Posted at 12.11.2018
Keywords: every child issues evaluation, child safety legislation, child guarding uk laws
In today's quickly changing society there is certainly one factor that remains constant; children's individual needs. These needs vary greatly from child to child, with some children requiring plenty of support to attain a little. The Salamanca Affirmation (1994) believes that every child has unique characteristics, interest, skills and learning needs. It keeps on to state that every child has a fundamental to education and the education systems should be designed, and programmes implemented, to take into consideration of the wide diversity of the characteristics and needs.
It was the Warnock Survey (1978) that first put emphasis on a larger integration of pupils with special educational needs into mainstream schools, and has already established a wide ranging influence on insurance plan and practice that has used in succeeding years.
The SEN Code of Practice (2001) supports the Warnock Studies (1978) inclusion in to mainstream schools by providing 'assistance on guidelines and procedures targeted at permitting pupils with special educational must reach their full potential, to be included completely in their institution communities and make a successful transition to adulthood'.
One of the main frameworks that institutions are bound to in encouraging children's specific needs is the Every Child Things (2003) construction. The Every Child Concerns green newspaper was publicized in 2003 as a reply to the record by Lord Laming into the fatality of Victoria Climbie through being mistreated and abused. The paper proposed a range of procedures to reform and improve children's health care. This framework resulted in the Children's Take action (2004) and the legislative back for Every Child Issues.
The goal of Every Child Things was to make a joined-up system of health, family support, childcare and education services so that all children receive the best start possible. Even though it arose from a child protection issue it is actually for all children and is based around a few fundamental principles. Firstly, world should pursue five goals for everyone children:
Secondly, services for children and their own families have to be organised around the child's needs. Finally, ECM is designed to create an efficient working practice between different experts.
These fundamental rules relate very directly to the SEN Code of Practice (2001). 'The Code sets out guidance on policies and steps aimed at enabling pupils with special educational needs (SEN) to reach their full probable, to be included totally in their school areas and make an effective change to adulthood' (SEN Code of Practice 2001).
It seems that the SEN Code of Practice (2001) and Every Child Issues framework support the work that each will. The appearance of the Every Child Concerns framework signalled an alteration in the framework that the SEN Code of Practice (2001) functioned. The concentrate is now on making sure that all children are recognized, well trained and make progress, and this applies to children with special educational needs.
Children with special educational needs and their families often need support from a range of different services if they are to overcome obstacles to learning and contribution. The creation of Sure Start Children's Centres and Extended Universities through the Every Child Matters framework will prolong the range of services to children and people and bring them alongside one another in solitary locations, enabling children and teenagers with SEN and disabilities and their own families to possess better access to the support they need, when they want it and where they need it. This is a prime exemplory case of the Every Chid Matters framework providing support to the SEN Code of practice.
For the SEN Code of Practice (2001) to be fully functioning and effective, it needs the Every Child Concerns platform also to be totally functioning and effective. Both interact into the same goals, for children to accomplish their full probable despite any hurdles which may be in their way whether communal, physical or mental. An umbrella of support is provided, for the kids and their families to strive towards the purpose of providing a much better future.
Children today are faced with many challenges outside of school that influence their potential to enter into school and learn effectively. Recent years have seen schools providing support to children other than as an educator. The Every Child Issues agenda is there in schools to support every child whatever their qualifications and potential.
There are a group of children however, who've additional struggles that influences their potential to learn; and these children are given with extra support from the SEN Code of Practice (2001). These children will have been recognized as having special educational needs (SEN), and can have been positioned on the schools SEN register with their parent's permission. From this, differing levels of support will get with respect to the child's code of practice stage. The support provided will enable them to access the curriculum within university.
The aim of this child analysis is to consider the learning needs of a kid and to evaluate how these needs are satisfied in their university. To carry out this task effectively there have been lots of factors that needed considering.
Firstly, the child chosen for the study and their institution will be presented. For the intended purpose of this study, the child will be known throughout as 'Child A', and their institution as 'University A'. Numerous observations were completed of Child A within different contexts of the curriculum (see Appendix One).
Then, the study will look at learning theories and styles. That is to help build up an image of how children learn generally. From this, and in conjunction with the observations of Child A, their preferred learning style will be identified. To web page link into this, the coaching styles within College A will be outlined and the impact of this on Child A's capacity to learn will be mentioned.
Finally, conclusions will be made on the impact of the Every Child Issues framework on University A and how this has affected Child A.
Child A and their School
Child A's college is a much larger than average college due to the amalgamation of the infant and junior institution in 2004. Most pupils result from a socio-economically combined catchment area on the advantage of the central town area. While most pupils are White English, more than a third come from minority ethnic backgrounds. This proportion is increasing year-upon-year with most of these pupils also having British as an additional language. The percentage of pupils within institution having learning troubles and/or disabilities is substandard. You can find provision for children in the Early Years Foundation Level; this is provided through the Nursery and in three Reception classes.
Child A is a Y5 pupil whose birthday is at the summer term. The child comes from a stable and affluent backdrop where both parents live along, and is also the eldest of three children (a sibling in Y3 and a sister aged 8 weeks). During Y3 of Key College, Child A was highlighted as being a 'cause for concern' and was eventually located on the school's SEN register in February 2010 while in Y4.
Child A has also been placed on the 'Gifted and Talented Register' for creativeness. This is due to their Y4 teacher analysis of Child A's unusually detailed pictures and Design Technology skills. Child A also excels in gymnastics.
In Apr 2010, Child A was assessed for the very first time by the neighborhood specialists 'Learning and Language Team';
Reading: 1 year and four weeks below that expected of a kid of their chronological age.
Spelling: 3+years below their chronological years.
Writing: right-handed by using a reasonably neat print style with good spacing between words.
The initial summary explained that Child A appeared to have some signs of specific learning issues in literacy (Dyslexia), Dyslexia can not be diagnosed as a one off event; alternatively it'll follow on from a cumulative examination over time (taken from Child A SEN data file, see Appendix Two).
For the purpose of this review and from advice from School A's SENCo, it will be assumed that Child A will receive support for that of your dyslexic child, with programmes designed towards Child A's talents and weaknesses. THE NEIGHBORHOOD Education Authority claims in its dyslexia coverage that 'troubles with dyslexia appear over a continuum, from moderate to severe, and estimations claim that between 4 and 15% of most pupils are damaged'.
The Theories Demonstrating How Children Learn
Before the learning needs of Child A can be discovered, the ways that a kid learns must be analysed. You will discover two main theories of learning that study will concentrate on; behaviourist and cognitive.
The Behaviourist Theory
This theory shows that learning is gained by associating a stimulus with a response, much like Pavlo's puppies www. nobelprize. org (Utilized 6th Oct 2010). Skinner suggested that incentive and reinforcement of a response increases the consistency of response; this is recognized as operant fitness, and assumes all behaviour (e. g. learning) can be handled in this manner. They are the rules of fitness that form the foundation of the behaviourist approach to learning.
These assumptions of the behaviourist procedure is seen and are often applied in Child A's class room. For instance, the Professor would use negative and positive reinforcement to fortify the behaviour that conforms to class goals. Positive reinforcement is also used to increase motivation; for example reinforcing good performance with reward may improve assurance and thus desire within the next task which is vital for Child A who is suffering from low self-confidence.
However, the validity of the behaviourist methodology must be questioned. It assumes that behaviour (e. g. learning) is under the control of praise and reinforcement, overlooking hereditary inheritance.
The Cognitive Theory
Pollard (2010) says that 'this theory implies people learn via an relationship between thinking and experience, and through the sequential development of more technical cognitive set ups'. Piaget developed the notion of cognitive stages to describe the child's cognitive composition at different stages. These stages are the sensory-motor (beginning to 2 years), pre-operational (2-7 years), concrete operations (7 - 12 years) and formal procedures (12 years upwards). Piaget also devised the term 'schemas', a device of knowledge, each relating an thing/experience on the planet; For example, a child my have a schema associated with eating meals at a restaurant, this schema will have a stored design of behavior (looking at the menu, eating the food).
Vygotsky disputes Piagets cognitive stages, implying that public interaction plays a more important role, rather than trying to match a kid into a 'package' predicated on their age. Vygotskys theory places more emphasis on social contributions to the process of development. His theory views interaction with peers as an efficient way of growing skills and strategies. He suggests that instructors use cooperative learning exercises where less experienced children develop with help from more skilful peers - within the area of proximal development (ZPD).
Vygotsky believed that when a child reaches the ZPD for a specific task, by giving the correct assistance (scaffolding) it'll supply the child enough of a "boost" to attain the task. Once the child, with the advantage of scaffolding, masters the duty, the scaffolding can then be removed and the child will then be able to complete the duty again on his own. Child A relies on scaffolding within their learning and shows that this does help their success at an activity. However, dealing with their peers is something Child A will not find comfortable.
Jerome Bruner, another cognitive theorist, also disputes get older related stages, tending to trim towards Vygotskys' view. Bruner state governments that what decides the amount of intellectual development is the magnitude to which the child has been given appropriate training together with practice or experience. Again, Child A requires this however in an adapted format. In his research on the cognitive development of children (1966), Jerome Bruner proposed three modes of representation: enactive representation (action-based), iconic representation (image-based) and symbolic representation (language-based). Settings of representation are the manner in which information or knowledge are stored and encoded in ram. That is related to how the VAK ideas work.
Howard Gardner suggests that there are eight learning styles; social, intrapersonal, mathematical and reasonable, visible and spatial, kinaesthetic, musical, naturalistic and linguistic. He suggests that many people have components of some or every one of the above. Gardner's strategy recognises the diversity of children and appreciates that capability and intelligence should not be dominated by language skills. Gardner's theory appears to be backed up by Riddick, Wolfe and Lumsdon (2002) whom talk about 'it is generally accepted that providing coaching in a number of styles is the most effective way to build up students learning. '
Child A and the training Theories.
Where does Child A fit in to the training ideas? Stated throughout this section are recommendations to how Child A may match these theories. Child A, it seems, strives for an essence of all theories mentioned.
From the behaviourist perspective, Child A responds well to positive reinforcement and would assist in improving to a certain extent their low self-esteem. In the cognitive perspective, Child A craves scaffolding, constantly looking for help from parents within the school when unsure. It can help Child A to efficiently complete tasks, which shows why Child A depends heavily on scaffolding. Again, it helps to boost their low self-esteem. With regards to Gardner's multiple intelligence's, child A leans more towards the physical kinaesthetic and aesthetic spatial elements of his theory.
Therefore, Child A's learning must come throughout these areas to help learning and understanding to be effective
The Assertive Teacher
The assertive self-control method of behaviour management was pioneered by Lee and Marlene Cantor in the 1970's. The goal of assertive discipline is to instruct students to choose in charge behaviour and in so doing raise their self-esteem. Therefore should lead to a rise in their academics success. Possessing a good class environment in which to teach gives the pupil the best possible potential for learning effectively.
A basic principle of assertive self-control is that pupils need to find out your behavioural goals. They must be given limits and the teacher must be constant in his / her approach at all times. Pupils need positive identification and support as well as discipline in order that they are determined to act well. It's very easy to criticise a pupil to be badly behaved but some teachers fail to touch upon good, appropriate behaviour.
The instructor who uses assertive self-discipline effectively has a school room plan, which she shares with pupils in order that they are clear about the consequences of their activities. The educator will have a set of classroom rules on display and will remind the pupils what they are at the start of the lesson.
The Non-Assertive Teacher
When a professor reacts to pupil's disruptive behavior it is known as either a non-assertive or hostile response. The non-assertive response is one where the teacher is passive and does not give clear guidelines; the teacher responds to inappropriate behaviour as and when it happens. She will be inconsistent in her response and can allow poor behavior to move unchallenged one day and answer angrily another. Whenever a pupil feels that he can behave in any way he chooses and not suffer any results then he will see how far he can push the boundaries at every opportunity.
The Hostile Teacher
The hostile tutor is one who keeps the school in order but only through intimidation. They do not set among how to react and often deposit pupils with remarks that decreases their self-esteem and damage their feelings. They promote negative thoughts and targets where pupils think that they can not achieve goals or be successful. The hostile professor rarely makes a positive comment and can take every possibility to make a negative one.
Teaching Styles in School A
Assertive coaching is shown and encouraged throughout School A based on various observations throughout the institution. Additionally it is evident in the school behaviour policy by means of an assertive discipline routine. A couple of strict guidelines on the wording of personal reminder, last warning and then time-out for those children that are failing to follow school rules; this is regular throughout. Positive praise of good behaviour is a technique used to encourage other children to do the same.
Child A responds perfectly to this design of teaching; behaviour problems are never a concern with Child A, who follows school rules all the time. Child A also advantages from the tutor having control over the course; as stated in Child A's SEN data file (see Appendix Two) there is a desire to work in calm which is quite common for a child with dyslexia (Reid, G 2010, Learning Styles and Inclusion Sage Magazines Ltd: London, P23).
There is data showing that behaviour management strategies, like the assertive self-control techniques, do help to improve behaviour, success and attainment. Good behaviour causes good attainment because there is an effective learning environment, and then the child achieves. It states in the Steer Report (2005) that 'a steady connection with good teaching engages pupils in their learning and this reduces cases of poor behaviour'. It also relates to the Every Child Matters strand of Enjoy and Achieve. This recognizes that children should feel safe, be healthy, and enjoy and achieve in institution.
The Learning Needs of Child A
According to information received (Booth, Personal communication, 8 Sept 2010) Child A's learning style is that of a multi-sensory learner. That is also mentioned in the SEN file of Child A (Appendix Two) in a report from the Senior Learning Support Tutor.
Pupils with dyslexia learn best when all the senses are used; this is actually the VAK style of aesthetic, auditory and kinaesthetic learning. VAK is an accelerated learning way where visual learners learn best through pictures, charts, diagrams, video, ICT etc; auditory learners learn best through listening; kinaesthetic learners learn best through being bodily engaged in a task. There may be further research by Glazzard (2010), stating that teachers should try to make a child's learning multi-sensory, catering for all your VAK learning styles.
With respect to Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligence's, a dyslexic child will have a greater imbalance of durability and skills. It is important that Child A is provided with the opportunities to build up their preferred learning style in like manner work with their advantages. Support should be provided in regions of weakness with specific coaching and a demonstration of strategies that help learning. That is also visible in the Local Authority Dyslexia Policy proclaiming 'Some pupils who have dyslexia can frequently screen marked variations between their ability. ' It goes on further to convey that 'it is important to identify strengths as well as weaknesses, in order to make the very best provision' (see Appendix Three).
It has been suggested that Child A has usage of a set up, cumulative, multi-sensory programme of use opportunities for 'interleaved learning' and 'repetition' (see Appendix Two). Interleaved learning is a mental process where new and old materials are practised along. Additionally it is important to remember that to help with Child A's self-esteem issues, extra actions of support provided within the course should be accessible for Child A to gain access to them when required, and not bring attention too.
Child A also has low-self esteem that requires attention. The Local Education Expert Dyslexia Insurance policy also underlines this by stating 'we recognise this links between dyslexia and low self-esteem' (see Appendix Three). From what's known about Child A and through research, it could be stated that when considering Maslow's hierarchy of needs (1968) diagram (see Appendix Four), Child A has had the biological and physiological needs, also safeness needs and belongingness and love needs satisfied. On the other hand, esteem needs have never been realised so that as this is still problems, the child's self-actualisation stage can not be fulfilled. Again, positive reinforcement and working with University A's Learning Mentor to develop self esteem is necessary. It is essential, as a educator, that Child A's successes are shared with the course/school to help improve self-esteem.
Impact of Every Child Matters Construction in School A
There is a great effect on School A since the Every Child Things framework was launched. Some aspects were set up before, but a lot has changed in recent years. A holistic procedure has been used by University A to put into practice the Every Child Things agenda. A substantial commitment has been designed to the nurturing and education of the complete child.
Through the curriculum the kids acquire at least 2 time of exercise weekly. Also, they receive education on health, medication awareness and sexual health education. Healthy appetizers are provided free to children in base level and KS1. Children in KS2 can be found fruit juice at morning respite for a minimal cost. Lately, the school has already established a kitchen built which now allows for food to be cooked properly on site, supplying the school greater control on they type of food being provided.
There are child coverage measures set up that all personnel know about. Three associates of staff are connections for child security conditions that may happen. Any concerns would be indicated to these folks and the appropriate action would then be taken by them.
Other support within university is provided by the Learning Coach. This role encompasses many of the goals of the Every Child Issues Framework. The Learning Mentor is area of the Child Cover Team. THE TRAINING Mentor has generated a 'Peer Mediators' team created of Y6 children to help support children in the playground when problems occur. There has been a huge emphasis located on the prevention of problems arising in the playground through the creation of play market leaders, friendship and singing squads; again, this is through the support from the Y6 children who carry out activities with younger children at playtime.
Enjoy and Achieve
Special Educational Needs provision kicks into action when there are concerns about a person child in relation to behaviour issues or academics difficulties. Beneath the information of the classes SENCo this would involve the kid checked as a 'cause for matter'. If the child demonstrated no improvement or deteriorated, they might then be placed on the academic institutions SEN register with the parent's agreement. 'School Action' would start to see the child acquiring extra support from within institution to aid their learning and well-being, and again if the child showed no improvement or deteriorated, they might be put on 'College Action Plus' which then earns the engagement of outside companies to help and support the child.
Again, the Learning Mentor plays an essential role here, working very closely with extended universities, assisting to provide after-school golf clubs with family engagement. A homework golf club is also run for children who regular neglect to complete homework for a number of reasons. Another critical role that the training Mentor offers under the Every Child Concerns Platform is liaising with parents. Aswell as regarding them in family golf clubs after school, she will also provide support for the kids on a person basis. This area comes with an additional employee to help, the Parent Support Advisor.
The School utilizes a Parent Support Consultant (PSA) who works activities at the Sure Start centre, and has specifically provided support to the Muslim community within College. This has used the proper execution of English classes to help those parents who struggle speaking and understanding English so they can then support their children aware of their reading and writing. The PSA, with the aid of the Maths co-ordinator, ran an identical design for parents called Ocean Maths. This conference provided parents with a knowledge of how they can help their child at home with maths, and they were also able to acquire very cheaply a resource pack that will help support the kid at home.
Wrap around treatment is also provided by the institution in the form of breakfast and after-school care and attention which includes been running now for several years. This gives parents with the prolonged support that they could need to be able to go back to work.
Extended Classes, through government funding, helps children to access activities that they could have been struggling to afford before. During the warmer summer months holidays, activities were available for children to take part in; those children that obtain free school meals could actually gain access to these activities free of charge.
Extended Services have also provided support to Teaching Assistants within college by running a course on 'Playground Video games' so that these may be taught to the children in the playground.
The university places a major emphasis on analysis and exactly how it can be used to ensure that pupils make the best possible progress both in the curriculum and in their personal development.
Assessment for Learning techniques are used to be able to allow pupils to progress as individuals. Self applied and peer analysis techniques are especially relevant with regards to 'reflecting on the process of engaging'. The children know where they are simply 'at' in their learning and how to advance in terms of these next steps.
Make a good Contribution to the Community
There is a school council that is made-up of 1 child from each class. These children meet regularly to discuss how things could work better for the kids. In addition they take views of the other children to these meetings and opinions to the children. A new recent development is the creation of 'learning challenges'. These try to allow children have possibility to apply their skills and knowledge to a range of different 'real life' situations which makes an optimistic contribution to a person, class, college or an area, national global community. A huge emphasis is positioned on entrepreneurship being motivated at all times.
Achieve Economic and Friendly Well-being
At, the burkha school level, that's where the seed products are sown to help achieve economic and interpersonal well-being, by giving the kids with literacy, numeracy and ICT skills. The training challenges mentioned in the previous section also help towards interacting with this.
There are many more aspects of institution life that exist due to the introduction of the Every Child Matters Construction. Child A has benefited greatly out of this having taken part in after college clubs using their family. There is the support network in place for Child A as long as they wish to get access to it, and the relevant people providing support to them already. That is also the case for other children, and has had a positive impact on plenty of children throughout School A in assisting their learning.
This child study has highlighted the significant impact that the Every Child Concerns framework has already established on Child A, other children with and without personal and learning complications, and University A all together. Every Child Concerns now underpins the complete school ethos, and support to children, their own families and the institution.
The knowledge of how children learn is vital to my practice as a instructor so the child's education can be shifted and supported. You will discover elements of behaviourist and cognitive learning in College A through rewards systems of team items and positive reinforcement of good behavior, and also through the assertive coaching methods used. The cognitive strategy is seen in the pedagogy of the professor through effective scaffolding techniques, which were seen to help Child A in the achievements of duties.
In an individual communication with the category instructor of Child A, intervention groups have been set up so that the reinforced learning of Child A may take place not just through the effective inclusion of most pupils by quality first coaching.
As a tutor it is my responsibility to appeal to Child A's additional needs, and also to regularly review and evaluate them so that they are constantly being met. It is also important that within my practice I regularly seek advice from the class professor, SENCo and the Learning Coach who also help Child A to get over the difficulties presented, so that the greatest support has been given.
Child A has a good approach to learning and will not display any of the behavioural difficulties that may be seen in some pupils who've learning difficulties (see Appendix Three).
Observations of Child A
Child A is someone who is very well behaved in course. You can find no behaviour problems associated, and conformity is shown all the time. There is relationship between their peers in the class but this is very infrequent and short lasting. Outside the house in the playground this is actually the same; Child A has a small group of friends who've played along for quite some years. There is discussion between this group, but again, Child A requires a rather unaggressive role of tuning in somewhat than initiating.
Child A again always provided the teacher their attention but fiddled with the pen within an undisruptive way. Cosmetic expressions throughout recommended uneasiness. During observations of Child A in Numeracy it was quite apparent that there surely is a low self-confidence. Individual tasks observed Child A begin by searching, gaining the attention of the teaching assistant and educator to supply the support.
Working with a partner was something Child A seemed to shy away from. Child A's partner appeared unbothered by this and was happy to discuss with others on the table. A little discussion did happen but this is towards the finish of the duty as their partner experienced realised that they need to complete the task. Child A also got some amount reversal, especially number five and 9.
Child A is very conscious of their problems with spellings as their reading get older is greater than their spelling ability so when they read their work again they can easily see the mistakes. The child's dedication and determination is great, and after a recently available writing assessment was able to identify improvement details which were not linked to spellings. Child A also prefers to work in tranquil, which they communicated to the prior year's instructor.
A familiar structure is also seen here; insufficient interaction with the spouse and a trend to permit their spouse to be more dominating and do most of the work.
Child A has a flare for gymnastics and attends an away of school membership in this. Despite their capability, there still remains a reluctance to start communication using their peers.
Child A SEN Data file Extracts
Local Education Authority
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (1968)