Examining The NEED FOR System Investigation Information Technology Essay

Fact-finding can be an important activity in system exploration. In this level, the working of the system is usually to be understood by the machine analyst to design the proposed system. Various methods are being used for this and they are known as fact-finding techniques. The analyst must fully understand the current system.

The analyst needs data about the requirements and needs of the job carried out and the techniques employed to assemble this data are known as fact-finding techniques.

Tools, such as data and process models, document facts, and conclusions are drawn from facts. If fact is not accumulated, tools canїЅt be utilized effectively and effectively.

After gathering needed information of the machine the analyst should record them in a proper way which is recognized as fact-recoding methods.

What are the facts to be collected

Any information System can be examined in terms of four blocks:

їЅ Data: The natural material used to produce useful info.

їЅ Processes: The activities that perform the mission.

їЅ Interfaces: The way the system interacts with people.

їЅ Geography: Where data is stored, steps & interfaces happen.

Fact-finding skills must be discovered and practiced. Systems experts need an structured method of collecting facts. They especially need to build up a detective mentality to be able to discern relevant facts.

When do perform fact-finding

їЅ System Analysis Period.

? Review Phase.

? Classification Phase.

? Selection Period.

їЅ Design.

їЅ Post Execution Review.

Fact-finding techniques

Various sorts of techniques are being used and the most popular included in this are,

1. Interviews.

2. On-Site Observation.

3. Investigation.

4. Questionnaire.

1. Interviews

Interview is an essential data gathering approach. Analysts can use interviews to accumulate information about the existing system form the potential users. Here the analysts discover the regions of misunderstanding, unrealistic exception and explanations of activities and problems along with amount of resistance to the new proposed system.

Goal of interview

їЅ Find facts, validate facts, and clarify facts.

їЅ Generate eagerness.

їЅ Get person involved.

їЅ Identify requirements.

Steps involved

їЅ Place the level for the interview.

їЅ Establish rapport; place the interviewee at ease.

їЅ Saying questions plainly and succinctly.

їЅ Be a good listener; avoid quarrels.

їЅ Evaluate the outcome of the interview.

The interviews are of two types particularly,

Structured Interview

Structured interviews are those where in fact the interviewee is asked a standard set of questions in a specific order. All interviewees are asked the same set of questions.

The questions are further divided in two varieties of formats for conducting this type of interview.

їЅ Open-response format

e. g. "Why are you dissatisfied with the current scheduling method?"

їЅ Closed-response format

e. g. . "Are you satisfied with the current arranging methods?"

"Do you feel that the manual scheduling procedure be altered with some robotic procedure?"

Unstructured Interview

The unstructured interviews are performed in a question-and-answer format. This is of a much more flexible mother nature than the organised interview and can be quite rightly used to assemble standard information about the system.

Here the respondents are free to answer in their own words. In this way their views are not restricted. Therefore the interviewer gets a larger area to further explore the problems pertaining to problems.


їЅ Can encourage the interviewee to react freely.

їЅ More feedback can be probed.

їЅ Can adjust or reword questions for every individual.

їЅ Extra information from body movement and cosmetic expressions.


їЅ Time consuming.

їЅ Requires good communication skills.

їЅ Requires good interviewing skills.

їЅ May be impractical anticipated to location constraints.

їЅ The interviewee might not exactly answer/give visit.

2. On-Site Observation

On-site observations are one of the most effective tools with the analyst where the analyst personally goes to the site and discovers the functioning of the machine. As an observer, the analyst can gain first side knowledge of the activities, operations, operations of the machine on-site, hence here the role of any analyst is of an information seeker.

This information is very significant as it is unbiased and has been directly used by the analyst. This vulnerability also sheds some light on the actual happenings of the machine when compared with what was already noted, thus the analyst gets nearer to the system. This system is also time-consuming and the analyst shouldn't leap to conclusions or attract inferences from small examples of observation rather the analyst should be more patient in gathering the information. This technique is however less effective for learning about people's perceptions, thoughts and motivations.

Mainly observation classified into two,

Formal observation їЅ Observation a person by him being recognized.

Informal observation їЅ Watching a person without him being seen.


їЅ Obtain agreement from appropriate supervisors or professionals.

їЅ Prepare special forms to track record data.

їЅ Determine who, what, where, why, when and exactly how of the observation.

їЅ Takes notes immediately or after the observation.

їЅ Review the observation notes with appropriate individuals.

їЅ Also monitor during low, normal, and peak intervals of operations.


їЅ DonїЅt interrupt the individuals work.

їЅ DonїЅt focus on trivial activities.

їЅ DonїЅt make assumptions.


їЅ Observation of folks at work provides first side experience of just how that the existing system manages.

їЅ Data are gathered in real time and can have a higher degree of validity if health care is taken in how the approach is used.

їЅ Observation can be used to verify information from other options or to look for exceptions to the typical procedure.

їЅ Baseline data about the performance of the existing system and of users can be gathered.


їЅ The act of observation alters the habit.

їЅ The act of made may not involve the issue and level normally experienced throughout that time period.

їЅ Some task might not continually be performed in the way in which they are observed.

їЅ People might not exactly let u see what you would like to see.

3. Investigation

Third truth finding approach is to thoroughly investigate the application form and problems. The analyst has to read computer journals, reference books, internet white documents and case-studies for exploration. The Analyst can visit others or departments that have addressed similar problems.


їЅ Can save time if solution already is out there.

їЅ Investigator can see how others have fixed similar problems or fulfilled similar requirements.

їЅ Preserves investigator current with current innovations.


їЅ Requires usage of appropriate sources of information.

їЅ May ultimately not assist in fixing problem because problem is not recorded elsewhere.

4. Questionnaire

Questionnaires are one other way of information gathering where the potential users of the machine receive questionnaires to be filled up and returned to the analyst.

Questionnaires are of help when the analyst need to gather information from a huge amount of people. It is not possible to interview each individual. Also if enough time is very short, in that case also questionnaires are useful. When the anonymity of the respondent is assured by the analyst then the respondent answers the questionnaires very seriously and critically.

Just like the interviews and on a single lines questionnaires are of two types.

Open-Response Founded Questionnaires

The goal of open-response questionnaire is to gather information and data about the fundamental and critical design features of the machine. The open-ended question requires no response route or specific response.

This form is also used to learn about the feelings, views, and experiences of the respondents. This information helps in the making the system effective because the analyst can provide subsequent modifications as per the data gained.

e. g.

What additional records would you need from the System? ------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Closed-Response Founded Questionnaires

The target of closed-response questionnaire is to accumulate the factual information of the machine. It offers an perception in the way the people working with the machine behave and how comfortable are they with it. In cases like this the respondents have to choose from a couple of given responses. Thus the respondent can express their preference for the most beneficial one from the possible alternatives.

The shut questions can be of varied types and the most typical ones are the following.

e. g.

1. Yes/No Question

Do you printing reports from the existing System? (please group the correct answer)

Yes No

2. Multiple Choice Questions

How many new surgery visits do you have in a time? (please tick one container only)

3. Scaled Questions

How satisfied are you with the response time of the patientsїЅ documents update? (please circle one options)


їЅ Can be responded to quickly.

їЅ An cost-effective way of gathering data from a big amount of people.

їЅ If the questionnaire is smartly designed, then the results can be analysed easily, possibly by computer.


їЅ Good questionnaires are difficult to construct.

їЅ There is no automatic device for follow up or probing more deeply, although it is possible to follow up with an interview by phone or in person if required.

їЅ Postal questionnaires have problems with low response rates.


Interview is the most suitable fact-finding approach of gathering information for Victoria Clinic System. Because there are small statistics of people will work, hence effect can be stated in a short period of your energy, easy to evaluate the result, more feedback can be considered a probed and new ides may happen.

Fact-recording methods and standards

The fact taking is a reverence for facts and focusing on how to look for them. You don't get into data collection with a predetermined view of the design of the final procedure. You let the facts let you know what shape the task should take. But, you must have the ability to find facts and know how to record them. That is done by breaking down the task into steps and list them in proper series, without giving things away. The analyst helps to keep his / her attention on the subject being charted, practices its flow, step-by-step, and is also not sidetracked by other content that may easily lead off onto tangents. The analyst becomes immersed in the data collection, one movement at a time.

Record what's actually going on, not what should happen or could happen. When later you keep these things neatly prepared and present them for analysis the facts will assert their power as they notify their account.

Software Standard

A Software Standard is a typical, common format of your document, document, or data copy accepted and employed by a number of software designers while focusing on a number of than one software programs. Software standards allow interoperability between different programs created by different programmers.

Software standards consist of certain terms, ideas, data formats, record styles and techniques agreed after by software designers so that their software can understand the data and data created with a different computer software. To certainly be a standard, a certain protocol must accepted and contained by a group of developers who donate to the definition and maintenance of the standard.

Developers favor using requirements for software development due to efficiencies it provides for code development and wider individual popularity and use of the causing application.

The followings are computer and paper based fact-recording methods and standard documentation techniques, that happen to be being found in software development.

їЅ Data flow diagrams

їЅ Framework diagrams

їЅ Move charts

їЅ Decision tables

їЅ Grid charts

Data stream diagrams

їЅ Graphically express the stream of data within an organisation

їЅ Composed of four basic elements symbolized by standard icons:

Basic data flow diagram

Context diagrams

їЅ Show major data moves into and out of any system

їЅ Describe each subsystem as an activity showing interrelationship of those subsystems and their romance to main system

їЅ Depict logical move of data in summary form

їЅ The starting point for learning any system

їЅ Depict the system at its highest level

їЅ Known to as level zero data movement diagrams

Flow charts

їЅ Doc physical flows driven after logical data flows have been recorded using data stream diagrams

Flow chart symbols

Advantages and drawbacks of movement charts


їЅ Enable any system to be represented in easily understandable manner

їЅ Overall picture of system easily seen

їЅ Highlight romantic relationship among various areas of the system


їЅ Creation can be time-consuming

їЅ Numerous symbols can be confusing

їЅ Process may not be completely representable using symbols

There are three types of stream chart, namely

1. System circulation charts

їЅ Show the relationship between input, processing and outcome including data, documents and storage

їЅ Represent the partnership between various processes

2. Document stream charts

їЅ Emphasise the move of documents between various people, communities and departments of organisation.

3. Program flow charts

їЅ Show the precise steps of your computer program

їЅ Show the logic and processing steps used to develop some type of computer program

Decision tables

їЅ List the decision logic of an application flow graph in tabular form

їЅ Created with two main columns and two rows:

? First row is further divided into a number of rows of conditions

? Second row is further divided into a number of rows of actions

The decision table instructs us the following

їЅ if stock is unavailable and floor stock is not for sale, accumulate 10% advance

їЅ if stock can be found but delivery is not within three days and nights, collect 10% advance

їЅ if stock is obtainable and delivery within three times, acquire full value of sale

їЅ if stock is unavailable but floor stock has been sold within three times, accumulate full value of sale

їЅ if stock is unavailable but floor stock is being sold after three days and nights, acquire 10% advance

Grid charts

A grid graph is a type of chart that shows the conversation of two data factors at the grid intersection of their particular axes.

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