Psychologists use different strategies in Psychology using different assumptions and theories to review and explain real human behaviour and mental procedures; they are behavioural, biological and psychodynamic methods. This essay will assess and look at key assumptions, theories, evidence and can evaluate the advantages and weaknesses of each approach. The approaches will be utilized to apply legal behaviour. The article will also consider the type versus nurture question, character is the behaviour we are blessed with and nurture is behaviour which advances due to our environment.
Eysenck (2006) recognized key assumptions of the behavioural procedure that people all learn by association. The next assumption of behaviourist approach is that it's primarily worried about observable behaviour thus ignoring internal mental processes. The 3rd assumption is that there is very little difference in the learning that happens in humans and the training that occurs in animals. This means that behaviourists can generalise from non- human animals to human being behaviour. The fourth fundamental assumption of the approach is that psychology should be examined as a knowledge and should be investigated medically.
Pavlov 1902 cited in Eysenck, (2009) investigated behaviour and found out the theory of classical conditioning. The last mentioned is associating a stimulus that results in a specific response with a new stimulus, so that the new stimulus also brings about the same response. Pavlov used an experimental method with dogs. Before conditioning Pavlov offered food to your dog which acted as the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) and salivation increased, he described this as the unconditioned response (UCR). He also rang a bell which he called the neutral stimulus (NS) and the dog did not respond. During fitness Pavlov used the NS alongside the UCS and the pups salivated (UCR). After conditioning Pavlov rang the bell (conditioned response) and today the dogs acquired learned a link between the bell and their reflex response (salivation) hence salivating (conditioned response).
This theory supports the assumption that learning in animals and humans is similar as fundamental form of learning and can be utilized in parenting to modify children's behaviour. An additional benefit of this study would be that the experimental medical method employed by Pavlov in his research made certain that the data obtained was objective and the findings replicable making it credible. Additionally it is valuable since it we can anticipate situations and change behaviour. One limitation of the study is the fact that Bandura a neo behaviourist accepted that this view of ignoring internal mental procedures was limited and also have agreed that internal as well as external factors determine behavior.
This analysis lacks external validity since it will not generalise real life. A further limitation is that Pavlov used puppies in his research and since humans are complicated beings, Watson and Raynor (1920) examined baby Albert and concluded that classical conditioning can create a change of behavior in humans'. In the nature versus nurture argument this approach ties in the nurture because behaviourists assumed that behaviour depends upon learning and environmental factors totally overlooking genetic factors therefore rendering it a weakness Eysenck (2009).
In contrast to behaviourism the psychodynamic procedure is an interactionist strategy because acknowledges both the dynamics and nurture. The Ego and the Superego builds up parents and environment and the Id we are blessed with it. Psychodynamic strategy has assumptions our thoughts and behaviours in adulthood are strongly influenced by childhood experience. Another assumption is that relationships are of main importance to our feelings and behaviour. The third central fundamental assumption to this approach is thoughts and behaviours are powerfully damaged by the drives and intuition of the unconscious; finally unlocking the unconscious is the main element to understanding behavior Hill (2002).
Freud, 1923 cited in Eysenck (2006) explains that Freud uncovered lots of ideas in psychodynamic way, for example, the structural model of personality theory. In this theory Freud uncovered that personality is split into three parts, Identification, Ego and Superego. The Identification is the pleasure concept of personality a person exists with. The Ego is the truth theory that is mindful and rational and evolves around age two years. Finally, the Superego is the morality process that builds up around age five and is also the honest or moral part of personality.
These three various areas of personality are always in conflict which is demonstrated by considering the pleasure demands of the Id and the moral demands of the Superego. Relating to Jarvis (2000) Freud having the ability to use structural model in explaining an individual's torn feelings in decision making gives his work reliability. Freud suggested this conflict brought about by decision making brings about emotions of guilt, nervousness and unhappiness.
Jarvis (2000) explains Freud's key approach to investigation use of case studies in investigating an individual's panic and unhappiness. Freud, 1895 Studied Anna O who on analysis was found to be experiencing hysteria in form of hallucinations, disruptions of speech, perspective and partial paralysis. Anna O was actually Joseph Breuer's patient but Freud used his records to investigate why Anna O developed hysteria. Freud and Breuer related the key assumption of the psychodynamic strategy and advised that Anna O's hysteria was caused by her looking after her sick father as a child. Psychoanalysis remedy of free association was created after Breuer treated Anna O.
An benefit of this technique (structural model) is that it offers a conclusion for the experience of being pulled in conflicting directions by the various elements of the personality when making decisions. This technique has also contributed widely directly into therapeutic practice because people can be able to explain how their child years experiences had an impact to them by attending chatting therapy like free association. There were defects in the technique of research because lack of any way in which to isolate, strategy and research the id, ego and superego. Though case studies such as Anna O have provided specific information, generalising these findings is so limited. Jarvis (2000)
While the psychodynamic way is an interactionist the natural approach generally ignores nurture and focusses on our behavior being the consequence of our biology. The natural approach center assumptions is the fact mindset should be studied scientifically, in laboratory experiment and research. The other assumption is the fact that behavior can be explained in conditions of biology physiological and genetic explanations. Physiological identifies body functions and genetic refers to inheritance of DNA therefore inheriting behavioural and physical characteristics. Another assumption is all that is psychological is first physiological. Finally, individuals genes have progressed to change biologically and behaviourally to the surroundings. (Eysenck 2009)
The theory of brain localisation is split into two areas, the outside cortical and inner cortical areas. The outside cortical area is further split into lobes. The frontal lobe functions are to plan and control motion, control feelings, stores storage area and problem solving and judgement. The Parietal lobe helps in sensing and monitoring parts of the body. Occipital lobe helps in visual handling. Finally temporal lobe helps in hearing, memory processing and feelings. The internal cortical area includes corpus callosum that allows for communication of more, sensory and cognitive information between hemispheres. The thalamus is accountable for motor control, obtains auditory, somatosensory and visual sensory impulses and controls rest and awake areas. The hippocampus assists with developing, organising and saving memories and also joining thoughts and senses such as smell and audio, to thoughts. Finally the amygdala process thoughts such as fear, anger and pleasure and can determine what thoughts are stored and where they are stored in the brain.
The case of Clive Wearing uses scientific investigation; Feline (computerised axial tomography) and MRI scans (magnetic resonance imaging) of his brain. Clive's still left and right temporal lobes were broken and left elements of right hippocampus demolished making him struggling to transfer recollection from short-term to long run. He had moment to moment awareness because any new information that would hit the mind would fade. Some of the left frontal lobe were also harmed and he could he could well keep on repeating what has been said and having mental outbursts. Wilson et al (1995)
An good thing about this study of the approach is the fact it has already established many useful applications, for example, use of drugs that ease disorders such as bipolar. An additional advantage is the fact it establishes mindset as a respectable science. In the nature versus debate twin studies have provided the best way to determine the role of hereditary factors in influencing behavior and are used by researchers using the natural strategy. The reductionist dynamics of this methodology makes harder to obtain a complete understanding of human behavior by only focussing on biological factors, for example, various internal, social and ethnic factors influence the development of mental disorders such as major depression and anxiety, biological way ignores these factors. This research focusses on rare conditions and has little effect on our everyday lives. it gives us no free will by the recommendation that our behavior is determined by genes or physiology. Twin studies provide only an indirect way of evaluating the substance of hereditary factors in influencing behavior because of challenges in interpreting the conclusions from the study. (Eyesenck 2009)
These three techniques may also be applied to criminal behavior. Sammons (2009) talks about differential association theory and Sutherland (1939) shows that there are two conditions set up before someone commits crime. They need to learn favourable attitudes of offending, and they should try to learn specific behaviours of committing that criminal offenses. They learn all these from family and peer groups. Differential association theory has a prediction that offenders will have been socialised in family members and organizations with expert- unlawful norms. Osborne and Western (1982) in young families where the father had a criminal conviction, 40% of sons also attained one by the age of 18 in comparison to 13% of sons of non-criminal fathers. Researchers have shown that criminality is found in a small quantity of families.
This theory facilitates the behavioural assumption that we learn through relationship by emphasizing that the family and peer group is a potential way to obtain criminal behaviour. One limitation of the theory is that it's not clear you will want to all people continue to committing offense even after coming in contact with 'criminogenic' affects.
In contrast to differential relationship theory the psychodynamic theory of offending corresponding to Freud's structural model of personality the behavior that is exterior society's norms and principles, either abnormal or legal is caused by abnormality in development of the psyche. The superego advances at age five and the roots of offending also develop at this time, especially between the growing child and its parents. Freud explains the possible triggers for later criminal behavior. The superego which is the morality rule strives for excellence and is learnt from same making love parents. It makes ego to suffer with anxiety whenever a person thinks to do an immoral work and with guilt when the function is determined. Therefore, a fragile superego that grows with socialisation of unnatural norms and prices in the family, would cause nominal constrain against committing a offense. They would do things that will gratify the identification which is the pleasure concept not caring about the social restrains of them.
A child may develop a normal superego but it may have deviant worth. The superego will subject matter suffering to the people behaviours that the mother or father may disagree with, it operates as a moral regulator. For example, a child whose dad is a felony may not engage in legal activities of the father. A solid superego might create a person vulnerable to committing crime by causing them anxious and guilty every time they gratified their identification, nonetheless they would be punished by their superego. The consequences would be the person would commit crime so that they may be caught and punished to help ease the guilt induced by their superego. Sammons (2009)
Psychodynamic researchers have shown the impact of years as a child activities and parent-child relationships as an effect on offending (Blackburn, 1993) and also have discovered significant of criminal behavior in adolescence (Hollin, 1989). One restriction of this approach is the fact that psychodynamic therapies which have tried to treat offending havent been successful (Howitt, 2009) despite been exceedingly frustrating. Sammons (2009)
Raine et al (1997) brain localisation theory cited in Holah, (2008) directed to investigate the functioning of both cortical and subcortical brain using Dog or cat scans in several murderers that possessed pleaded not guilty for insanity reasons (NGRI). They expected that the murderers would show evidence of brain dysfunction in their prefrontal cortex. They used laboratory experiment. The unbiased variable would show whether the person had dedicated murder or not, these were the results of the PET scans. All NGRIs and control groups were not given medication for 14 days prior to the scanning.
Raine et al concluded that their research helps the role of certain brain buildings in violent behavior behavior. The difference activity in the amygdala facilitates theories of violence due to lack of fear as well as the variations in the corpus callosum activity can be harmonized to show people who have severe corpus callosum show failure to grasp long-term implications of a predicament. Raine et al note that their findings can't be generalised from NGRIs to other styles of violent offenders and crime.
This theory use of Family pet scans has possible applications, for example drug treatment to alter functioning of the brain structure. Another advantages is that it is a well-controlled laboratory experiment this is the matching of the control group. This theory is a reductionist because the study tries to make clear all behaviour because of this of brain performing ignoring other reasons like interpersonal qualifications and role models for why people may work violently.