Posted at 10.02.2018
A mismatch between curricular aims stated in syllabus and prescribed materials vis-à-vis learners' needs has always been a significant concern for organizations worldwide. Keeping this at heart, this newspaper strives to discover such mismatches if any and solutions at the undergraduate level at King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.
Significant developments in the regions of language coaching methods, material designing and adaptation, syllabus designing, testing and evaluation besides effective lessons planning and classroom management, education technology, computer-assisted language-learning, etc. has considerably enhanced the overall efficiency of English as second/international language programs across the world. A major shift in the coaching approach, within the last few years, from traditional to communicative has augmented the advancements in the above mentioned said fields. However, there's been an clear dissatisfaction among the learners and the as among instructors of English about the effectiveness of these British as second/foreign vocabulary programs. Such serious issue deserves to be researched thoroughly to determine the causes of the inadequacy of these programs. Identifying mismatches between curricular goals explained in syllabus and recommended materials vis-à-vis learners' needs can be one noteworthy step in this route. The mismatches or gaps perhaps generally lead to a failure in achieving the required goals and targets of the course. Furthermore, this affects students' shows in the school room and in the exam room as well. Students turn out to be underachiever and tend to be struggling to attain the expected degree of proficiency in the prospective terminology. Besides these issues, the mismatches influence the efficiency and adequacy of the English as second/foreign terms programs and of the approved materials. Attracting on these issues, the paper will try to identify the learners' needs at undergraduate level and can evaluate the suitability and appropriateness of the approved materials too. The newspaper will also try to determine any mismatches between curricular aims of the recommended materials and learners' needs and the alternatives and recommendations to bridge these gaps in the graduation course offered at the faculty of dialects and translation, Ruler Khalid University or college, Abha, Saudi Arabia.
A whole lot of effective methods have been considered by the Ministry of Higher Education and the related to educational physiques/universities in Kingdom Saudi Arabia (KSA) to increase the educational standard of the various educational and professional training and the entire curriculum to achieve the goals and goals of the programs made available from them. King Khalid College or university (KKU) is one of the government-run universities located in the southern part of KSA in a city called Abha. The authorities at KKU are doing their best to provide more beneficial and effective classes to meet up with the standards of the world. The level and earnestness of their endeavors to meet such standards can certainly be discerned by their attempts to recruit professional faculties and experts from worldwide after demanding straining and billions of dollars of investment in every the government-run education sectors. The KKU specialists are trying hard to offer the best lessons under the supervision of expert teachers and teachers. The course books are chosen from international magazines with wide popularity and with good market reputation. However, sometimes, the course materials or literature are chosen arbitrarily without performing a detailed need evaluation of the students, which in exchange triggers unsuitability and inappropriateness of the selected coaching materials or literature for the specific band of students in the particular situation. Additionally, an absence of needs research also causes a mismatch between the curriculum aims, targets of the course material and learners' needs. Often these mismatches, lead students to the peculiar situation where they neglect to achieve the required proficiency in the mark words, i. e. British, and hamper the university student determination as well. This study intends to investigate such mismatches and find suitable solutions for them. The consequence of the study can offer valuable data for the course designers and government bodies at KKU to judge further the existing graduate program and its own contents. In addition, the info will also provide a lead into new course development, curriculum planning, assessing learners' needs, material analysis and students centered course design.
The selection, gradation, design, adoption, version and evaluation of language coaching materials are of primary concernment for EFL/ESL course designers and the as for educators to be able to meet the curricular seeks and objectives of a course and learners' needs. As there's constantly been a great need to determine what learners and educators want from the terms teaching materials (Tomlinson, 1988); the evaluation of language teaching materials needs to be focused to be able to uncover the implied goals of the course materials. This sort of material evaluation can help language teachers and course designers to adjust and design suited teaching materials and can eliminate possible mismatches between the learners' needs and the curricular seeks of the course. Today's study mainly focuses on 1) the English language-learning needs of undergraduate students at the faculty of dialects and translation at King Khalid College or university, Abha, Saudi Arabia, 2) the curriculum seeks and objectives defined by the worried body of the undergraduate program at the faculty of languages and translation at King Khalid College or university, Abha, Saudi Arabia, 3) the aims of the course literature and materials recommended at King Khalid School, Abha, Saudi Arabia, 2) the curriculum seeks and objectives described by the worried body of the undergraduate program at the faculty of languages and translation at Ruler Khalid University or college, Abha, Saudi Arabia. The study also tries to investigate if there are potential mismatches between your curricular seeks and the learners' needs. The newspaper investigates the learners' needs by having a survey and holds out a comparative analysis between learners' needs and the curricular goals of the undergraduate program to get the potential mismatches if any.
Leaning materials are of essential importance within an ESL/EFL school room. They play a essential role in imparting the data of English language to the learners and wthhold the position of succoring devices for the professor and as well for learners in the school room. White ( ) suggests that it's important for educators make educated and appropriate selections when selecting coursebooks because of their students, especially in the current computer years where superior learners demand high benchmarks in materials and demonstration. Tomlinson (1998) expounds materials can be instructional in that they can advise learner about the words; they could be experiential as they can provide experience of the utilization of language; they may be elicititative for the reason that they can provoke terms learner into using vocabulary; and they may be exploratory when they offer opportunities for learners that lead to discoveries about the language. Despite each one of these functions, materials are typically instructional since they act as the main source of input for learners and the words practice that occurs in language class room. Azizifar (2010) says for the EFL learners, the textbook becomes the major way to obtain contact they may have with the terminology in addition to the insight provided by the professor. Hutchinson and Torres (1994) opine that the textbook is an almost universal component of English terms teaching and no teaching-learning situation, it seems, is complete until it has its relevant textbook. Johnson (et. al. ) say teaching materials also vary in their linguistic design, concentrate, and aims, making the choice of the textbook-an integral part of several ELT classrooms-a relatively formidable task. A reliable EFL/ESL tutor may or might not be a good materials programmer (Dudley-Evan and St. John, 1998), but all language teachers should be able to evaluate, select and modify materials to be able to ensure a match between your learnersё needs and goals and the materials targets (Nahrkhalaji, 2012). Language teachers and researchers may sometimes expostulate that books restricts the liberty of the professor for their finished design and limited exposure to the terms and little room for creative imagination and exploration for instructors (Prabhu, 1987). As Cunningsworth (1984) says, course materials ought to be the teacher's servant, not his get better at. Hutchinson (1987) says that material evaluation plays such an important role in terms coaching that its prospect of influencing the way instructors operate is appreciable. He further advocates that material evaluation can and should be considered a tow-way process which permits teachers not only to select a textbook, but also to build up their knowing of their own coaching/learning situation (Hutchinson, 1987). A educator should evaluate course materials based on the needs of learners and the curriculum seeks and goals of the course recommended by the institution. In most of the situations, materials analysis vis-à-vis learners' needs is given a minimal concern and a slow methodology drags this serious concern to the previous bench.
Many studies have showed that racist attitudes, linguistic biases, gender dominance and social prejudices constitute part of the unrealistic view of the textbooks (Clarke and Clarke, 1990; Carrell and Korwitz, 1994; Ansary and Babaii, 2003). Sheldon (1988) says,
according to Hutchinson and Waters, textbook evaluation is basically an easy, analytical 'corresponding process: matching needs to available solutions' (Hutchinson and Waters 1987:97). My own view is that this issue is rather more emotive and controversial for educators; many would agree with Swales (1980) that books, especially coursebooks, symbolize a 'problem', and in acute cases are types of educational failure. I'd like to explore the reasons for such strong reactions, also to submit possible evaluative alternatives. I would like to concentrate on coursebooks because, whether we like it or not, these represent for both students and teachers the visible heart of any ELT programme. The selection of a particular core volume impulses an executive educational decision where there is appreciable professional, financial and even political investment. This high profile means that this is and application of systematic requirements for assessing coursebooks are essential. Supplementary textbooks and materials, on the other palm, may not bring the same burden. The evaluative criteria for these, somewhat, can remain implicit, or be permitted to establish themselves more informally in the local situation.
O'Neill (1982) provides 4 justifications for the use of course books. Firstly, a huge portion of a coursebook's book's materials can be well suited for students' needs, even if not specifically suitable for them. Second, course books allow for students to look forward, or renew themselves with past lessons. They remove the element of wonder in student's anticipations. Thirdly, course literature have the practical facet of providing materials, which is well-presented within an inexpensive form. Finally, I believe most of all, well-designed course books enable improvisation and adaptation by the educator, as well as empowering students to set-up spontaneous conversation in the school room (White, ).
ELT materials can be examined through lots of ways in order to examine distinctive features such as dependability, authenticity, validity, adaptability, practicality and many other features that perceived as important by teachers, learners and administrators. ELT materials can be evaluated through different approaches advocated by famous linguists and experts. Generally, a detailed investigation and analysis of curricular goals, linguistic context, course design, course purposes, learners' needs, methodologies, etc. are located in the center area of these evaluation approaches. Breen and Landline's (1987) model is an extremely complex approach to conduct critical evaluation of materials' aims, appropriateness and tool. Sheldon's (1988) expensive checklist includes a variety of factors related to all or any aspects of content which range from graphics to overall flexibility. Adapting the Bloom's taxonomy of the Cognitive Site, Chall and Conard (1991) proposed an evaluation construction in which the affective operations and cognitive skills that textbook activities required the learners to apply are evaluated through a particular rating scale called "Question Intricacy Rating Range. " McDonough and Shaw (1993) designed a two-stage platform that included a short external overview to adopt a textbook followed by a concise inside evaluation to conform the textbook. This model, as referred to by Nunan (1991), offers a preliminary way to materials evaluation and places terms learning within the broader context of all learning with a concentrate on cognitive talents.
Extensive use of greatly distributed series of books such as Touchstone, Projects and lately Start Message board, Well Read series in Saudi Arabia generally speaking and at Ruler Khalid University, specifically, necessitates evaluating the potency of such materials. Touchstone series has become extremely popular in main towns of the united states. However, Open Website and Well Read are opted by KKU administration at the faculty of languages and translation at KKU. To be able to find out the mismatches, if any, between your curricular goals and objectives identified by the KKU administration, targets of the literature and course materials approved, and the learners' needs; two questionnaires will get separately to students to discover the learners' needs and if the prescribed course materials provide desired and valid input for the students; whilst the goals and aims of the curriculum and the course materials are analysed independently. Then a in depth analysis of the info collected will provide valuable outputs for the enlargement of the existing program and a solid basis for future research and analysis.
The two questionnaires will be utilized in collecting data. About 100 students from different sections at undergraduate level will be given the questionnaire. The data created by the questionnaires will be analysed statistically over a quantitatively basis.
The questionnaires consist of different constituents to assess the learners' needs. The first questionnaire asks students to identify: 1) what dialect skill do they think is the main by rank them, 2) what situations they need to learn British for, 3) how learning English will advantage them, 4) their attitudes towards English vocabulary, 5) their previous knowledge of English, 6) their intentions to work with the vocabulary for purposes, such as, for higher studies, better careers, tourism etc. The students are asked to arrange the language skills throughout, which they think is more important to a less important one and the domains in which they need to use the terminology. Furthermore, the students are given some words situations where they feel they actually use English (this will assess situational terms needs of the students). Within this section of the questionnaire has a scale which range from 'always', 'often', 'sometimes', and 'never'. Furthermore, the questionnaire also includes questions to analyse their behaviour towards English dialect and factors which influence their learning process.
In the next questionnaire, questions about the suitability of the prescribed textbooks, the product quality and performance of the dialect exercises, relevance of the subject areas covered etc. were asked. The results of the questionnaire can help the KKU administration in future decisions about EFL curriculum development.
The questionnaires were distributed in the class room and the students were asked to come back the filled up questionnaire on the next day in order to avoid disturbance of the lessons. Some of the students didn't return the filled questionnaire. However, these were asked to send it a few days after. After having a few days, all the questionnaires were gathered with a response rate of
(Hutchinson and Torress, 1994)