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Factors Affect The Culinary Job Development Management Essay

After studied the span of Modern Issues in Hospitality and Travel and leisure Development which this program gave many interesting new ideas on the research topic and much more focus on the problem of the culinary career. Based on the issue, this job is designed to explore the traveling forces and tendencies in the culinary profession in the modern era in Thailand, which discovered that almost all of the exec chef in 4-5 celebrities international hotel in Thailand are foreigners, this is the major concern in the Thai chef industry of Thailand, that contain to investigate the factors influencing the culinary job development into an increased level position as, Professional chef, Chef de cuisine, Head chef in 4-5 actors international hotel, such as, competences, creativities, culture, knowledge, skills, and innovative. This job will be useful as a guidelines of the critical indicators for most of cooks for opportunities and self-improvement in kitchen office as "Executive chef" that will provide the important signs to hotels for building a good brand image and good quality of food service, give curiosity and producing the active frame of mind that encourage cooks to love their profession and build their strong experience. That seeks to address this problem in hospitality industry by by using a qualitative research method, case study, target group, and in-depth interviews of mature professional chef, Kitchen personnel.

Keywords: Foreigner professional chef; Competences; Skills; Opportunities;

Culinary career development

Statement of the problem

Today, the hospitality industry is increasingly more competitive. Chefs must be able to create and innovate to catch the attention of clients by understanding their satisfaction and sophisticated demands. More than ever before, restaurant consumers specifically are looking for new and unique experience. To meet this challenge there has been recently more emphasis on technology in the culinary service industry, even on the notion of "culinary creativity" (Horng & Hu, 2008), and on the value of invention competency (Fisscher et at, 2001). (Ulrich, 1996). Said that understanding human resources competencies was the central of the emerging HR career. Other studies emphasized the importance of chefs' occupational competences (Birdir & Pearson, 2000). In addition, to be able to provide new and even more ground breaking products and services to customers, there is an growing consensus that progressive competence is an integral factor in any chef's or restaurant's success. There are plenty of obstacles to become professional chef, "Executive chef" training of preparing food and hygiene is seen to be essential, a chef "must be able to work quickly and effectively under pressure and also have appropriate motor skills and manual dexterity" (Lee-Ross, 1999 p. 344), then your culinary complex without continuously practical will not progress. In the kitchen, it's hot and uncomfortable, and cooks need to be attentive about the quality of food product regularly. There is "a long tradition culinary authoritarianism" (The Weekend Time, 4 November 2001 p. 15). Gordon Ramsay (Celebrated chef) insists that "a kitchen needs to be assertive, boisterous, aggressive environment, or little or nothing happens" (Hollweg, 2001, p. 9). That why some leave out of this career because they cannot endure with the conditions and behaviour.


1. Why the majority of the Exec chef in 4-5 stars international hotel in Thailand are foreigners?

2. What exactly are the factors that promote and encourage the make to a higher position as Exec chef in 4-5 celebrities international hotel in Thailand?

3. The way the cook can add value with their culinary career?

4. What are the critical indicators that might lead to skills and competences lack in culinary profession development?

5. How the administration and private sector can get involved and promote to develop the culinary profession by upgrading the normal cooks into a higher position as "Executive chef"?

Context and Justification for the project

Research context

The researcher will use qualitative research method by using in-depth interviews with creative culinary artists, kitchen staff, and content research of impressive competence, coding and compressing information, a grounded theory will be utilized to analyze the data and create a descriptive model of innovative culinary competency. Regarding to a grounded theory contains a set of systematic methods that seek to inductively derive a theory about a particular sensation (Strauss & Corbin, 1997). The task will be trustworthiness by members provided documents such as award certificates, information reports, photos and written autobiography.

Definition of terms

Below are various headings directed at those working in a professional kitchen and each can be viewed as a title for a kind of chef. Many of the titles derive from the brigade de cuisine (or brigade system) noted by Auguste Escoffier, while some have a more general meaning with respect to the individual kitchen.

Executive chef and brain chef, Chef de cuisine

This person is in charge of everything related to your kitchen which often includes menu creation; management of kitchen personnel; buying and purchasing of inventory; and plating design. Chef de cuisine is the original French term that the English term chef is derived. Head chef is often used to specify someone with the same tasks as an professional chef, but there is usually someone in charge of them, possibly making the larger executive decisions such as way of menu, last authority in personnel management decisions, etc. This is often the situation for chefs with several restaurants.

Sous-chef de Dishes (under-chef of the kitchen) is the next in command word and direct assistant of the Exec Chef. This person may be accountable for arranging and substituting when the Executive Chef is off-duty and will also complete for or assist the Chef de Partie (brand make meals) when needed. Smaller procedures may well not have a Sous-chef, but much larger businesses may have several.


The expediter (in French: AHYPERLINK "http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index. php?title=Aboyeur&action=edit&redlink=1"boyeur) will take the purchases from the dining room and relays those to the channels in your kitchen. This person also often places the finishing details on the dish before it would go to the dining area. In some operations this may be done by either the professional chef or the Sous-chef.

Chef de partie

A chef de partie, also known as a "stop chef" or "series cook" manages a particular region of development. In large kitchens, each stop chef might have several cooks and/or assistants. In most kitchens however, the station chef is the sole worker in that department. Line cooks are often divided into a hierarchy of their own, starting with "first make meals", then "second cook", and so forth as needed.

(Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2011)

Outline of methodology


Data collection will during for 6 months, at four-five superstar hotels in 4 parts of Thailand. All interviews follow a recommended interview plan to ensure that of the issues were discussed. Guaranteed confidentiality, inform to the hotel owners and General Director of hotel about the goal of the job and the in-depth interviews will be conducted using semi-structured, open-ended questions. Each interview, which lasted about 2 hours, included questions on topics' specific backgrounds, the competencies used to generate an ground breaking culinary, that is the ways to acquire an ideas for ground breaking works and factors influencing the culinary career development.


The participants for this project will be well-known creative culinary performers, exec chef, kitchen personnel from four-five star hotels, the these 20 individuals will be divided into two organizations, group A: well-known creative culinary artists, executive chef, group B: kitchen staff, in order to gather the backdrop information about their work in neuro-scientific culinary career.

Data analysis

This research will be implemented with a grounded theory procedure for analyzing the qualitative data (Corbin and Holt, 2005). The triangulation of varied data will be utilized to improve the validity and stability of this research (Liamputtong and Ezzy, 2005). The data evaluation will be conducted predicated on the transcriptions of interviews, related documents, and the study field notes, including summary records, timetables, field journal entries and reflections. All the interview data will be transcribed and coded. Data coding and grouping were ongoing operations, along with the data-collecting process. As the process of re-coding and re-grouping proceeded, the analyzed data will be re-clustered. In the final level, key issues common to all the culinary performers will be identified and duplicated items will be eradicated. The meaning and context of the research will be created through an activity of qualitative analysis (Liamputtong and Ezzy, 2005). Then the character of the culinary career, the factors that affect the introduction of culinary career, and the "context" will be classified and analysis using the LISREL program before conclusions.

Literature review

Culinary competency

The research of competency is important step toward the professionalization in the culinary job development. There are numerous explanations of competence or competency. Competence that can be the idea of intelligence, with the components being skills, knowledge, view, attitudes and beliefs, capability and capacity (Birdir & Pearson, 2000, p. 205). Some research has advised that the job competency can be an underlying characteristic of the person which results in effective and/or superior performance in a job (e. g. , Boyatzis, 1982). But Others said that competence pertains to work jobs, results and outputs, and includes knowledge, skills and attitudes. The American Payment Association's (1996) study of 217 companies exposed the next significant insights. Of these companies using competencies for staffing, 88% used competency-based interviews for hiring/selection decisions, and 62% developed or purchased competencies specifically for training or learning programs. In relation to performance management, 90% used competency-based performance appraisal data for worker development. Regarding compensation, 64% reported that pay increase decisions were damaged most by change or development in competencies. Regarding to McLagan (1996), competency models can be utilized as the requirements for the following: training curriculum design; recruitment, selection and evaluation; coaching, counselling and mentoring; job development and success planning. McLagan (1997) argued that competency pertains to work duties, results and outputs, and the characteristics of folks doing the work: knowledge, skills and attitudes. Successful restaurant businesses create repeat and loyal customers by giving unforgettable experiences. Predicated on competence meanings in earlier literature, the term competence used in this analysis is thought as skills, capacity, knowledge and other qualities that make a successful chef.

Culture competency

Culture is an important factor that will add value in preparing for chef to make innovative services in the melting pot culture, both locally and overseas to be utilized in baking by endeavoring to sent a important way culture through food, culture, art work history and appearance of different countries and communal landscape that may be broadcast on the plates. This will demonstrate the ability of any chef who is able to create new knowledge in the new style preparation by the mixture of skills, techniques, and preparing food culture in the many types of cooking, including create understanding and positive attitude toward different food culture.

Aesthetic competency

The creation of art work and color to foods that preserve a sense of eating, not only feel good but also help to relieve the pressures of every day life. And satisfying poetic flavour and aesthetics while eating that play a psychological role. The chef must be creative and know how to add value to the meals. Understand the tendencies and economical activity that drives the progressive new way of preparing, including basic ideas. Knowledge with a new line of art and stylishness, and a positive attitude towards food, beautiful presentation, which affects the culture of the individuals diet.

Product competency

View of marketing and commercial hazards with innovative products, which are essential to insure the risks associated with the commitment and creative imagination of the chefs make the meals. Thus, to set-up such an frame of mind must be caused by the conception of the chef about the movements of the market at present, it is essential that the chef will need to have the capability to create new products. The data and know-how to provide products that are traditional. It has the capacity to generate a commercial market. Principles of the substances properly, as well as how to invent new formulas. These results support the results of Horng and Lin (2009), the merchandise must have good taste and most importantly, a popularity of the meals market. The nutritional habits of folks today will focus on the value of health and environmental security. The chef must understand the market trends in the future as well.

Service competency

Skills and skills in preparing food, the rules of professional chefs, chef must have a knowledge of consumer psychology and assessment, and should understand the importance of the delivery of food, atmosphere and new ways of providing services. Such as Skills of flamb dessert services, human being romantic relationship with customers, can make a claim and accept claims from customers that may appear anytime, Understanding of food and beverage matching, the ability to talk to customers and a positive attitude towards service. These results support studies related to the new idea of eating out experience (Gustafsson, -str¶m, Johansson and Mossberg, 2006), along the way of service delivery, the chef must know how to use wine beverages in the meals to keep preference and recognized. Thus knowledge and ideas in adding new services is vital for modern chefs.

Management competency

Chefs can manage, development of progressive applications such as knowledge management, advancement process, understanding of current and future trends of food, the ability to collect and control data as a positive attitude to improve and turmoil, and especially the ability innovation management through the development of progressive food preparation, experience in the service market, it's important for the service and travel and leisure industry because experience does not can be found at the key of products and services provided by businesses (Schmitt, 1999). Thus, to understand what the client is considered would be the important element to point out the path in product development that works with with the client needs.

Creative competency

Chefs must have the individual creative imagination that is the important key for the impressive process, such as an exhibit creativity, knowledge of basic culinary knowledge, the capability to use divergent thinking, a good attitude to expanding new ideas and optimism. These results are compatible with those of Horng and Hu (2008), and Horng and Lee's (2009) in line with the review about culinary ingenuity. I agree that creativity during the development process is very important key to reach your goals and have the competence of finding and solving problems in their culinary career.


The consequence of this research would be the important key and offer more factors for cooks and Thai chef on the solving the issue of culinary profession development into an increased position. But this problem should also be helped and reinforced by the Thai administration by giving the opportunities to the ordinary cooks and chefs to upgrade their positions, such as, inform and promote them by support the cover going to training on the kitchen department in other countries, which are famous for "Culinary Skill" and "Standard Hospitality Service Quality". Such as, French, Switzerland, United Kingdom, The United States of America, and etc.

This will be useful for them to correctly food preparation and learning the true character of food ingredients that can increase their knowledge, skills, competency, food culture, and other experiences, which will prove their talents and can proudly be accepted by the "Executive chef association" in the International Hotels of Thailand.

Conceptual framework

Research Design

Qualitative Methodology

- Circumstance study

- Focus group

- In- depth interview

Explore culinary job development model


5. Review the goals and decision continuously


1. Identify the choice and competencies


2. Identify and research the options


4. Develop the action plan


3. Slim search and give attention to the goals

Activities of research project

First year 2012

Second calendar year 2013

Third year 2014

Sept. - Feb.

Mar. - Aug.

Sept. - Feb.

Mar. - Aug.

Sept. - Feb.

Mar. - Aug.

Develop Research Proposal

and obtain approval

Develop and test questions

Develop and test tool

Obtain participants

Administer instrument

Ongoing data collection and analysis

Final assortment of data

Research Report

Project plan

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