes which in turn encourage them for migration. Without qualification, they cannot compete with the metropolitan people plus they paid with the low salary. Insufficient affordable to stay in a high living cost in the urban area plus with the responsibility of these family needs such as food, house, children university and transport, they choose to squat where they can farms for food, build a tiny house for live, choose general public transport and at the same time can sent their children to school. Lack of knowledge and education amongst their children will causes to the reduced or no qualification for the better careers which will continuously causes to the contribution of squatter's pay out.
Low item price
Lack of affordable housing
High living cost
High job opportunity
Required high qualification
No long term job
Drop / quit
Bus / walk
Figure 5. 6: The graph of process of the squatter's pay out existence