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Face Acceptance Attendance System

In the 21st century, everything all around us has become relies after technology to make our life much easier. Daily duties are continually becoming computerized. Nowadays more folks choose to do their work electronically. Towards the best of our knowledge, the process of documenting students' attendance at the university is still manual. Lecturers go through manual attendance sheets and signed papers to track record attendance. This is slow-moving, inefficient and time consuming. The main aim of this job is to offer system that simplify and automate the process of saving and tracking students' attendance through face acceptance technology. It really is biometric technology to identify or check a person from a digital image or security video. Face acknowledgement is trusted nowadays in various areas such as colleges, banks, airports, and office buildings. We will use preprocessing ways to detect, discover and confirm the captured encounters like Eigenfaces method. We try to give a system that will make the attendance process faster and much more precisely. The main problem is discovered along with alternatives and project path. Furthermore, precise system evaluation and design, user interface, methods and the believed results are offered through our paperwork.

Keywords: Attendance; Automate; Saving; biometric; face popularity;

FRAS

Face Identification Attendance System

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology

UML

Unified Modeling Language

IDE

Integrated Development Environment

MS

Microsoft

VS

Visual Studio

SQL

Structured Query Language

SSMS

SQL Server Management Studio

OO

Object Oriented

"Office automation identifies the collective hardware, software and functions that enable automation of the information control and communication responsibilities in an company. It requires using pcs and software to digitize, store, process and talk most routine jobs and processes in a standard office. " [1]

In addition, attendance considered as the biggest issues that may face lecturers in school. It requires time, effort and difficult to manage. Therefore, our task will focus on online university student attendance. In another word, the aim of this task is to create a system that help lecturers take students' attendance in a professional way.

1. 2 Problem Definition

Taking and traffic monitoring students' attendance personally, losing attendance linens, dishonesty, lost time and high error scales are problems facing the lecturers use the prevailing attendance system. It is a hard process, take time and cause a great deal of paper-based work. As a result, in order to solve these problems and prevent mistakes we suggest to computerize this process by providing something that record and manage students' attendance automatically without having to lecturers' interference.

1. 3 Project Objectives

Our primary goal is to help the lecturers, improve and coordinate the process of record and manage college student attendance and absenteeism. Additionally, we seek to:

  • Provides a valuable attendance service for both instructors and students.
  • Reduce manual process mistakes by provide automated and a reliable attendance system uses face acknowledgement technology.
  • Increase personal privacy and security which college student cannot delivering himself or his friend while they aren't.
  • Produce monthly information for lecturers.
  • Flexibility, Lectures capability of editing attendance files.
  • Calculate absenteeism percentage and send reminder emails to students.

1. 4 Project Scope

Our project targets the students of different educational levels and faculty participants. The primary constraint we faced is distinguishing between similar twins. This situation is still challenging to biometric systems especially cosmetic recognition technology. Regarding to Phillips and his co-researcher newspaper [2] to get the best results of the algorithms one's body employed, they have to run under certain conditions for taken pictures (i. e. . . age, gender, expressions, studio environmentetc. ) normally, the problem continues to be ongoing.

They provide program (method) to solve this problem, but in order to utilize this solution you have to sign a agreement with the (NIST) company and to be considered a researcher or programmer. For us, to resolve this matter we suggest to track record twins' attendance by hand.

1. 5 Contributions of This Study

We have sought out a system that can take, screen and manage students' attendance and absenteeism, send reminder text messages, calculate absenteeism percentage, and produce regular, monthly, and total annual reports. Based on our searches, there is no built-in system can support our idea.

In this project, we want to develop such a system that can do those tasks. Our job will serve students, lecturers, and the university as complete.

1. 6 Project Timeline

We utilized Gantt chart in number 1. 1, to show a project timetable with the beginning and finish schedules of several jobs of a task and the deadline to post the project.

1. 7 Document Organization

This project contains six chapters. These chapters arranged to indicate the methodical steps toward our main goal. A brief explanation about the items of each chapter given in the following paragraphs:

  • Chapter 1 introduces the problem definition, project aims, the contribution of the project, the range of the work, and the task layout.
  • Chapter 2 provides the reader with a synopsis of the literature review.
  • Chapter 3 displays the evaluation of the prevailing system, requirements elicitation which include (efficient requirements, nonfunctional requirements, End user Requirements. ), requirements specification, research technique.
  • Chapter 4 displays the architectural design, object oriented design shape.
  • Chapter 6 exhibits the conclusion which includes restriction and future work.

2. 1 Introduction

Over the past ten years, taking down students' attendance process had been developed and improved. The driven drive of the development is the desire to automate, aid, increase and save time and work. Although that the attendance systems are around us almost everywhere, Taibah university lecturers still use a traditional way to track record students' attendance either through dialling out students' brands or by way of a passing attendance sheet among students to signal beside their brands. Both ways are time consuming and associated with high error scales. In this project, we try to reduce squandered time, eliminate friend clocking, and automate the process. Our bodies uses facial recognition technology to track record the attendance through a high resolution camera that detects and recognizes encounters and compare the identify faces with students' faces images stored in faces database.

Once the regarded face fits a stored image, attendance is marked in attendance database for that person. The process will duplicate if there are skipped faces. For example, if there are 4 encounters missed for a terrible position as the detecting stage, then this period begins again to find the missed faces and understand them and continue the joining process. By the end of the month, a regular monthly statement is send to the lecturer consists of attendance and lack rates as a graph and the titles of absentees. Also, a alert message delivers to the learner if he passes the allowed quantity of absence.

In this chapter, we present a brief overview of face acceptance in the background section, relevant works to your project with their benefits and drawbacks, how we relate with these studies and exactly how this project can provide some beneficial features for lecturer.

2. 2 Background

Most lecturers have a substantial variety of students which is hard to keep taking or monitoring all their lack. Facial recognition is commonly used in many institutions for taking attendance of a significant number of students. There are various errors that could occur in this process, including misidentification and self-recognition [3]. Lecturer can control the problems and perfect it.

In the next subsection, brief summary of the usage, techniques, and methods in cosmetic recognition.

2. 2. 1 Face Popularity Usage

"Face recognition rises as soon as that machine started to become more and much more intelligent and possessed the move forward of fill in, correct or help having less human skills and senses. " [4]. Common uses ofFacial identification clarify in pursuing points;

  • Security; can be crime-fighting it will recognize people based on their eyes, nasal and face.
  • Searching for lost people.
  • Games
  • Taking university student or staff attendance

2. 2. 2 Face Acknowledgement Techniques and Methods

" Many factors influence the procedure of face acknowledgement such as shape, size, create, occlusion, and lighting. Facial reputation, have two different applications: basic and advanced ". Major face identification recognizes encounters or no faces such as balls and animals. If it is a face, then the system looks for eyes, a nose, and a mouth. Advanced facial identification handles the question on a particular face. This contains unique landmarks: "the width of nostril, wideness of the eyes, the depth and viewpoint of the jaw, the height of cheekbones, and the parting between the eyes, and makes a distinctive numerical code. "

Utilizing these numerical rules, the machine then matches that image with another image and distinguishes how comparable the pictures are to one another. The image provenance for face popularity include pre-existing pictures from various directories and video camera alerts. [5]

A facial recognition system involves the following phases: Face detection, feature removal, and face acceptance as illustrated in Body 2. 1. [5]

Figure 2. 1:General structure of the face recognition system.

The following desk compares a few of the biometric technology used lately.

Table 2. 1: Assessment among a few of the biometric technologies

Biometric Technology

Accuracy

Price

Tools required

Facial recognition

Moderate

Moderate

Camera

Voice recognition

Moderate

Moderate

Microphone

Fingerprint

High

Moderate

Scanner

2. 3 Related Work

In this section, we emphasize some related works that were developed to recognize faces and takedown attendance together with the advantages and disadvantages of every system.

2. 3. 1 Review of Relevant Work

Figure 2. 2: Screenshot of Main Interface (Admin Tasks Program)

Figure 2. 3: Screenshot of Auto Attendance system's interface

In this task, we have two users in charge of the system [6]. The instructor who requires the attendance and admin who's responsible for managing students' faces in the face's database. Admin selects a camera to fully capture, collect and save images to databases or a folder. Following the collection and saving the process done the trainingSet administrator start to remove encounters from the image by face diagnosis.

Finally, the trainingSet manager (Admin) will add the extracted image -person- to class or trainingSet. And as you can see in the illustrated figure, 2. 3 above, attendance is taken down by recognizing the faces via a web camera and automatically marked in attendance sheet with day time. The instructor decides the course Identification and the course ID to start the joining process.

  • Advantages:
  • The system stores the encounters that are diagnosed and automatically represents attendance.
  • Provide authorized access.
  • Ease useful.
  • Multiple face diagnosis.
  • Provide methods to maximize the number of extracted faces from an image.
  • Disadvantages:
  • The reliability of the machine is not 100%.
  • Face detection and loading training data techniques just a little bit slow.
  • The instructor and trainingSet director still have to do some work personally.

2. 3. 1. 2 Attendance System on Face Diagnosis (By NevonProjects)

The system is established for employing a simple and a secure way of saving attendance. To begin with, the software takes a picture of all the authorized individuals and stores the info into the system's data source. Then, the machine stores pictures by mapping it into a face match structure. The system will realize the registered person and draw his/her attendance combined with the appearance time whenever he/she enters the locations again [7].

  • Advantages:
  • The system stores the encounters that are discovered and automatically signifies attendance.
  • Ease of use.
  • Manipulate and identify the faces instantly using live video data.
  • Multiple face recognition.
  • Multipurpose software.
  • Can be utilized in several places.
  • Disadvantages:
  • The correctness of the system is not 100%.
  • It can only just identify face from a restricted distance.
  • It cannot duplicate live video to identify missed faces.

2. 3. 1. 3 Face Login

"Face Login allows you to log in to your personal computer by looking at your webcam. FaceLogin associates end user accounts with an image, and then, when looking at your webcam, you can login because it picks up you on the webcam". [8]

  • Advantages:
  • Only an administrator can run FaceLogin and change its settings.
  • More than one way to configure users.
  • Can store more than one image for a customer to maximize face recognition.
  • Disadvantages:
  • Application's exactness is not 100%.
  • Adding users manually.
  • Associated hazards with stored data and images.
  • Uses traditional way to access the application.
  • Limited use.

2. 3. 1. 4 Biometric Face Recognition Attendance Systems

Face popularity systems as time passes attendance provide multi-biometric and multi-authentication settings. Attached with high resolution infra-red camera works in low light, best face reputation algorithms and id methods.

Advantages

  • Convenient.
  • Provide many popularity ways.
  • High accuracy and reliability.
  • Used for secure purposes.
  • Provide many communication models.

Disadvantages

  • Limited capacity.
  • Detect faces from a limited distance.
  • People stand in a queue for taking their attendance.
  • Screen size.
  • Still uses traditional authentication PIN way.

2. 3. 1. 5 C-400 Face Reputation Clocking System

Facial acknowledgement timing systems will provide you with precise attendance information and stop employees' friend clocking - when employee sing with respect to his colleague-. [9]

Advantages

  • C-400 Face reputation timing technology reduces any odds of your employees putting your signature on for each other in/out.
  • Complete suite of records.
  • Printable attendance register in case of an emergency.

Disadvantages

  • There is not any External Bell Attachment.
  • Device is expensive.
  • The face must be in front of the device to record attendance.

2. 3. 1. 6 Churchix Face Acknowledgement Software

Churchix presents face identification software, which needs someone's face through an image or video tutorial and then identifies it by assessing it with those in a databases of pictures. The software is becoming more common atlanta divorce attorneys day interactions. [10]

Advantages:

  • Attending users in videos and photos.
  • High quality images.
  • High reliability.

Disadvantages:

  • Some people they see as a hazard to privateness.
  • Inability to capture all the encounters in the video tutorial.
  • Restart the video recording several times to capture all encounters.

Figure 2. 5: Screenshot of Churchix Face Acknowledgement Software

2. 3. 2 Relationship Between your Relevant Work and Our Own Work

Table 2. 2: Evaluation among applications looked at in the last section

Application

Auto Attendance Using Face Reputation by: Mahvish&Tania

Attendance System on Face Recognition By: NevonProjects

Face Login

Biometric Face Diagnosis Attendance Systems

C-400 Facial Reputation Clocking System

Churchix Face Identification Software

Face Acknowledgement Attendance System

Database

Л†

Л†

Л†

Л†

Л†

Л†

Л†

Hardware

PC

Webcam

PC, camera

Pc, webcam

Camera

camera

PC, camera

PC, camera

Language

C#

C#

unknown

Unknown

unknown

unknown

C#

Scope

student

student

anyone

employees

employees

anyone

Student

light-on

when-the camera starts

Л†

Fast Face detection

Л†

Л†

Л†

unlimited distance

Л†

High accuracy

Л†

Л†

Л†

Л†

From desk 2. 2, the main point inside our project is to create a system that facilitates students joining process. The next tips summarize features will be used in the machine:

  • The light on when the camera starts off facial popularity because decrease the error
  • There are display next to the camera to show the result of guests and absentees
  • The system by the end of the class upgrade attendance sheet

2. 4 Summary

An automated attendance management system is necessary tool for huge organizations. Many organizations have been used face reputation system such as coach stations, airports, and companies. Overall, this chapter provided an overview of some related works that were developed with the benefits and drawbacks. Furthermore, we compare between your relevant work and our own work and show the differentiation between them.

The matter that should be taken into account in the future is a method to guarantee users' personal privacy. Whenever an image is stored on servers, it must be impossible for unauthorized person to get or note that image.

3. 1 Introduction

This section examines the analysis that identified the adequacy of the prevailing attendance system and recognizes certain requirements of the new system. On top of that, a specification of practical, nonfunctional and user requirements will be provided to understand the way the system will continue to work. In the word of studying these requirements, UML diagrams of the new system will be presented.

3. 2 Analysis of Existing Systems

In the school, universites and colleges attendance system are being used to keep the record of students presence and absence. It really is true that the Taibah School has an digital system but nonetheless requires a manual intervention.

There are two case to attend students:

  • First, add students' attendance directly to the attendance website.
  • Second, write attendees' names on the newspaper then move it to the web page.

These two situations have drawbacks such as with the first case, there's a possibility to detach the bond and find the wrong day. In the next case, there's a chance to loss the newspaper and it is a misuse of resources We does a questionnaire that was targeted a lecturer in Taibah School and the number of participants nineteen.

The goal of this questionnaire is to look for the satisfaction of the existing system. Below are a few questions and their statistics.

As shown in amount 3. 1, 84. 2% of lecturers do not like the existing systems, we should take into consideration this percentage and create a new attendance system.

As is seen from the Physique 3. 2, 84. 2% of the lecturer considers the prevailing system not well suited for everyone like deaf. That is one of the drawbacks of the existing system, and there are more such as:

  • There is definitely a potential for forgery (one individual signing the presence of the other one)
  • More manpower is necessary (some person for taking attendance)

To get over the problems in the prevailing system, we will develop a face acceptance attendance system.

The majority of lecturer sees as with the amount 3. 3, if we replace the existing system with a biometric system it will be successful. Overall these information, the lecturer is unhappy about the existing attendance system.

3. 3 Requirements Elicitation

The requirements are the descriptions of the machine services and constraints.

3. 3. 1 Functional Requirements

System functional requirement identifies activities and services that must provide.

  • Taking and tracking scholar attendance by facial acceptance in specific time.
  • Sending the brands of the absent college student right to the lecturer
  • Permitting the lecturer to change the college student absent or late.
  • Showing the labels of who is absent or later in the display to avoid errors.

3. 3. 2 Non-Functional Requirements

Nonfunctional Requirements are characteristics or traits of the machine that can assess its operation. The next factors clarify them:

  • Accuracy and Precision: the machine should perform its process in precision and Precision to avoid problems.
  • Modifiability: the machine should be easy to modify, any wrong should be accurate.
  • Security: the system should be secure and saving student's level of privacy.
  • Usability: the machine should be easy to deal with and easy to understand.
  • Maintainability: the maintenance group can fix any issue occur instantly.
  • Speed and Responsiveness: Execution of procedures should be fast.

3. 3. 3 User Requirements or Area requirements

Tools that the user must have in order to use the machine and obtain great results:

  • Software Requirements: home windows7 or higher, SQL and visual studio.
  • Hardware Requirements: high resolution camera and display screen.

3. 4 Requirements Specification

Use case diagram is one of Unified Modeling Terminology (UML) that describes the system functionality, what actors that connect to the machine and any associations between use conditions.

As shown in body 3. 4, the FRAS has stars known as Admin, Lecturer and College student which are the main users of the system. Other actor, timer which becomes camera to record attendance by detecting and recognizing faces.

3. 4. 1 Use Circumstance Description (Complete Use Conditions)

(1) Log in

Table 3. 1: Log-in usecase description

Use Circumstance Name:

Log in

Use Case Quantity:1

Actors:

Admin, Lecturer, student

Description:

This use circumstance explains how Admin, Lecturer and student log into the system.

Triggering happenings:

Lecturer, admin and college student enter his account.

Steps Performed (Main Way):

1-System requires users to enter in username/security password.

2-Users go into username/password.

3-System validate entered username/password.

4-The use circumstance ends efficiently.

Preconditions:

  1. System installed on personal computer.
  2. Admin, Lecturer and university student must be certified.

Post-conditions:

Log in is effectively.

Alternate:

If the Admin, Lecturer and college student is not load correctly, the sign in fails.

(2) Manage university student attendance.

Table 3. 2: Manage learner attendance usecase description

Use Case Name:

Manage pupil attendance

Use Case Number: 2

Actors:

Admin, Lecturer.

Description:

Admin and lecturer can improve learner attendance (delete, record and alter).

Triggering incidents:

Information about attendance and absent will be revise.

Steps Performed (Main Course):

  1. View the previous attendance sheet.
  2. Edit attendance sheet.
  3. Save edits.

Preconditions:

Admin, Lecturer must logged-in their page.

Post-conditions:

New information will be stored in the database.

Alternate:

(3) View student attendance.

Table 3. 3: View university student attendance usecase description

Use Case Name:

View university student attendance.

Use Case Number: 3

Actors:

Lecturer.

Description:

Display university student attendance.

Triggering happenings:

Lecturer examining students' attendance.

Steps Performed (Main Path):

  1. Choose the topic, section and lecture date.
  2. The attendance sheet will be shown with absent rate for every single student.

Preconditions:

Lecturer must logged-in their page.

Post-conditions:

Attendance exhibited.

Alternate:

(4) View his/her information.

Table 3. 4: View his/her attendance usecase description

Use Case Name:

View his/her attendance

Use Case Number:4

Actors:

Student.

Description:

Display college student information and attendance.

Triggering happenings:

Student examining the attendance.

Steps Performed (Main Way):

  1. Student choose the subject.
  2. Students see his/her attendance sheet.

Preconditions:

Student must log- in his page.

Post-conditions:

Information displayed.

Alternate:

(5) Activate camera.

Table 3. 5: Activate camera usecase description

Use Circumstance Name:

Activate camera.

Use Case Amount: 5

Actors:

Timer.

Description:

When the category start, the timer will open the camera

Triggering happenings:

The camera will recognize and find students' encounters.

Steps Performed (Main Course):

  1. Timer turn the camera on.
  2. Camera will detect and recognize faces.
  3. Camera send captured image to FRAS.

Preconditions:

Set up lecture information.

Post-conditions:

Captured image delivered to FRAS.

Alternate:

3. 5 Developmental Methodology

In pursuing part, we explain how our system will work detail by detail along with the system requirement (equipment, software and tools), the methods of collecting data and our task constraints.

First, the workflow of our bodies is:

  1. Camera detects and understand students' faces
  2. Sent the captured pictures to the system that compare the directed pictures with retrieved images from the database which has students' information and images.
  3. Mark attendance for the individual whose captured image match retrieved image.
  4. Finally, the effect will be shown at the display board fastened with the camera.

Second, the system needs are:

The equipment we need are hi-def camera to identify and recognize faces and electronic screen board showing the result. For tools, we may desire a strong and secure communication route to send image and get result. Furthermore, MS Visual Studio (VS) to build up our windows program and MS SQL Server Management Studio room to build databases are needed software.

Finally, data collection methods and constraints:

We acquire data through many ways, one of these is online survey which is Quantitative data collection method. The other is the observations which is Qualitative data collection method. The constraint enforced on our task that it could cannot be applied in the women' section.

3. 6 Summary

Within this chapter, assertions of analysis existing systems and system requirements were presented with functional, nonfunctional and end user requirements. The examination of the requirements was viewed in a model of UML diagrams; use circumstance diagram. We offer a description for each use case showing additional information about the machine. Software packages, workflow and equipment had a need to complete this work were offered a brief information.

4. 1 Introduction

This chapter provides an notion of FRAS design. Simple architecture of the new system, category diagram and series diagram will be offered.

4. 2 Architectural design

In amount 4. 1 we show the system architecture in which the camera detects and discover students' encounters then dispatched the captured pictures to the machine that compare the mailed pictures with retrieved images from the database which has students' information and images. Once the recognized face match a retrieved image, the attendance is designated for that person and the attendance sheet is updated. If there are skipped faces while detecting and knowing the process, the procedure will work regularly until all faces recognized. Finally, the result will be shown at the screen board fastened with the camera.

4. 3 Object Oriented Design Figure

4. 3. 1 Structural Static Models

School diagrams will be the extremely used UML diagram. It is the key building block of any OO application. It exhibits the classes, attributes, and ways of each school and the partnership between the classes. [11]

As can be seen from the Number 4. 2, there are three classes posting common attributes and are inherited from Person category that keeps the shared attributes, they symbolize the celebrities of the system.

And there is a Time class which has composition romance with Camera class and therefore if there not setup time to turn the camera on it won't w

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