"The final test of any leader is the fact that he (sic) leaves behind him in other men the conviction and the will to transport on. "
The quotation from Walter Lippmann above features a significant part of what a leadership entails. The ability to inspire others to carry on with work once we have shifted or aren't there to lead ourselves is an art that many of us have to work hard to acquire. Being a innovator is not as easy as it appears. Sometimes a head must make unpopular decisions for the nice of most. How this is achieved is also a skill that good market leaders display.
The command styles in management also differ on the sort of men and women that the leader works with. Some need the flat iron fist, others need the velvet glove. Command styles in general management hinge on two things, the first choice himself and the individuals around him. The authority style which the leader chooses must ideally be the one which will help him draw out the best out of the people around him. So with that said, here will be the dominant authority styles in management. . Good leaders are made not given birth to. If the one have desire and willpower, he may become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through the never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience (Jago, 1982). While leadership is learned, the abilities and knowledge processed by the leader can be influenced by his or hers attributes or attributes, such as beliefs, ideals, ethics, and figure. Knowledge and skills contribute directly to the procedure leadership, as the other attributes supply the head certain characteristics that produce her or him unique.
Leadership and management are essential skill for any qualified healthcare pros. when leadership comes to medical, it is recognised that nurses who've leadership capacities can improve motivational levels of others in the task environment, this helps nurses to have a positive behaviour about their work, and run their daily jobs and responsibilities better. Treat the patients and other staff members with respect, and be able to reach personal goals and aims. It involves a person's efforts to affect the behavior of others in providing immediate individualised one in that the primary tasks of the nurse and healthcare personnel's in the delivery of medical care. The process of command and management derive from a scientific procedure called problem resolving method. The function of the clinical method is to increase the possibility of success for a nurse manager's action, given the particulars of a unique environment. In an average nursing environment, there are staff members, clients, professionals, situational factors such as polices and norms, and materials resources, there are unique technology it might be impossible to find this exact environment in another place or time. The purpose of nurses administrator is to recognize the environment's resources and put those to work as a complete system in accomplishing goals and facilitating expansion.
"Reflection involves explaining, analysing and analyzing our thoughts, assumptions, beliefs, ideas and action" [Fade 2005]
The educationalist and philosopher John Dewey developed his ideas on thinking and learning and centered on the concept of thinking reflectively, determining it as; " Lively persistent and consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusions to which it is inclined" [Dewey 1933. p 9]
He says reflective thinking as a thinking with a purpose and focused firmly on the need to try and task true beliefs through the use of the clinical method through deductive reasoning and experimentation. He implied the thoughts and feelings are part of reflective thinking but, interestingly, this is not something which he expanded. He made some important assumptions about people emphasising our tendencies towards quick solutions, tradition and 'mental ruts' and the pervading influence of culture and the surroundings upon our thinking. He also emphasised the necessity the necessity for thinking to be directly linked with action, demonstrating the pragmatic characteristics of his philosophy, and suggested that any thinking can be intellectual. Thus emphasising the value of practical as well as the theoretical.
Reflection starts with the average person or group and their own experiences and can end result, if put on practice, in improvement of the scientific skills performed by the individual through new knowledge gained after some consideration. Clamp (1980) observed that nurses' behaviour basically govern how good care is administered to their client and the commonest causes of poor attention are ignorance and unacceptable attitudes. This technique of representation, if then related into practice, can assist the individual in gaining the required knowledge, resulting in a potential improvement in the grade of the treatment received from that individual. The results of representation as discovered by Mezirow (1981) is learning. Louden (1991) describes in ordinary vocabulary reflection as serious and sober thought at some distance from action and has connotations just like "yoga" and "introspection ". It is a mental process which occurs from the blast of action, looking forward or (usually) back again to actions that contain occurred.
Reflective practice is associated with learning from experience, and is viewed as an important strategy for medical researchers who embrace prolonged learning. The function of reflection sometimes appears as a way of promoting the introduction of autonomous, trained and self-directed experts. Participating in reflective practice is from the improvement of the quality of care, revitalizing personal and professional growth and shutting the difference between theory and practice.
Models of reflection
In the models of reflection, I'd like to discuss about Gibbs Framework work for Reflection and Johns Model of Structured Reflection
- 1. Gibbs Construction for Reflection (Linked with the core skills of reflection)
Describe in detail the function you are reflecting on.
Include e. g. where were you; who else was there; why were you there; what were you doing; what were other folks doing; what was the context of the event; what happened; that which was your part in this; what parts does the other folks play; what was the effect.
At this level, try to recall and explore those things that were occurring inside your mind. Include:The method that you were sense when the function started?Everything you were thinking about at the time?, How achieved it make you feel?, How do other people cause you to feel?, How do you are feeling about the outcome of the event?, What do you consider about any of it now?
Try to judge or make a judgement about what has happened. Consider what was good about the knowledge and that which was bad about the knowledge or what performed or didn't go so well
Break the event down into its aspect parts so they can be explored individually. You may need to ask more detailed questions about the answers to the last stage. Include:
What went well?, What did you do well?, What performed others do well?, What went incorrect or did not come out how it should have done?. In what manner did you or others donate to this?
This differs from the analysis stage for the reason that now you have explored the issue from different angles and also have a lot of information to bottom your judgement. It is here that you are more likely to develop information into you own and other's behaviour in terms of how they added to the results of the event. Remember the purpose of reflection is to study from an event. Without detailed research and honest exploration occurring during all the previous periods, it is unlikely that all areas of the event will be studied into account and therefore valuable opportunities for learning can be overlooked. During this level you should ask yourself what you could have done differently.
During this level you should think yourself onward into encountering the event again and also to plan what you would do - would you act differently or do you be more likely to do the same?
Here the cycle is tentatively completed and suggests that if the event arise again it'll be the concentration of another reflective cycle
- 2 Johns model of structured Reflection
. Chris John's (1994; 1995) model arose from his work in the Burford Nursing Development Unit in the first 1990's. He envisaged this model to be used within an activity of guided representation. His concentration was about uncovering and making explicit the data that people use inside our practice. He adopted some early on work by Carper (1978) who viewed ways of knowing in medical. Relating to his model of reflection the ways of knowing are
What was I striving to attain?
Why have I answer as I did so?
What were the consequences of this for the individual? Others? Myself?
How was this person (people) sense?
How did I Know this?
How performed Personally i think in this situation?
What inner factors were influencing me?
How do my actions match my beliefs?
What factors made me act within an in-congruent way?
What knowledge performed or must have enlightened me?
C Rodgers (2002) Professors collage information: the speech of scholarship or grant in education
Elaine Lymne La Monica (1986) Medical command and management: an experiential approach
Chris Bulman Sue Schutz (2004) Reflective practice in nursing
Gibbs G (1988) Learning by doing: A guide to educating and learning methods. Oxford Further Education Unit, Oxford.
Johns C (1995) Framing learning through representation within Carper's important ways of knowing in nursing. Journal of Advanced Medical 22 226-234