Posted at 12.11.2018
This essay discusses the factors impacting the blood glucose levels to fluctuate, the natural mechanism of your body to control it, the inability of your body to control it and the condition it causes.
The Human body is perfection in its way. The handled balance of factors keeping the internal environment of the body continuous is a essential process that maintains one healthy. Any slight changes in these factors disrupt the inner environment triggering disequilibrium. This maintenance of inside environment of the body between limits is called homeostasis and the guidelines being handled include: body temperature, blood pH, carbon dioxide concentration, blood glucose awareness and water balance.
When the control of the blood glucose level can not work effectively the concentration can fall or rise beyond normal limitations. This condition is called diabetes mellitus or simply diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is several metabolic diseases characterized by high glucose levels (glucose) levels that result from problems in insulin secretion, or action, or both. Diabetes mellitus was initially identified as an illness associated with "lovely urine, " and abnormal muscle damage in the early world. Elevated levels of blood sugar (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of blood sugar into the urine, hence the word sugary urine. Diabetes is a chronic medical condition, and therefore although it can be controlled, it lasts an eternity.
Blood blood sugar level is handled by the hormone (insulin) made by the beta skin cells of the Islets of Langerhans in the endocrine gland pancreas. After a heavy carbohydrate enriched food the blood climb exponentially and therefore have to be helped bring down within the normal restrictions. The high awareness is recognized by receptors which in turn stimulate the beta skin cells in the pancreas to produce insulin which converts sugar into a polysaccharide form glucagon and store it in the liver thus removing sugar from the blood.
The background of diabetes shows that it was present as early as the First Century B. C. when it received its name from a Greek medical doctor, Aretaeus of Cappadocia, after the word dia-bainein which means "to siphon". This was related to the patients transferring excessive levels of urine. Several decades from then on in 1921 Frederick Banting and Charles Best discovered insulin as a diabetes medication and acquired a Nobel Prize for their breakthrough. Insulin is the hormone that control buttons that decreases the blood glucose concentration and its own deficiency or insensitivity by focus on cells triggers diabetes. Later over time of obtaining insulin in 1936 Sir Harold Percival Himsworth recognized diabetes type 1 and 2.
There are three main types of diabetes:
Type 1 Diabetes: also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is triggered by the damage of insulin beta cells. The onset of this type is usually during child years (hence the name juvenile diabetes) so that the beta cells produce insufficient insulin, insulin shots are used to control the sugar levels (hence the name insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Diet cannot control this type of diabetes as it does not increase or decrease the amount of insulin produced by the beta cells. The traditional symptoms of type 1 diabetics are recurrent urination, increased thirst, increased craving for food, nausea, throwing up, and exhaustion and weight loss in spite of increased desire for food. These symptoms may be described by the fact that because of the uncontrolled high degrees of sugar the osmotic pressure of the blood vessels changes due to the increased solute amount (sugar) in the blood vessels and the body gets rid of all the excess glucose from the body through the urine as it cannot store it successfully.
Eventually this leads to the other symptoms. High amounts of blood sugar in the urine can cause increased urine result and lead to dehydration. Dehydration thus causes increased thirst and drinking water consumption. Apart from these acute ramifications of high blood sugar level other chronic ramifications of diabetes include eyes complications, kidney damage and nerve destruction. Additionally Diabetes accelerates hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) of the larger blood vessels, leading to cardiovascular system disease (angina or coronary attack), strokes, and pain in the lower extremities because of insufficient blood supply (claudication).
So far the researchers have concluded that a combination of genetic susceptibility, diabetogenic result in and contact with a driving a car antigen are the leading causes of causing the Type 1 diabetes however other risk factors have also been identified. Included in these are: environmental factors, triggering beta cells damage due to a trojan, diet and other chemicals and drugs.
Type 2 Diabetes: also known as adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus which is far more common than type 1 as it is the most frequent and frequent kind of diabetes. It usually occurs in later periods of life, but more radiant junior are being diagnosed with this disease more often. The pancreas organ produces less insulin to keep blood sugar in the standard range, often because the prospective cells are no more sensitive to the insulin. Like the symptoms of type 1 diabetes, type 2 symptoms are regular urination, increased thirst, increased appetite, fatigue, increased desire for food and in some cases, blurred eyesight.
Insulin injections are not usually had a need to control this kind of diabetes (hence the name non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) and even more stress is laid on managing the patients diet by limiting it to low carbohydrate foods, exercising in case the condition worsens medication is often prescribed.
Similar to type 1, genetics (genealogy) is thought to be a leading cause in inducing Type 2 diabetes in blend with a few other risk factors such as lifestyle, diet plan, years over 45 years, gestational diabetes having a baby to an infant who weighs in at more than 9 pounds, heart disease, high blood cholesterol level, weight problems, not getting enough exercise, polycystic ovary disease (in women), previous impaired blood sugar tolerance and some ethnic groups (specifically African Americans, Local People in the usa, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and Hispanic People in the usa).
Gestational diabetes: is when high blood sugar levels develop anytime during motherhood in a female who does not have any form of diabetes. Women who've gestational diabetes are in a much higher threat of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the future. The chance factors of this kind of diabetes are similar to the risk factors of type 2 diabetes as gestational diabetes lead to type 2 diabetes.
In basic, no cure has been found for diabetes. Treatment for diabetes can entail various medicines, a balanced diet, and regular exercise to control blood glucose levels and minimize symptoms with a long-term aim to avoid the chronic problems of diabetes and prolong patient's life and reduce symptoms. Aside from achieving this through the use of insulin shots, diet control and exercise, blood circulation pressure and cholesterol levels control, careful control of blood glucose levels and an educational backdrop and recognition about diabetes play a essential role in treating and diagnosing diabetes.
Testing for diabetes is straightforward and very handy nowadays. Testing of the urine may be used to look for blood sugar and ketones from the break down of excess fat. However, a urine test exclusively does not detect one with diabetes. This is because the presence of sugar in not necessarily because of the patient being a diabetic and could have been caused by the damage of the cellar membrane in the kidney or the breakdown of the kidney.
For diabetes diagnosis the next blood checks may be
Fasting blood sugar level - diabetes is diagnosed if greater than 126 mg/dL on two occasions
Hemoglobin A1c test
Normal: Less than 5. 7%
Pre-diabetes: Between 5. 7% - 6. 4%
Diabetes: 6. 5% or higher
Oral sugar tolerance test - diabetes is diagnosed if sweets level is greater than 200 mg/dL after 2 hours. This test is also used more for type 2 diabetes.
Random (non-fasting) blood glucose level - diabetes is suspected if higher than 200 mg/dL
Diabetes is a respected disease in many parts of the world leading to innumerable deaths every year. Statistics show that diabetes affects 25. 8 million folks of all age range 8. 3 percent of the U. S. inhabitants out which only 18. 8 million people are diagnosed as the rest stay oblivious to their medical condition. The severity of this disease goes unnoticed or unacknowledged by several people who label this disease as "sugar" and confine it to being related and from the intake of sweet things only.
Very few know that diabetes is a significant cause of heart disease and stroke and the 7th leading cause of death in america. However, over time diabetes has emerged as one the best health dangers in under-developed countries and so a whole lot of research is being concentrated on curing, managing and avoiding this disease. Treating the diseases has positively motivated several scientists to further their stem cell research and using the stem skin cells of the diabetic patient create a wholesome fully developed and operating pancreas or even healthy Islets of Langerhans that produce insulin. This can not only get rid of type I diabetes but also eliminate post operation complications like tissue rejection and immune system suppressant drug dependence etc. Likewise, gene therapy is also getting used to change on certain genes on the chromosomes that could trigger insulin production.
Medicines have been launched and drugs to increase goal cell level of sensitivity are constantly being invented nonetheless they mainly revolve around monitoring the condition not healing it. Portable blood sugar meter, insulin pumps etc are all new inventions targeted at helping diabetics control and follow their blood sugar level thus making their life easier. Lastly as stated before, up to now there is no treat for diabetes but as the word will go "prevention before cure", educating the population about the chance factors and potential issues of diabetics reaches the moment the nest way to prevent the number of individuals suffering from diabetes therefore consciousness should be multiply.
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