1. Based on all the theories you have been exposed to up to now in the course, choose the one theory that you think is the best at explaining criminal offenses. Compare it to at least two other ideas and discuss how the theory you select represents a noticable difference within the other two. Be specific and be certain to cite the empirical research to support your discussion.
Based on all the ideas I have already been subjected to in this program so far, interpersonal control theory is a good at explaining offense. "Social control theory points out crime in terms of the individual's communal relationships and targets the absence of significant relationships with regular others and establishments" (Agnew, 1992:48). The theory utilizes issues of conformity, so instead of theorizing about the motivations of unlawful behavior, the interpersonal control theory ask, "Why do people conform?" With this theory people assume that society's ability to control social groups affects whether an adolescent converts to a life of criminal offense or not. Cultural control theory comes from the learning theories which can be developed from family ties or other interpersonal circles that individuals interact with so as to learn what's right and what is incorrect. When these controlling influences are weak or rendered inadequate and absent, population frees the given individual to deviate from legal and moral norms; therefore, criminal offense often does occur. In particular, offense is most probably to when (1) when the adolescent is not mounted on the parents, university, or other companies; (2) parents as well as others fail to monitor and effectively sanction deviance; (3) the adolescent's real or anticipated investment in normal society is nominal; and (4) the adolescent hasn't internalized conventional values (Agnew, 1992:49).
Although strain, communal control, and differential relationship theory/communal learning theory are sociological theories, pressure theory is distinguished from social control and public learning theory in its specs of (1) the type of social relationship that leads to delinquency and (2) the drive for delinquency. Strain theory centers explicitly on negative associations with others: connections in which the specific is not cared for as he or she needs to be treated. Agnew's developed a new theory, general pressure theory that defines measurements of stress, the major types of pressure, the links between stress and crime, coping ways of strain, the determinants of delinquent or non-delinquent habit, and policy tips that are based on this theory which created a new point of view on the original theory that was written off a few decades ago. While sociable control theory rests on the idea that the breakdown of society frees the given individual to commit crime, pressure theory is focused on the pressure that is positioned on the individual to commit criminal offenses (Agnew, 1992:49). Based on the strain theory, specific deviance is brought on consequently of negative connections or treatment from others; and this cause anger and annoyance (Agnew, 1997a:31). Agnew's tension theory was developed from the work of Durkheim and Merton and addressed lots of the criticisms of the original tension theory, however; it lacked the supporting data but still had several defects like the initial tension theory. Strain theory can cause many negative emotions in an individual including defeat, despair, and dread, but the sense that is most appropriate to criminal offense is anger. For instance, an increase in strain would lead to a rise in anger, which may then lead to a rise in crime. Cultural control theory symbolizes a noticable difference over any risk of strain theory as it clarifies that if a person has certain morals and cultural prices that they live by and grew up believing that they are more likely to seek a socially acceptable way of achieving their goals rather than let thoughts of beat, despair, fear, and anger cause them to respond to stress with crime. The strain theory have an impact on creates pressure for corrective action which might lead adolescents to (1) use illegitimate programs of goal success, (2) attack or get away from the foundation with their adversity, and/or (3) manage their negative have an impact on through the use of illegal drugs (Agnew, 1992:49). Public control theory, by contrast, denies that outside makes pressure the adolescent into criminal offenses but instead, the absence of significant interactions with other individuals and teams frees the adolescent to engage in delinquency in response to internal causes or situational inducements.
Social learning theory (SLT) is recognized from pressure and control theory by its concentrate on positive relations with deviant others (Agnew, 1992:49). Social learning theory focuses on the general concepts that (1) people can learn by observing the action of others and the outcomes of those conducts (If people see positive, desired results in the observed patterns, they will model, imitate, and adopt the behavior themselves), (2) learning can occur without a change in tendencies, and (3) cognition plays a role in learning. This theory comes with areas of behavioral learning (assumes that people's environment cause people to behave using ways) and cognitive learning (presumes that mental health factors are important for influencing how one behaves) factors that are essential for influencing how one behaves. Sociable learning theory outlines three stages for individuals to learn and model action include (a) attention: retention (remembering what one detected), (b) duplication (ability to replicate the habit), and (c) motivation (justification) to want to adopt the action (Agnew, 1992:49). The communal learning theory claims that the partnership with illegitimate peers will lead to a legal lifestyle that changes the values of achieving success in a legit way. Reiss's theory of personal and interpersonal control expresses that "delinquency results when there is a relative lack of internalized norms and guidelines governing patterns in conformity with the norms of the social system to which legal fines are fastened (Lilly, 2007:85)". One disadvantage of the public learning theory is the fact it generally does not account for what may be looked at positive it focuses more on the factors perceived as negative by the learner. Public control theory symbolizes a noticable difference as it seeks to point and guide communal learning toward obedience specific to plans outside the learner's. Public learning is a change in habit that is manipulated by environmental affects rather than by innate or internal forces occurring through observing the consequences of others and by identifying if such habit is worth replicating. The idea of interpersonal control emphasizes on the role of contemporary society in the control of unlawful habit and proposes public learning by using 'communal control' which explains why I find the theory of social control over the public learning theory. THE IDEA of Social Control is widely cited in criminology in addition it has additionally been explored by the realist philosophers and displayed by Travis Hirschi, a pro-pounder of Right Realism. While no single theory can explain why everyone commits crime communal control theory does go through the causations of criminal offenses from learning ideas. They coach us that morals are taught in individuals and other social circles and these morals keep individuals from committing crimes they are really taught are incorrect. The main premise of control theories is the fact that "When controls are present, crime will not occur; when controls are absent, criminal offense often does occur (Beaver, 2010). Cultural control theory will give description by teaching us that when people hold securely to certain morals and interpersonal values they are more likely to seek a socially acceptable way of achieving their goals.
3. During our course dialogue, many of you remarked that the criminological ideas that we mentioned have both strengths and limitations. This is a view that is placed by many criminologists. A great way to overcome this problem is to combine theories into a single point of view. You are in charge of creating a built-in theory that comes with elements from at least three theories. Make sure to provide a specific analysis of the theory, including how you will were able to integrate components from other theories.
During the annals of criminological thought, various criminological ideas on crime causation have been put together into an individual perspective. A great way to overcome this problem is to generate an integrated theory that has elements by merging the ideas indicated by the principles of differential association theory developed by Edwin Sutherland, Merton's theory on deviance from his 1938 analysis of the partnership between culture, composition and anomie, and Robert Agnew's standard strain theory to provide a more exact and comprehensive reason as to the reasons some individuals commit crime where others do not.
Although many criminologists have seen the criminological theories to obtain both strengths and restrictions, it is in no way one single theory but the ideas from the three slighted altered theories that will help in providing an improved explanation and understanding of criminal action. The first theory, differential association by Sutherland (1949:75) talks about that criminal habit is learned exactly like any other patterns through interactions with others. Sutherland's differential connection predicts an specific will choose the unlawful path when the total amount of definitions for law-breaking (unfavorable) surpasses those for law-abiding (beneficial). Ultimately, the idea focuses how individuals understand how to become scammers, which is due to an excessive amount of definitions advantageous to the violation of law. Along the lines of differential association the idea of unlawful desire holds that each human tendencies is learned through connection with the environment (Sutherland, 1949:76). From a researcher's point of view, a person will view population differently if they are gainfully employed instead of unemployed, if in a supportive and adoring family or abused by parents. However, individuals might react differently to the same situation depending how their experience predisposes them to identify their current surroundings (Sutherland, 1949:77). However, the integrated theory learning process is not limited by just differential associations, as is the truth with Sutherland's theory, instead acknowledging the impact of both humans and non-human (i. e. money and cultural gain) things.
The second theory drawn upon the present formulation is Merton's theory on deviance from his 1938 research of the partnership between culture, composition and anomie. Merton's theory entails the relationships and importance between culturally defined goals and what cultural design make possible. Corresponding to Merton, anomie, derived from Emile Durkheim, if such cultural goals aren't achievable through legitimate practices than individuals are likely to illegitimate means available for reaching them. In short, overemphasis on materials success (i. e. the North american fantasy as an focus on the purpose of economic success) and insufficient opportunity for such success contributes to crime. Institutional anomie theory, as printed by Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld, proposed that the North american societal pursuit of monetary success brings about anomie, or a departure from normal, sanctioned behaviours and an escape from institutional sociable settings (Lilly, Cullen, and Ball, 2007:90). As anomie rises, so does the amount of criminal behavior employed by individuals to obtain economic success (Lilly, Cullen, and Ball, 2007:90). Therefore, the involved theory offers a more exact and comprehensive explanation on the ideas founded by Merton by giving adequate explanations of these including classifying each one as discovered phenomena. On top of that, Merton's theory is suggested as the source of agitation, in that way leading one to commit offense, when the culturally defined goals of individuals are likely not to be performed through legitimate operations.
Last, the overall strain theory modified by Robert Agnew originated from the task of Durkheim and Merton and taken from the original theory of anomie. According to the original stress theory, an increase in aspirations and a decrease in expectations should lead to a rise in delinquency; however, this is not found to be the case (Agnew, 1985:152). Also, the initial strain theory forecasted a amount of delinquent habit in the low category, but research turned out that delinquency was also common in the middle and higher classes (Agnew, 1985:152). Other variables are also neglected by this theory of tension, such as the abandonment of crime in late adolescence and the grade of family connections (Agnew, 1985:152-153). Agnew's standard tension theory broadened the opportunity to include a lot more variable that were not dealt with in the initial stress theory as he attempted to explore pressure theory for a point of view that accounted for goals other than monetary success which considered a person's position in social class, expectations for future years, and associations with criminal others (Agnew et al. , 1996:683). Standard tension theory is a wide theory that can be put on many different aspects of delinquency (ways of measuring strain, different types of strain, and the link between stress and offense), however; in the included theory an individuals must be taught how to cope with no help of others through engagement in sociable skills improvement, problem-solving training, and anger control programs which should lead to a decrease in delinquency.
The involved theory that features elements by incorporating the ideas indicated by the concepts of differential relationship theory, Merton's theory on deviance from his 1938 examination of the partnership between culture, structure and anomie, and Robert Agnew's basic strain theory, functions to explain all types of criminal behavior, both violent and non-violent. The crimes could involve financially driven offences (fraud, robbery, etc. ) or white-collar crimes which each will be the direct result of a need to meet desires due to a inability to take action through genuine means. I believe the built-in theory has an accurate and thorough examination defining delinquency with an explanation as to why a lot of people commit criminal offense where others do not. The integrate theory can be utilized to implement insurance policies geared towards helping to lessen crime and help in providing an improved explanation and knowledge of criminal habit.