Posted at 11.17.2018
Discuss CRITICALLY the idea of national culture with particular mention of your own country. Critically review data from a minimum of two models plus other studies. Try to reconcile any conflicting data by considering issues of validity, get older, and sampling, recognising issues of cultural change. What information is there to assist the concept of a 'nationwide' management style for your country? Offer a clear summary on these issues.
Reflect critically on your own connection with management in your country, either as a administrator or as a subordinate. Evaluate TWO critical happenings from your experience and relate them to at least TWO appropriate management models, and to models of countrywide culture. From what extent do you consider your experiences typical of management styles in your country?
The two elements have similar weighting and both parts must be approved to complete the project.
Essay not article style
Full Harvard referencing - brief reference in the written text and full sources in alphabetical order by surname is a guide list by the end the work. Poorly referenced work will are unsuccessful atomically.
Word limit is 3000 words and the word count must get on the assignment.
Appendices may be added and can not be considered in the word count but shouldn't surpass 1000 words- models etc may be located there. There must be clear links in the written text to the materials in the appendices.
Submission will be in 12 point Arial font with 1. 5 range spacing.
Spelling, grammar and punctuation will be checked electronically and visually and corrected.
An electronic duplicate will be published to JISC by the university student and you will be checked for plagiarism. Full details on how to upload will be given before distribution.
Submission deadline- 25/June/2010
"A major challenge of doing business internationally is to adapt effectively to different civilizations. Such adaptation requires a knowledge of cultural variety, notion, stereotypes, and beliefs" (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). "Culture is bought knowledge that folks use to interpret activities and generate public behaviour. This knowledge sorts values, creates attitudes and influences how people react" (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006).
The main characteristics of culture that a lot of scholars have defined are the following:
Learned - Culture is obtained by learning, knowledge, practice, experience etc. alternatively than hereditary or instinct.
Shared - Culture isn't just for person it is about group, society or group and form through interactions.
Transgenerational - Culture endures from era to technology.
Symbolic - Culture is dependant on icons for example Words can be an essential requirement of culture that helps to represent different chemicals and facts.
Patterned - Culture is included and regular within and over the people, respective changes in action occurs if there needs to be changed.
Adaptive - Culture is adaptive, people adapt to new circumstances and environment to accommodate it.
As a number of cultures do within the globe, for international management, the manager do need to know about the culture that they are cooperating with in any other case things might turn out unsuccessful. A most important feature in culture is Prices that is the key concept of a person in relation to their thinking of what is right and incorrect, bad and the good, significant and insignificant, right and wrong. These are utilized in culture where it has reflection on individual's behavior and hence scheduled to variations in culture principles can have different management systems.
Followings specify about how culture can affect management solutions:
Centralized vs. Decentralized - In a few culture of the society, top-level professionals take important decisions whereas others give empowerment to low, mid level managers or active participants for taking decisions.
Safety vs. Risk - Occasionally, risks should be expected and uncertainties are managed while, others are completely unwilling to take chances and face problem if any doubt arises.
Individual vs. Group Rewards - Occasionally, individuals are given rewards on the appraisal while some consider group rewards.
Informal vs. Formal procedures - Some place follow formal methods solidly whereas others get successes with even casual procedures.
High vs. Low Organizational loyalty - In a few place, people gets acceptance or gratitude by their organizational prominence while some people in other place become familiar with as their professional label.
Cooperation vs. Competition - in some places, people are encouraged to be competitive with the colleagues whereas in some places they are designed to be cooperative.
Short term vs. Long-term Horizons - In a few place much target is given on short-term income and efficiency while in other areas they think about long run goals.
Stability vs. Invention - some civilizations does hold on to their stabilities and do not accept changes however, many do changes and admit new happenings and technology.
International professionals need to comprehend that credited to variations in nationwide culture requires different management strategies and behaviours. Will need effective integration of different ethnicities and methods. They need to recognize that such management that works in a single country may not work into another using aspects. To be able to understand work on ethnic issues, some researchers established models that remain used widely in general management development method. Followings will be the elaboration of models from two well-known researchers - Greet Hofstede and Fons Trompenaars. Hofstede models identifies about differences in behaviour in different culture whereas, Trompenaars discussions about how people relate to each other, about time and environment.
Geert Hofstede's, a researcher, identified five cultural proportions that show people from various ethnicities have distinctions in their behaviour. The study has been carried out in one company only, IBM that is spread within 70 countries, because the dissimilarities amongst national ethnicities of all employees can be discovered clearly as all parameters were matched in other respects, like type of work, educational levels for similar occupations, having strong managerial culture, group structure, techniques and techniques. The five dimensions are reviewed below:
Power Distance: "The degree to that your less powerful customers of organizations and organizations acknowledge and expect that ability is allocated unequally" (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). In culture having low electric power distance, people assume with consultative and impartial environment. They relate with one another more as equals despite of formal positions. Such ethnicities have flatter organizational composition and have a tendency to be decentralized. Folks often are available of highly experienced and the salary range between top and lower level positions' is usually thin. By contrast, in culture with high vitality distance, inequalities in the midst of people are normal and considered necessary. The surroundings is more autocratic or paternalistic and the subordinates accept the supremacy of their top hierarchical positions. Such cultures have tall organizational framework and have a tendency to be centralized and often will consist of men and women of less trained and the salary between higher and lower level is usually large.
Uncertainty Avoidance: "The magnitude to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations and also have created values and institutions that try to avoid these" (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). It bargains how people are cautious about any new endeavour and how they handle or minimize doubt. In culture with high uncertainty avoidance, people follow certain conventions and officially designed activities, maintain exact regulations and rules, professionals prefer never to take dangers, have strong notion in experts and their knowledge, have a tendency to be less ambitious and favor never to change current workplace. These are more emotional and also have subjective feeling of nervousness. In comparison, in culture with low uncertainty avoidance, it is to be followed unwritten, flexible conventions and do casual activities, they are more likely to follow few guidelines, managers take hazards, have strong notion in generalists and common sense, tend to be very ambitious and choose to change company frequently. These are less stressful and even more unconcerned, reflective and comfortable about uncertainty and being urged to use their own ideas and take up responsibility because of their activities.
Individualism and Collectivism: "Individualism is the tendency of people to look after themselves and their immediate family only" (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). In such culture, people are expected to provide for oneself and ones immediate family. Their personality is based on individual and they usually develop or formalized their own individual personas and make a decision their affiliations. Belief exists in individual judgments and has psychological freedom from organizations and also emphasis is on individual initiative and achievements. The partnership between employee and company is a contractual on shared benefit. "Collectivism is the trend of people to belong to groups or collectives and also to look after each other in trade for devotion" (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). In such culture, people take action more cohesively into groups or extended young families and present contribution without having any intention in return. Their identity is based on public system and notion is available in-group judgements and has mental dependencies of the individual on organizations and also emphasis is on favour to organizations. The partnership between staff and company is clear in ethical terminology.
Masculinity and Femininity: "Masculinity is a culture in which the dominant ideals in modern culture are success, money, and things" (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). In such culture, people generally have importance on money, reputation, development and challenge somewhat than conservation of the surroundings. They are anticipated to be specific decision designers. Men are more likely to be self-confident, determined, identified and strong, on the other side, women are more likely to be caring, gentle and appearance after life. There may be high job pressure on collateral, struggling and achievements at work and professional confliction is common. Managers tend to be decisive and control employees' performances. In comparison, "Femininity is a culture in which the dominant values in contemporary society are looking after others and the quality of life" (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). In such culture, people generally have more importance on teamwork, group decisions and on the conservation of the surroundings. They are expected to be moderate, tender and worried about relationships. There is low job pressure on collateral, competence and quality of work-life and doesn't have industrial confliction. Managers give freedom and rewards to employees on the activities.
Long-term Orientation and Short-term Orientation: In long-term orientation, activities have value that can have an effect on determination, perseverance, market and humiliation. In short-term orientation, activities impact normative statement, stability, respect for traditions and reciprocation of good desires, favours and gifts.
Fons Trompenaars, another researcher, discovered seven dimensions in which five describes about how people relate with each one another and sixth some may be time that represents how culture can be laid focus on history, present or future and last the first is environment that is related to character. His research has been carried out over 15, 000 managers from 28 countries, demonstrating 47 nationwide civilizations. The seven proportions are as follow:
Universalism vs. Particularism: "Universalism is the fact that ideas and routines can be applied all around the world without modification" (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). In universalism culture, people tend to concentrate more into formal guidelines rather than relationships. They keep adhere to their business contracts and make decisions without situational factors, which sometimes are described difference of views and inconsistencies. By contrast, "Particularism is the fact that circumstances determine how ideas and tactics should be applied and something cannot be done the same everywhere" (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). In such culture, it is the other way around, people tend to target more into relationship than on formal rules. People amend the agreements or take decisions regarding situational circumstances concerning them the business enterprise contracts do not have much value.
Individualism vs. Communitarianism: In Individualism culture, people have a tendency to engage in own personal achievements and neglect significant amounts of individual responsibility. On the other hand, "Communitariantism refers to people regarding themselves within a group" (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). In such culture, people take decisions that apparently referred to group and success achievement in categories and assume responsibility alongside one another.
Neutral vs. Psychological: "Natural is a culture in which emotions are kept in balance. " (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). In such culture, people do not show exhibit their emotions if you want never to have hindrance on the judgments. By contrast, "Emotional is a culture in which emotions are portrayed openly and obviously. " (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). Within this culture, people exhibit their emotions honestly. They show smiles, joy, irritation, and greetings, show enthusiasm.
Specific vs. Defuse: "Specific is a culture in which individuals have a sizable open public space they quickly share with others and a small private space they safeguard closely and share with only good friends and associates. " (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). In such culture, people tend to get invitation on open public space. They are usually wide open and extrovert and their personal and professional life are strongly detached. "Defuse is a culture where public space and private space are similar in proportions and individuals protect their general population space carefully, because access into public space affords entry into private space as well. " (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). In such a culture, people are not invited to general public space. They're usually introvert and their professional and personal lives are linked to each other.
Achievement vs. Ascription: "Accomplishment is a culture where people are accorded position based how well they perform their functions. " (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). In such culture, people tend to attain status, position or ability predicated on their skills, knowledge and successes. On the other hand, "Ascription is a culture in which status is attributed based on who or what a person is. " (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). With this culture, people attain position based on age, gender or someone acquaintances.
Time: It includes two strategies, sequential and synchronous. "In sequential culture, people tend to do one activity individually. " (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). They abide by their appointments and follow programs and schedule totally. Alternatively, in synchronous culture, "people have a tendency to do several activity at a time. " (Hodgett and Luthans, 2006). Their activities are not eligible for schedule or have distinct time to keep. Schedules are less significant than relationships.
Environment: It includes two orientation, internal-orientation and external-orientation. In internal-orientation culture, individual is accountable for controlling circumstances and not comfortable in changing situations whereas, in external-orientation culture, specific is not responsible for their activities and tend to be flexible in compromising and comfortable in changing situations.
"Countrywide culture is disclosed to be inherent what people often neglect using their domicile environment" (Edensor, 2002). "The study of national culture provides synoptic idea of local ideals/ distributed meanings, politics system, faith/philosophical beliefs, economic prosperity, terminology and education system" (France, 2007).
The below writings is approximately the notion of natural culture of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. It is a country located in Southern Asia with an area of 144, 000 sq kilometres and is bordered by Bay of Bengal in south, by India in north, west and east and by Myanmar in southeast. They have emerged as free land after Independence Warfare in 1971, that your country still prides of and also about other values and values, like Bengali New Yr, National Mourning, Martyr Day, International Terminology Day etc. It has a culture of combination of full music, party, folks, drama, artwork, craft, literature, beliefs, religion, festivals, celebrations etc. The country does have people of around 140 millions with mixture of various religious beliefs Muslim, Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity as well as others. It offers parliamentary democratic authorities. The state dialect is Bangla followed by English, the next vocabulary, which is trusted in various business industries, education etc. Matching to UN Development Program (UNDP) 2008 characters, the literacy rate reaches 52. 5 percent. Has agricultural production, natural resources, exports and imports business. From the perception of The Central Intelligence Company (2010) of USA, Bangladesh has gained about 6% GDP progress rate. For the last couple of years, labor force has increased even more credited to rapid expansion of society and has already reached a total amount of 72. 5 million and rate of men and women without job is 2. 5% (Khan, 2010).
In Bangladesh, the business is usually set up with cross-cultural management and it is maintained very traditionally and conservatively. Such management persevere amount of formality and shows esteem and treat with dignity to elderly people, the elderly, someone from high power or government officers. Hierarchical structure in management system is taken care of more in public areas sector than in private business. People who have higher rank or from top-level management have significantly more privilege, i. e. corresponding with Hofstede measurements of culture professionals have high ability distance.
Bangladesh has a culture of low risk and low change tolerant. The intercultural features and inclinations for uncertainty or risk are low. New plans are examined and examined with awareness to make certain whatever dangers they found are well defined and understood. In case there is any changes, the new proposals are supposed to be stabilized and accepted by the individuals. Intercultural understanding is significant for risk significantly influenced by the results of failing for both specific and organization. Relating to Hofstede's cultural measurements Bangladesh has low doubt avoidance.
Generally, managers or someone from top level have paternalistic frame of mind towards their workers somewhat plus they take decisions while the subordinates are meant to follow. The culture is somewhat towards autocratic procedure. Top-level government officials of the united states take decisions and handed over to the professionals to execute the procedure. Usually, the decision makers talk to the experts before taking any step. They just ask for following information rather than looking for consensus. Matching to Hofstede's model Bangladeshi's managers will be more individualistic somewhat than collectivistic.
Bangladeshi managers have a tendency to consider long-term decision making somewhat than short-term. As well as have respects for culture, tradition and matter about communal tasks. Other issues like faith, language, area and reciprocated of presents are kept under consideration in such culture. Corresponding to Hofstsede's model, Bangladeshi management is less long-term orientation and high short-term focused.
Most Bangladeshi professionals do their business depending on statics, experiences and empirical data, while some believe in instinct, faith and opportunity. Generally, in such culture, psychological expressions are shown, always posses good mother nature to others, conceal irritation or annoyance. Matching to Hofstede's model Bangladeshi administrator has characteristics of Femininity.
In Bangladesh, social dealings tend to be demanding, authoritarian, paternalistic, autocratic, inequality decision making methods, loyalty, drive and controlling in management attitude. Comparatively, in west, tend to have consultative or equality decision-making methods, self-interest, competitive personality, competency, individualism in management attitude.
BV Ltd. is an just offshore software development and Information Technology consulting company, since 2001 that has ambition of producing quality business alternatives for the global market. It really is situated in Dhaka and is a joint venture between BG, a currency markets stated leading company from Denmark and MD Group IT company from Bangladesh. It evolves software, desktop/web based products and applications and performs IT Consultancy in a variety of fields for many businesses in European countries and other parts of the world and hence it has generated successful bonding with European clients by giving qualitative services. It identifies itself by emphasizing central give attention to providing best services to respected customers.
Being a worker for year or two as Assistant General Manager, I've experience of the management section that always ensure soft functioning of the organization and therefore successful completion of most projects in particular. The business is working with the talk about of artwork in Dhaka but is managed by long lasting locally based Western Chief Executive Officer. Because it has located customers from European countries, BV believes to create a tradition where in fact the European way of working business is a common thing. The company thinks that accomplishment can only be achieved when quality job opportunities along with facilities are created available to the employees. They give high preferences on RECRUITING, comprehensive training by Western experts, long-term employee partnership, Corporate Friendly Responsibility, both locally and internationally, during employments development process.
The management culture of the business is quite very much like European style, i. e. the top-level management sustains friendly and professional marriage with the employee, preserve equality and expect these to be independent, proactive and self-motivated. It has a reasonably thorough and decentralized management style with less hierarchical relationship and is likely to have mutual value alternatively than one of completely dedicated individual commitment. The employees always proved helpful together and believe in teamwork. Since they belong from high educational history and/or having previous experiences, it was quite easy to adjust such management style even though there were cultural variations with the top-level management. Of course, the CEO does indeed the overall decisions and the subordinates are supposed to follow them. Among others schedule, planning and order of move of work are integrated by the team-lead among employees, where all the participation, contribution of ideas is taken as insight for creating a task. During collaborations with European clients, both the manager and the complete group of the project do meetings and therefore can in a position to focus more on the clients' requirements. Since there's a close working with the clients, no problems can be seen to take place while reporting or updating clients' expectation. This management style has been produced by the CEO to be able to acquire close contacts with the customers and tried not to have any hierarchical level among so that works would go in fast pace, quick decision making, offering empowerment opportunities, effective while rewarding client's requirements and the CEO can have clear focus on subordinates' duties.
Employees expect and react to encouragement task related leadership with better performance and total satisfaction as they gain self-confidence and skill while director moves forward in just a democratic style. The CEO of BV pays attention and gives ideals to the Bangladeshi culture, custom and manners and has achieved an improved management even in different culturally environment. He detected Bangladeshi culture behaviours in a non-judgment way and change generously to a diverse selection of effective system, business methodology and interpersonal environment. Despite of variety from backgrounds he has been successful to work together effectively as a team.
According to Hofstede's model, the CEO of BV practices the management trend that is of Low Electric power Distance, Low Uncertainty Avoidance, Femininity, Collectivism and Long-term orientated characteristics.
Bangladeshi people are just about adaptable and sociable in any environment and in any culture. They learn how to cooperate whatever the fact that if the company has smooth or large organizational composition, whether it offers centralized or decentralized management. In Bangladesh, people follow rather formal business etiquette. New decades learn ethnic ethics and key points, religious values, terminology throughout socialization with people, which in turn, help to set up behaviour, develop passions and make aware of their social individuality to be a Bangladeshi. Also, education also has major benefit in the facet of building ones identity. Nevertheless, the new years will be the people who add in politics, entrepreneurships and economic prosperity of the united states.
Word matter: 3523
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