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Factors affecting worker commitment

Over the last ten years, the analysis of commitment has advanced in various directions. A variety of disciplines have adopted this issue as a theme in their research and these have offered fresh and significant insights. These recent developments include new approaches to both the conceptualization of employee commitment and the particular human resource techniques intended to increase it.

Current research related to employee commitment highlights the pitfalls of taking a look at dedication as a one-dimensional build that may be enhanced by a particular human resource insurance plan. This assumes a particular practice, for example offering versatile working arrangements or more training, will have a significant and beneficial effect on employee commitment. Alas, in practice it is not that simple since there is no solution. All employees' wants and needs cannot be addressed by an individual policy.

The effective performing of a business highly is determined by the commitment of its

employees. In fact, the dedication of employees may be a key factor that

determines the success of a business in the modern world since, in the situation of the growing competition and the regular execution of new solutions a company needs to have well-qualified and reliable staff to keep up its position in the market. At the same time, the efficiency and productivity of work of employees still continue to be the major factors that can donate to the improvement of the company. Alternatively, nowadays it is clear that financial stimuli exclusively can hardly motivate employees to work better and productively. In such a situation, employees determination converts to be of a paramount importance since it is due to the high dedication of employees they is capable of doing positive results of the work, increase its success and productivity, while low commitment leads, as a rule, to poor results of the performing of the complete organization.



Meyer & Allen 2001 define determination as is a stabilizing power that acts to maintain behavioural path when expectancy/equity conditions aren't met, nor function.

An obliging power which requires that the individual honor the commitment even in the

face of fluctuating attitudes and whims. (Brown 1996)

The relative power of an individual's id with and participation in a

particular company (Mowday et al 1979)

According to Salancik (1977) dedication is circumstances of being in which a person becomes bound by his action to values that sustain his activities and his own involvement

Allen & meyer, 1990, commitment is a mental declare that binds the individual to

the company.


It is the mental bond of an employee to an organization, the strength of which will depend on the degree of employee involvement, employee devotion and idea in the worth of the organization.

As defined by Poter (1974) Worker commitment is the relative strength of the

individual's identification with and participation in a particular group. It consists

of three factors:A strong desire to stay a member of the organization;

A strong belief in, and approval of, the beliefs and goals of the organization

A readiness to exert extensive effort with respect to the organization



This model of organizational commitment model was developed by Meyer and Allen. According to the model, organizational determination demonstrates at least three basic themes.

1. Affective dedication to the organization

2. Continuance Commitment - The recognized cost associated with going out of it

3. Normative Dedication- The responsibility to remain with it.

Affective Commitment

It's the employees emotional attachment to, recognition with and involvement in the


Employees with a strong affective determination continue work with the

organization because they want to.

Continuance Commitment

The specific commits to the organization because he/she perceives high costs of

losing organizational membership including monetary costs (such as pension

accruals) and communal costs (a friendly relationship ties with co-workers) that could be incurred.

The worker remains with the business because he/she "must".

I t identifies an awareness of the costs associated with going out of the organization. The potential cost of leaving an organization are the threat of squandering the time and effort put in acquiring non transferable skills, sacrificing attractive benefits, quitting seniority - based mostly privileges or having to uproot family and disrupt personal human relationships.

It also advances therefore of insufficient alternative occupations.

Employees in this category stay because they need to.


Refers to a feeling of obligation to continue employment. Employees in this category

remain in the business because they feel they ought to.

Organization can form normative commitment by providing reward beforehand e. g. paying school tuition. Normative pressures could also make an individual feel that they ought to remain within the organization.

Acknowledging these ventures makes employees feel a sense of responsibility to reciprocate by committing themselves to the organization until the debts has been paid.

One important point is that not all varieties of employee dedication are favorably associated with superior performance (Meyer & Allen, 1997). For example, an employee who may have low affective and normative determination, but who have high continuance commitment is unlikely to yield performance benefits. The main reason such an employee remains with an company is designed for the negative reason that the costs associated with departing are too great.


This model embraces workforce commitment and id with the organizations

values and goals. The primary top features of high commitment model are

1. Development of career ladders and emphasis on trainability and determination as

highly quality of employees in any way levels in the business.

2. A higher level of efficient versatility with the abandonment of probably rigid job


3. The reduced amount of hierarchies and the finishing of position differentials.

4. Heavy reliance on the team composition for dissemination of information (team

building) structure work and problem dealing with.


Job design as something management consciously will to be able to provide

jobs that have a considerable level of intrinsic desire.


A insurance plan of no compulsory layoff or redundancies and use of long term worker with possible use of short-term workers to pillow fluctuation in the demand for labour.

7. New kinds of diagnosis and pay system and even more specifically merit pay profit


8. A high involvement of employees in the management of quality.



O'Reilly and Chatman(1986) developed their multidimensional framework on the

basis of the assumption that commitment represents an attitude towards the

organization. For these people, commitment takes on three distinct forms, that they labeled

1. Compliance

2. Identification

3. Internalization

Compliance occurs when attitudes and corresponding conducts are used in

order to get specific rewards. E. g being very considerate towards people so that

you get that promotion

Identification occurs when an individual accepts influence to establish or maintain a

satisfying relationship

Relationship / Internalization occurs when impact is accepted because the

attitudes and behaviors' one is being encouraged to adopt are congruent with existing values. Employees thus become committed to organizations which they show value e. g. an organization that motivates integrity will probably win the determination of someone who is convinced in integrity.

TYPES OF Dedication.

O'Malley (2000) contends a overview of the commitment literature produces five

general factors which relate to the introduction of employee dedication:

Affiliative Commitment:

An organization's passions and prices are appropriate for those of the worker,

and the worker feels accepted by the public environment of the business.

Associative Dedication:

Organizational membership increases employees' self-esteem and position. The

employee feels privileged to be from the organisation.

Moral Dedication:

Employees perceive the organization to be on their side and the business evokes a sense of mutual responsibility in which both firm and the employee feel a feeling of responsibility to one another. This sort of commitment is also frequently described in the books as Normative Dedication.

Affective determination:

Employees derive satisfaction from other work and their colleagues, and their work environment is supportive of this satisfaction. Some researchers (eg Allen & Meyer, 1991) suggest that this is the main form of commitment as it has the most potential benefits for organizations. Employees who have high affective commitment are those who'll go beyond the call of responsibility for the nice of the organization. In recent books this form of determination has also been known as 'engagement' and it is the proper execution of commitment that is most usually assessed by organizations.

Structural dedication:

Employees imagine they get excited about a fair economic exchange in which they take advantage of the relationship in materials ways. A couple of enticements to enter and stay in the business and there are barriers to leaving. This type of determination is also frequently referred to in the books as Continuance Determination.


The work environment is a dynamic field and remain competitive, staff commitment

is important. . The next factors affect employee comittemnt:

Workplace beliefs.

If employees assume that their organization prices quality products they'll engage in behaviors' that will contribute to high quality. If employees think that their organization ideals participation they'll be more likely to feel as if their participation can make a difference.

They will thus be motivated and be more willing to get alternatives and make

suggestions to donate to the organization success.

Subordinate - supervisor interpersonal relationship.

Supervisors tendencies include posting appropriate information, allowing mutuality of impact, recognizing and rewarding good performance and not abusing the vulnerability of others. The scope to that your supervisor displays these manners will thus mainly determine subordinate determination level

Job characteristics.

The extent a job is set up to provide regular responses and autonomy as well

as a feeling of task completion

An upsurge in perceived control strengthens emotional bonds with a business. An elevated sense of personal control has a good consequence for employee's behaviour and actions' at the job.

When duties are Intrinsically gratifying, employees tend to be more committed.

Commitment is low when employees receive repetitive routine tasks to complete.

A job which allows a high amount of autonomy and the lack of close supervision

increases determination.



A selection of demographic factors have been found to be related to employee commitment (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990). For a variety of reasons, years has been found to be always a positive predictor of worker dedication. As Mathieu & Zajac (1990) suggest, the elderly employees become, the less alternative employment options are available. Because of this, more mature employees may view their current employment more favourably. Dunham et al. (1994) suggest more aged employees may become more determined because they have a more powerful investment and higher history using their organization.


With regard to gender, lots of studies (eg Mathieu & Zajac, 1990) have reported women as being more devoted than men. That is typically described by women needing to overcome more barriers than men to access their position in the business.


Marital status in addition has been proven to relate to commitment, with hitched employees usually showing more commitment (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990). However, it's advocated that the explanation for this is because wedded employees will routinely have greater financial and family duties, which raises their need to stay with the

organization. Be aware, however, that this refers to structural dedication (or continuance determination) for the reason that the price associated with going out of the organization raises commitment to the business. As mentioned previously, structural commitment will not necessarily relate to increased performance.

Recruitment Procedures

O'Malley (2000) suggests that organizations need to pay more focus on addressing employees' cultural need to affiliate marketer and belong, in order to create dedication, the organization must have the right type of employees in the first instance.

Employees' emotions of belonging commence to develop a long time before employees join the organization. The following information should be distributed to employee to improve commitment


share information regarding the organization


provide employees with help and support throughout the recruitment and

selection process


convey the pursuits and values that the business shares with employees.

Organizations have to be attractive to the right sort of people; thus the initial contact

between the organization and the prospective candidate is very important.


As Troy (1998) points out, increasingly organizations are attempting to communicate

with potential employees in a coherent manner by developing an workplace brand

The brand should condense the basic nature of the organization, what its values are and what it would be prefer to work there. The principal reason for the brand is to effectively bring employers and employees mutually in order to determine a romance. Thus, a good brand should communicate both unique advantages of the organizational environment and the sort of person who is likely to do well for the reason that setting. The organization must then ensure so it delivers these offers to its employees, or its work will have been wasted.

Employers should, therefore, devote a portion of the choice process to assessing

cultural fit.

Met Expectations

Employees will be more committed when there is a good match between what the person is looking for in a job, and what the job provides. Commitment will be greater when employees' experience on the job match their prospects. Unmet expectations include low morale and dissatisfaction. Such goals usually relate to the kind of work employees receive to do and the opportunities they get for training and development.

Factors affecting dedication. By Kochan and dyan as cited by Armstrong



Strategic level

-supportive business strategies

-Top management value of commitment

-Effective speech of HR in strategy making

Supportive business strategies may include activities that increase worker engagement thus reinforcing determination. When top management is commited to its employees the employees too become commited. Good human resource policies e. g a policy of promotion based on merit will can also increase commitment


Hr insurance plan level

-staffing based on employment stabilization

- making an investment on training and development

-continent reimbursement that reinforces cooperation

Training boosts employees efficiency making them more commited because they

enjoy what they do. (Affective dedication)


Workplace level

- Selection based on high standards

-Job design and team work

-employee participation in problem solving

-climate of co-operation and trust.

Selecting people who have the right skills for a job will ensure that the worker remains commited as they'll be successful in their tasks. Efficiency increases determination. Designinh jobs e. g allowing flexi time, job enhancement, job enrichment and job rotation means that monotony is stored at bay and commitment is enhanced

Other factors that influence employee dedication by Purcell et al

(2003 in Armstrong, 2005) include


Received training last year


Are content with career opportunities


Are content with performance appraisal system

Think professionals are good in people management (Command)


Find work challenging


Think their form helps them achieve a work-life balance


Are satisfied with communication or company performance

Benefits of worker commitment

High level of staff commitments means that employees are actually thinking about their job and, their performance will be better as well as the success and productivity of these work higher.

Employee determination also evokes a deep interest of a worker to his/her work. This means that he/she enjoys the work he/she does. Consequently, the amount of employees' satisfaction will be high if they are really committed to their work. Staff commitment may be cost conserving since determined employees are highly motivated which means that they do not need increasing financial rewards for his or her work, though it does not necessarily mean that employees should not get financial rewards by any means, but the expenditures of the organization at this time may decrease.

The performance benefits accrued from increased staff commitment have been

widely exhibited in the literature. To list but a few, these include:


increased job satisfaction (Armstrong 2005)


increased job performance (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990)


increased total return to shareholders.


increased sales (Barber et al. , 1999)


decreased staff turnover (Cohen, 1991) lowered goal to leave

decreased intention to search for substitute employers (Cohen, 1993)


decreased absenteeism (Cohen, 1993, Barber et al. 1999)

Employee commitment should be looked at as a small business necessity. Organizations who've difficulty in keeping and replacing proficient employees will find it hard to boost performance. There are not only the immediate expenditures of the recruitment process, but other hidden costs such as management time and lost production as new employees take time to become effective in their jobs.

Commitment also offers the following results:

1. I t results in self directed( self applied initiave) program to do the job

2. regular attendance,

3. nominal supervision

4. a higher degree of effort

5. it does increase the motive to stay- loyalty


Low dedication of employees can lead to negative results and undermine the normal functioning of an organization or, at the very least, decrease the success of work of employees noticeably. The low worker commitment has lots of negatives which deteriorate the work of each staff and the complete corporation (O'Malley 2000).

Low commitment contributes to the low degree of interest of employees in their work. As a result, if employees are not sufficiently considering their work they'll in a natural way work worse than they can. In other words, the low commitment decreases the success and output of work for employees are not really interested in

their work and its outcomes. Naturally, in such a situation, they can rarely be

interested in a good performance of the organization they improve.


This can be done through an frame of mind survey, staff satisfaction survey, staff commitment study and performance appraisals. Questioners are usually implemented to collect relevant data that management later uses when deciding ways of increasing employee determination.

Sample of an questioner attached(Annex 1)


Organizations may use various ways of increase employee commitment. This

strategies include:

Induction and Training

The induction programme ought to be the final step of the recruitment and selection process. An excellent induction programme will make new employees more acquainted with and more relaxed within the organization. Employees enter the organization with an assumption of compatibility and really should be welcomed.

Relationships with Managers

This identifies how the quality of the partnership between managers and their

employees relates to the introduction of commitment.

Employees' commitment demonstrates their day to day contacts with the line managers

about their job, and the way in which objective targets are set. Effective

communication on job-related issues is an integral ingredient in securing specific performance. To a great scope, individual line professionals are responsible for making certain these maintenance behaviours occur.

With poor management, the most well toned organizational programme can

break down at the idea of transmission.

Relationships with Colleagues

Emotional connection to colleagues at work can be an important aspect of commitment, though It is not enough on its own. Unless you can find occasion for regular and rewarding interaction, stronger thoughts of belonging that can bind employees to the organization are unlikely to emerge. Organizations that want to make high levels of dedication should look for ways to build this through group activities both in and out of work

Group Membership

To build commitment, being a member of a particular firm should never only satisfy employees' communal need to affiliate marketing and belong, but must also create a sense of collective identification that differentiates the group from other organizations.

There a wide range of situational features that donate to a feeling of group account. The more publicity that employees have to these features, the much more likely they'll be to feel like an integral part of the group and also to incorporate that membership into their idea of who they are.

Organizational Justice and Trust

It is also argued that employees assess their experiences at the job in conditions of if they are fair and reflect a problem on the part of the business for the well- being of the employees (Meyer, 1997). Treating employees quite, communicates the subject matter that management is dedication to the employees. This shows that organizations wanting to foster greater determination from their employees must first provide proof their commitment with their employees.

When there is trust, employees are willing to suspend judgement and defer to the authority of others. Furthermore, trust allows organizational flexibility because a payback you need to neither immediate nor of equal value. O'Malley (2000) identifies four areas in which employees' sense of trust in the company can be increased:


Growth: As most employees desire to be more proficient in their job, a good

way to instil trust is to wait to employees' development needs.


Work-Life balance: Most employees want organizations to allow greater

personal time when needed.


Individual accommodation: Acts of organizational flexibility or benevolence

toward employees.


Health and Basic safety: Organizations that are committed to protecting employees'

health and safety are more likely to be trusted


Policies and tactics concerning campaign can also influence commitment. . Among those who find themselves considered for campaign, the results of the decision is likely to have an effect on commitment.

But, for a few, the conception of fairness in the decision-making process might be even more important. This shows that organizations should communicate obviously how their decisions were made and just why those who did not succeed were not suitable.

Work-Life Balance

A key issue emphasized by research, especially in recent years, is the magnitude to which employees understand they are able to achieve the right balance between home and work. Organizations are starting to identify this, and are making more concerted attempts to introduce a bunch of programmes designed to ease employees' burdens. These include initiative such as: versatile work agreements; child health care; time off policies; elderly care; medical care; information and guidance; and convenience services to name but a few.

Job Satisfaction

How happy an employee is in employment has profound results on behavior and commitment. In relation to determination, job satisfaction and work-life satisfaction are very important. Job satisfaction is an tremendous area; however, to be concise a satisfying job typically has three properties:


It has intrinsically exciting features: Mathieu & Zajac (1990) discovered that the strongest correlation with determination were obtained for job characteristics, particularly job range (enrichment).


It has an opportunity for expansion and development.


It makes employees feel effective in their jobs (that they can positively

influence organizational effects).

Pay and Reward

As mentioned recently, employees may continue to be with an organization because there are constraints against giving and bonuses for staying. It's important for organizations to structure the economics of the relationship in a way that will not obstruct commitment. Among the reasons in which to stay a relationship is basically because it makes sense financially. Pay makes continuation of the employment relationship worthwhile since there is common dependence.


Schein cited by (Armstrong 2005) identifies commitment as attachment and loyalty

Psychological deal is the degree people are focused on the organization

(Schein 1965). It depends on


The degree to which their own objectives of what the organization will

provide to

them and what they owe the business in return suits what the

organization targets are of what it will give and get in return

The characteristics of what is actually to be exchanged e. g. money in exchange for time at work, cultural need satisfaction and security in trade for effort and loyalty

Armstrong (2004) defines psychological deal as a system of values which encompasses on one hand the activities employees belief are anticipated of these and what response they expect in return from their workplace and on the other palm the behavior employers expect from their employees. It is implicit and dynamic




During recruitment interviews present the unfavorable as well as the favorable aspects of employment in an authentic job preview. - This can enable the candidate have a and attainable expectation of the organization and therefore avoid setting very high expectations that the organization is unable to meet, leading to low / decreased commitment


In induction programs communicate to new starters the organizations workers policies and techniques and its central values indicating to them the expectations of performance expected - this enables them to stay committed in achieving the expected performance


Issue and revise employee hand catalogs and intranet entries which

reinforce the communication delivered in induction programs.


Develop performance management process strategies which explain how continuing improvement of performance may be accomplished mainly by self managed learning


Use training and management development programmes to underpin

values that define performance targets.


Ensure thorough director and team leader training that professionals and team leaders understand their role in handling the employment marriage through such functions as performance management and team control - professionals should be very determined to be able to complete the same meaning of commitment to employees.


Encourage a maximum amount of contact between professionals and team

leaders and their team members to achieve common understanding.


Adopt a general coverage of transparency ensuring that on all issues which have an effect on them employees really know what is happening and the impact it will make on the employment


Develop personal strategies covering grievance handling, self-control, advertising and redundancy. Ensure they are simply implemented quite and constantly.


Develop and communicate personnel policies covering the major areas

of work, development, prize and employee relations


According to Armstrong 2005 the following ten (10) practice donate to increase of

employee dedication.

1. Advise in ways of communicating the principles and aims of management and

achievements of the business, so that employees will identify

with it as you they are proud to help.

2. Emphasize to management that commitment is a two way process employees

cannot be expected to be focused on the business unless management

demonstrates that it's focused on them.

3. Impress on the management the necessity to develop a climate of trust by being

honest with people, treating them fairly justly and regularly, keeping its expression and showing determination to listen to the responses and suggestions made by employees

4. Develop a positive psychological contract by treating people as stakeholders

rely on consensus and assistance somewhat than control and coercion and

provision of opportunities for learning and profession progression.

5. Advise on and help out with the establishment of collaboration agreements with

trade unions which focus on unity of goal, common strategies to

working mutually and the value of providing employees a tone of voice.

Recommend and take part in the achievements of single position for all

employees so that there surely is no an "us and them "culture.

7. Encourage management to build up an insurance plan of employment security and

ensure steps are taken up to avoid involuntary redundancies

8. Develop performance management process that provide for the alignment of

organizational and specific objectives.

9. Advise on means of increasing employee identification with the company

through rewards related to organizational performance (earnings showing or gain


10. Develop job engagement: recognition of employees with the job they are

doing through job design process that try to create higher degrees of job



A dedication strategy is based on the high dedication model described in

chapter. . It is designed to develop determination using the next approaches.

1. Developing possession.

I t entails regarding employees in those decisions that have an impact on them so that they feel they own, i. e. Create a feeling of ownership among employees, listening to their ideas. Employees should feel they may be genuinely accepted by the management.

2. Communication programmes

Commitment can only just be gained if people understand what they are expected to

commit to. Thus in sufficient attention should be paid when providing messages so

that right information is handed. Proper use of newsletters, briefing categories videos

and notice boards should be emphasized.

3. Control development.

Commitment is enhanced if managers can gain the self-confidence and respect with their groups. Management training should therefore be utilized to increase the competence of managers thus making them successful enough to cultivate a feeling of determination in their clubs.


Developing a feeling of thrills.

Concentrating on the intrinsic motivating factors e. g. achievement, responsibility and recognition creates job enjoyment, which contributes to commitment. Management should thus give their employees the scope to utilize their skills and capabilities and design careers which encourage creative imagination and innovativeness, avoid monotony

5. Use of profession development program

They help staff develop caters related skills and understand the developmental need they posses. If used effectively if creates commitments it send the signal that the company cares about the employee career success and thus deserves employee dedication.


Having examined the idea of employee determination our group gave the following recommendations that would enhance the commitment of staff in the workplace.

Fair profit shairing based on an established coverage that looks for to make employees believe that the management is commited to them, regular team building activities and creating jobs so that there surely is flexi time for those employees who may well not be in a position to work between 8am - 5pm.

Providing such bonuses e. g. Medical design, housing scheme, car loans, furniture lending options, pension system and increasing the number of year's employees can work in an organization even after achieving the retirement age sends the communication that the business is focused on its employees and so the employees subsequently will seek to be committed to the organization.

Another way of improving employee dedication is by executing exit interviews, since the interviewee will be leaving the organization it is thought that they can show you loopholes in the management or job design that contribute to low morale among employees. The management can then use the information to put necessary measures in location to enable employees develop commitment in their work.

Management also needs to ensure that confidentially is utilized especially where there is very sensitive information regarding employees. Such information can include health position, marital issues, budget of employees among many others.

The following prices should also be practiced.



It indicates the elimination of your respective thoughts, prejudices and really wants to achieve a

proper balance between conflicting interest



To nurture commitment employers must create an environment of trust. If employers desire to develop and keep maintaining trust they should do what they state will do, be consistent, maintain confidence, be considered a role model of

behaviour, encourage staff involvement, allow visitors to make we decisions that affect their work, allow visitors to make blunders without fear or ridicule, study from mistakes.

3. Matter for employees.

Employees should be regarded as people not factors of production. Employers should provide job security train and develop employees, be versatile to accommodate staff issues, be open and honest and allow employees to truly have a life outside work.

Today's employees have a strong sense of self well worth- they identify their

value and want their employers to as well

8. 0 Summary

This paper has presented an assessment of the current thinking about defining and creating worker commitment, which is an evolving topic presently receiving appreciable attention. It has been identified as a multi-dimensional notion which includes important

impacts on an organization through its effects on staff performance, turnover

and absence, and via its impact on customer attitudes to the bottom line.

Commitment can be divided into five components, each which are manufactured by

different factors. These are defined as follows:

Affiliative: The compatibility of the employee's and the organization's interests and


Associative: The employee's understanding of belonging to the organization.

Moral: The sense of common obligation between the employee and the business.

Affective: The feeling of job satisfaction experienced by the


Structural: The fact that the worker is employed in a good economic exchange.

Job satisfaction is an important element of commitment, but shouldn't be perceived as equal to it. Determination has more positive effects for the business in terms of worker performance. Job satisfaction can be advertised by making work as enjoyable as you can, providing development and development opportunities and making procedures for staff to assist them in balancing their work and personal lives.

Once established, determination has to be maintained by making sure personnel have clear functions and duties, and a knowledge of what's required of them in their careers. Good communication and openness throughout the organization is vital, especially in times of change. The role of line managers should be identified and positively recognized, as it is a vital component in the creation and maintenance of worker commitment.

9. 0 Conclusion

It is possible to summarize that employee commitment is an extremely significant factor contributing to the positive organizational final results. It could increase productivity, effectiveness of work and determination of employees, while low commitment leads to the opposite outcomes. At the same time it is necessary to maintain advanced of employee dedication through command, development, empowerment, and guidance.

. Radical organizational changes often lead to reduced determination caused by

increased job insecurity, increased stress, decreased trust and job redesign. Since organizational commitment has strong relationship with job shows it is very important to bolster it through the use of the right human resources polices

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