Posted at 11.30.2018
This briefing paper contains detailed information relating to police respond to rape, it assesses whether things have increased in order to prevent rape or even to help rape victims. Rape victims have different beliefs about the police response to rape cases based on what they believe that to be discrimination. The main reason behind concealing rape incidents and not reporting to law enforcement service is the uncontrollable distrust of police as believed by the individuals predicated on the use that police officers cannot provide support and cover. Another vital reason is the unsympathetic and tough investigations which are currently completed by police officers, which perform a heavy stress to rape victims, as they get questioned in a way that gives them the feeling to be the rapist not the sufferer. However these are not the sole reasons why rape victims have a tendency to conceal rape situations to law enforcement.
What is rape
Rape in English law, was defined as; a penis coming into a vagina, an anus or a mouth. Produced from Sexual Offences Action 2003 (c. 42, S1) (see appendix5).
Rape includes various types, under different circumstances such as; Particular date rape, Marital rape, Gang rape, Acquaintance rape, Spousal rape, Ancestral rape, Statutory rape, Organization rape, Communal rape, Male rape, Stranger rape and Revenge rape.
There are numerous values and wrong attitudes related to rape, which have been accompanied around for centuries. By looking at misconceptions, such as "women ask for it, " can be an example from a former perception which experienced various unwanted effects on the victims. Present misconceptions and behaviour developed from the British Common Rules system which possessed its root base from the Bible.
In early saved history, rape was a way which a better half could be obtained. "Bride Catch, " as it was termed, happened when a man raped a female and then could take her to be his better half. Rape was always described in relation to marriage, and relationship was regarded as an exchange of property, however, this isn't the truth nowadays, where a partner is not regarded as an object to acquire any further. In 1975, Susan Brownmiller's Against Our Will, illustrated comprehensive awareness to the problem of rape by examining the historical and social perspective in which women rape been around. The a decade following publication of the book observed large increases in public awareness of intimate violence as well as in the parliament, as new regulations were introduced in order to avoid rapes, and the benefits of the marital rape.
In 1980 the kid sexual mistreatment was recognised, therefore, improvements to law enforcement response was essential, in order to prevent child sexual abuse, using the media's assist in creating recognition.
There are various methods to methods utilized by police in reaction and reaction to rape. Negative approach to rape is very common within the modern day society, as press plays an exceptionally vital role to be able to convey up the idea of negative aspects on the authorities Service. "A negative authorities response can compound the trauma suffered by way of a rape victim, which makes it not as likely that she'll decide to proceed with legal action and a strong probability that her experience will deter others from even making the initial law enforcement contact in similar circumstances. If for no other reason, it is the overall pursuits of law enforcement for the authorities to act with techniques that are steady with promoting the victim's mental well-being. " (Jordan, 2001b, p75).
According to OFFICE AT HOME 2008-2009 (see the graph in Appendix1) only 25% of noted crimes of sexual violence have been taken to Justice, this illustrates that 75% of registered rape conditions are disregarded by Authorities Service, which confirms the negative aspects illustrated by the media. However in 2007-2008 only 22% of saved crimes of erotic violence have been brought to justice, this exemplifies that there's been some advancements (3% Change) in the service in just a year.
Attrition; is the development process by which rape circumstances are withdrawn from legal process, therefore, they don't result in a criminal conviction. Some would dispute that the first point of attrition is the inability to survey the offense to the police service; this is due to the lack of rely upon the police service or fear of the offender. The graph (see Appendix2) unveiled by BBC this year 2010, predicated on Stern's review on rape convictions and attritions shows that 74% of the suspects weren't brought to justice because of different reasons, such as insufficient evidence, no further action is required, withdraw of victim complaint anticipated to concern with the offender, lack of rely upon the service or cultural backgrounds.
Judges experienced also criticized authorities response in the rape circumstance of a teenager who was simply kidnapped, raped and required to practice prostitution, as they had failed to provide assist with the teenager when required, because of the insufficient efficiency of the police when related to rape crime. (McCormack, H. , 2005. ). John Worboys circumstance is another circumstance where police force was criticized by both participants of the general public and the mass media for unenthusiastic respond to rape which had many effects on the sufferer. In '09 2009, John Worboys was sentenced to go to prison for an indefinite period, for raping and attacking females in his dark-colored cab. In IPPC Survey 2008 commissioners mentioned that lives were ruined in view of the fact that police officers didn't take the event very seriously and grimly, however all the authorities officers who have been involved with this circumstance were disciplined. Therefore to some extent, improvements were manufactured in the form of disciplinary actions, to officers who don't take similar incidents if happened in the future very seriously. (BBC. , Casciani, D. , 2010)
"In 1980's one in every three issues of rape ended in a conviction. Today, it is one in twenty" this illustrates that rather than improving the reaction to rape through convicting rapists, rapists are receiving away with the offence they may have dedicated (BBC. , Geoghegan, T. , 2007). Which means victims of rape are asking for coverage and justice for the trauma they experienced.
In result to these negative aspects of the police response to rape, parliament introduced Sexual Offences Investigation Trained Officials (SOIT, also known as Specially Trained Officers) who are fully trained and experienced officials who interview the rape victims to be able to lessen the stress and stress as well as collecting the mandatory research without creating big effects on the victims, as these officers have been trained in psychological ramifications of the offense. (McVeigh, K. , 2010. ) However the Metropolitan Law enforcement officials Service (MPS) should grow a code of carry out for SOIT officials as there is absolutely no current code of do to control the actions of the SOIT's. The police officers want to meet the requirements of male rape victims, however, by not having a repository of the SOIT; officers reduce the efficiency of respond to the victims. Regarding a male rape sufferer, it may require the assistance of a male SOIT, to get the reality of the sufferer. Currently, it is very difficult to gain access to this data, to be able to request a specific officer to be able to provide assistance, which is leading to miscommunication issues. Another development which has occurred in the MPS, is the fact Erotic Offence Examiners (SOE) were presented in order to improve the quality of service provided and progress the reaction to victims of rape, as SOEs are only educated in erotic offence evaluation. However there is no databases of SOE associated with their availableness, ethnicity, gender and level of skill which can also cause miscommunication with the victims, by working with them without factor of certain requirements. Thus even though improvements are occurred within the service they aren't fully developed to provide good reaction to the victims of rape. (Metropolitan Law enforcement officials Authority, 2002)
Another positive step is made by the Connection of Chief Police Officer (ACPO) as it offers direction for the first response officials on the task followed when dealing with a rape report case; which includes clear and beneficial information to the first response official on the activities to be studied following a short deployment and landscape attendance. Furthermore, in '09 2009 National Police Improvement Organization, provided briefing records for the first responder to a rape case, however on the other hands, first response officers don't realize how to overcome victims and take an initial bank account from them, which means this is considered to be always a constraining result. (NPIA. , 2009)
The interview of the rape victims is key to the investigation to be able to provide productive respond to rape victims. An effective investigation is required by police officer and failure to deal with evidential weaknesses can only just serve to test the victims accounts and thereby reduce the probability of successful prosecution. The rape studies should be investigated by chief officers in order to obtain reasonable information as chief officials are experienced in working and giving an answer to any kind of criminal offense including rape. On top of that Police officers are not victim been trained in other words officials are unaware of how to response to all or any types of offences which causes by response to any kind of criminal offenses reporters (victims). However MPS is bringing up measures to tackle rape to occur for instance introducing campaigns such as Authorities Rape Awareness Marketing campaign which declares that taking in is not unlawful however rape is against the law (see Appendix4) therefore this is a vital improvement which is currently taking place.
Gang rape is a increasing problem in United Kingdom, trepidation of the gangs ground the victims to not to conceal rape happenings to the Police service thus this illustrates that Law enforcement officials service struggles to provide protection and justice to rape victims as gang is an unlawful thus this implies that Police service don't have good reputation for safety and justice as the problem of gangs remain not resolved however trivial information was considered by the MPS relating to this problem and some extend steps are taken place to tackle this offense to provide better respond to gang rape victims. (Longstaff, L. , 2009)
Within the contemporary society police officers are particularly at risk of being misinformed by stereotypes thus this makes these to be suspicious about any problems they obtain from the rape victims especially on victims who are unemotional or look quiet. Thus the suspicion reduces the grade of the response provided to the rape victims as the investigation will be conducted in a way to test the explanation of the sufferer in an insensible and abusive way however it has extremely bad impact as it obstructs the best evidence to be studied from the sufferer for successful prosecution. The authorities officers also have the judgement and discretion to record primary information article under the category they think appropriate. (Davies, M. , 1997, p190-200)
In UK police officers get very little amount of training in rules and practice to do with rape or erotic abuse. For instance Special Constables (voluntary cops) get basic training of 18 times which doesn't include any knowledge or information associated with sexual offences even though they may have the same electric power as a normal police officer, which means this implies that if a particular constable must deal with an intimate offence they do not have any understanding of how to react to rape however within the authorities service beginner police officers have someone experienced to aid them throughout their probation period for two years therefore police can always require assistance to act in response efficiently to rape instances.
The response of law enforcement to rape occurrences are bettering however these improvement aren't at high-quality level to assist rape victims to defeat the injury and stress the have experienced thus more development and improvements must create better environment for all those members of the general public and specifically for rape victims thus the police service must improve their reputation to gain trust of the participants of the public by giving better response to all or any sort of criminal offense and offer security. Another positive advancement which can have constructive effect on the rape victims is through launching a data foundation program to police officers with the details of SOIT officials and SOE's to provide the needs of these victims. The MPS already have briefing notes and guidance of how to take action while investigating rape happenings on the other side it is not detailed sufficiently to support officers while coping with rape occurrences effectively therefore improvement on these advice and briefing notes will boost the quality of the response by cops. Nowadays Police officers get basic training on rape response however this basic training does not include sufferer training which means police officers do not know how to take care of or respond to rape victims but if this training is added into the basic training then it will be easier on the authorities officials and the rape victims will obtain effective response. Finally the most important improvement which can occur within the authorities Service to deal with unenthusiastic respond to rape victims will be through taking the rape instances more seriously and prevent dubious and unsympathetic investigations by the police officers.