THE idea of physical security has developed over time from history for this day, and has impacted on the tactics used in modern day security. That is proof in the well defined physical security strategies employed in the military defense structures of the traditional empires and colonies where the soldiers dished up as a form of intrusion detection and the access into metropolis wall space were made through the town gates, while the location walls dished up as perimeter safety and gain access to control. This is also facts in the nineteenth century fortress and royal castles. Throughout saved history, man has had a need to feel safe and secure. The viewpoint of physical security remains the same but the technology can vary in application over the years.
The security of any organization's resources and very sensitive information is very vital to its presence and business continuity. The physical and environmental security site examines the vulnerabilities, risks, hazards and countermeasures that can be taken to bodily secure the organization and its resources.
In other words, physical security mechanism includes the physical actions designed to protect people, data, infrastructures, instruments, system and information regarding an organization.
In this term paper, one of the commonly used approaches in physical security program development will be reviewed. The method of be examined is known as the crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED).
It should be observed that the amount of security required in an organization will vary from center to center depending on risk examination and threat evaluation of such company. In essence, it is important for the business to conduct a detailed risk examination by understanding the normal hazard to the facility, identifying the hazards and ultimately ensure proper countermeasures are implemented.
Body of the term paper
Most professionals in neuro-scientific information security do not think a whole lot about physical security as they do about computer and network security and associated infections, hackers, and technology-orientated countermeasures. Therefore the need arise for a security professional to see security from a broad perspective because threat can come from anywhere, taking any forms and different formats which can effect into different degree of severity in terms of harm. Physical security has some other set of vulnerabilities, threats, and countermeasures as compared to computer, network or information security.
Physical security targets guarding all the employees and possessions of the organization and also the enhancement of production, the AIC security triad will enhance the option of company resources, the integrity of the belongings and environment and lastly the confidentiality of the data and business processes. The objectives of the physical security program typically depend on the required level of safety necessary for different belongings of the business, which is also dependant on the organization's satisfactory risk level. The threat profile of the business including the laws and regulations with which the company must comply dictates the suitable risk level of the organization.
In other words, the goals of physical security should treat offense and disruption prevention through deterrence (e. g. the use of fences, security guards), reduced amount of damage by using delay mechanisms (e. g. physical hair, barriers, security employees), crime or disruption recognition tool (e. g. smoke cigars detectors, CCTV), event assessment (e. g. respond to detected incidents and perseverance of degree of damage) and lastly the response strategies (e. g. the crisis response process in place, the fireplace suppression mechanism in the development of fireplace).
These aims form the fundamentals of the split defense model on which the physical security is put in place. The levels are integrated at the perimeter of the center and moving towards the primary assets of the business. In essence, just as much as the organization attempts to prevent offences and disruption from occurring, there should also be necessary programs in place to deal with them when they are doing happen.
The major risks that contend with physical security are theft, physical destruction, compromised system and environment integrity, interruption to services and unauthorized gain access to. Threats faced by organizations can be labeled under different categories particularly (i) Natural environmental risks examples include floods, earthquakes, hearth and so forth. (ii) Source system dangers such as electricity circulation outrages, communication interruptions and interruption of other natural energy resources, for example water, heavy steam, gas etc. (iii) Manmade danger such as vandalism, robbery, fraud, unauthorized gain access to, employee mistakes and accidents, just to speak about a few. (iv) Politics motivated dangers such as hits, riots, civil disobedience, terrorist attacks and so on
Crime protection through environmental design (CPTED) remains one of the widely used physical security solutions. It is described as a multi-disciplinary approach to deterring criminal behavior through environmental design . It is also commonly known as proactive crime avoidance environmental design strategy employed by planners, authorities services, architects and security professionals. The concept used in CPTED is built upon the effect an effective design of a physical environment can have on individual behavior with regards to crime rate in such environment.
This approach provides direction in crime elimination by putting in place proper center construction and smartly designed environmental components. The CPTED strategies were developed midway into the twentieth century and have changed and matured along with this environments and criminal offense rates and types. Overtime, this process had not been only used in corporate organizational security programs but also put in place in large scale development projects such as cities, cities and neighborhoods. A highly effective design or problem fixing environmental design commence by evaluating the goal of the chosen space, how the space is described and considering how well the physical design support the expected function of the space.
In effect, the crux of CPTED would be that the physical environment can be manipulated to set-up behavioral changes that will reduce or eliminate criminal offenses and the fear of criminal offense and improve standard of living. It places focus on physical environment, effective use of space, and behavior of people to create surroundings that are void of environmental cues that can effect into opportunities for criminal offenses that occurs . It really is can be considered as a sociable engineering tool you can use for security, which includes the physical, sociable, subconscious needs of the users in several types of surroundings which may be used to anticipate behaviors of these users and that of the likely offenders . In other words, CPTED strategies rely upon the capability to affect offender decisions that precede undertaking criminal functions. It brings to mind that if a niche site is well organized, the likelihood of it being targeted for a criminal offense may be reduced.
There are four major strategies used in CPTED to increase the overall safeguard include natural gain access to control, natural surveillance, territorial encouragement and maintenance.
The natural access control help as helpful information for the movements of folks in and out of any service such as placements of doors, fences, light and in some cases landscaping to refuse entrance to a crime target and also to create understanding among offenders that there surely is a risk in selecting the expected target. The usage of physical and mechanised means of gain access to control locks, bars and alarms can complement natural gain access to control if need be.
The natural security is a concept purposely designed at keeping intruder under observation. It requires the utilization and keeping physical environment features, personnel walkways and design of activity areas so as to take full advantage of presence. The physical design of the service and proper placement of windows, lightings and landscaping design increases the ability of these within the vicinity to see intruders as well as regular users, and so gives the opportunity to challenge any irregularities or unacceptable behavior . The goal of natural security is to remove criminal activities by giving an wide open and well designed environment and in that way making it unpleasant for potential thieves to operate. It maximizes the actual to deter criminal offenses by giving a good visual connection over the facility.
Territorial encouragement can be completed by using walls, lighting, flags, clearly marked addresses and fences. The purpose of territorial support is to build physical designs that highlight the company's part of influence to provide legitimate owners a sense of possession and a passionate community, which makes the employees have a feeling of owed and a determination to defend if required to do it.
Proper health care and maintenance is needed for ongoing use of the space for its designed purpose. Deterioration suggests less concern and control by the designed owners (organization) of the site and additional indicates tolerance of disorder thus defeating the purpose of the CPTED.
It should however be known that CPTED is different then target hardening. The primary focus of focus on hardening is to refuse gain access to through physical or manufactured barrier, which in most cases lead to limitation in use, enjoyment and appearance of the surroundings. Most corporate and business organizations use a mix of both CPTED and focus on hardening techniques.
The broad dynamics of CPTED procedure and its implementation in any center setting permits it to adapt to different physical security design which ultimately shows it is a powerful method of prevent criminal offense. Therefore including it from the construction stage can make the service safer from the onset, rather than wait until criminal offenses problems occur before utilizing the CPTED methodology.
For future work, I suggest that more research be achieved on individual components and effects in various business configurations.
This newspaper has written under the type feedback of Mr. Francis Gichohi. I am thankful to him for his support and determination to his students.