We accept

Ethical Hacking And Attacking Computer Research Essay

It is debatable, if hacking can be honest or not, the word "Hacking" as time passes has been associated with destructive activity.

These are some of the terms found in the context of hacking which provides better clarity, Hacker is a person who relishes learning hacking for a defensive purpose; an moral hacker is the security professional who exercises his skills for a defensive purpose. The word Cracker refers to somebody who uses his hacking skills for dangerous purpose.

The honest question here is in regard to the physical exercise of hacking which may also be hard to differentiate from cracking. The primary difference being, Honest hacker just identifies vulnerabilities and does not exploit them unlike a cracker.

Ethical hacking is the procedure adopted by ethical hackers to discover the vulnerabilities existing in information systems working environments.

With the progress of internet, computer security has become a major matter for business. Organizations need honest hackers who are able to think such as a cracker to simulate a genuine life hacking circumstance; they make use of same tools and techniques of this of crackers without destroying / diminishing the sensitive information thereby maintaining the integrity and confidentiality of the organization.

Ethical hacker must have excellent encoding and networking skills. They evaluate the security of aim for and update the organization regarding the discovered vulnerabilities along with tips to mitigate them.

Anatomy of your Hack

Initially, "Hacking" designed having amazing skills to break right into the machine. However today there are several programmed freeware tools available on internet making it easy for anybody getting the prefer to hack flourish in breaking into the system.

These are the 5 phases every hacker must know.

Figure 1: Anatomy of the Attack


Reconnaissance is the preparatory period where an attacker gathers information about the mark system preceding to releasing the invasion. This phase might also involve network checking either internal or external without any authorization.

One of the ways for gathering information in this phase may require "Social anatomist". A sociable engineer is a person who smooth-talks and persuades people to reveal personal / sensitive information such as passwords, security policies etc. Social engineering is one of the easiest ways to hack as it needs no technical skills and one of the hardest forms of attack to defend against as humans are the weakest website link in the security string. All security actions taken care by the organization goes into vain when the employees get "social engineered". Detecting sociable engineering disorders are difficult, as there is no tool to identify such efforts, in almost all of the cases sufferer themselves are not aware having revealed hypersensitive information. "Rebecca" and "Jessica" are the common conditions used, which refer to people who are easy concentrate on for social engineering attacks like a receptionist or a support exec.

"Dumpster diving" is another way of gathering information. It is the procedure for looking for discarded very sensitive information in an organization thrash. It is one of the effective means of gathering information as it might provide attackers with even more delicate information such as username, security password, ATM slip, sociable security number, Bank or investment company statements.

It is important an organization has appropriate plans in location to protect their possessions and provide proper instruction to employees on a single.

Reconnaissance strategy can be classified into dynamic and unaggressive reconnaissance.

In passive reconnaissance, the attacker will not interact with the system immediately but uses interpersonal anatomist or dumpster diving as a mean to gather information. While in a energetic reconnaissance, the attacker employs tools for port scanning, network scanning to get the facts of the application, operating system etc. Often reconnaissance phase overlaps with the scanning period.


Scanning precedes the genuine attack and it is one of quite period of information gathering where in the attacker gathers information about the goals IP address, operating system, system structures, services running in the machine in order to find various ways to intrude into focuses on system. The strategy to launch the assault is dependant on the collected information. The chance of an organization is considered high in the scanning phase as it permits access to the network.

Different types of scanning are

Port Scanning: Process of identifying the open up ports and the assistance running on the mark system.

Network Checking -Process for determining IP addresses, dynamic hosts on the network either to assault them or as a network security examination.

Vulnerability Scanning -Automates method to identify the known vulnerabilities present in the machine and the network.

Some of the key tools used during this phase are Nmap which is employed for port scanning; it offers a number of advanced features such as remote OS diagnosis.

Nessus is a vulnerability scanner which detects the local flaws, uninstalled patches and weakness in network hosts. Nessus has a security vulnerability repository which is kept up to date on a regular basis. It carries out development of security investigations for recent security openings.

CEH scanning methodology

The diagram below shows the series of steps followed in order to scan any network although scanning method varies based on the aim of the strike. The Attacker starts with looking at for the live systems in the network. Once he locates the live system, searches for any open dock present in the system to identify the services running onto it. The next phase is OS fingerprinting which is only gathering operating-system information about the mark system. Post that your attacker scans for vulnerabilities present in the target operating system and exploit it. The attacker could also choose to probe the network by using proxies.

Figure 2: CEH Scanning Methodology

Gaining Access

This is one of the most important stages for an episode as that's where the actual assault is planted. Which means business risk is highest in this phase. Although not a mandatory stage as an attacker need not always gain access to cause harm like in denial of service disorders.

The main aim in this phase is to acquire elevated privileges such as system privilege to execute commands to gain access to sensitive information.

Maintaining Access

Once the attacker increases access in to the system or the network, he tries to sustain his "ownership" on the compromised system and routinely strike it. Typically in this stage the attacker attempts to set up Key loggers to fully capture the key pad strokes, sniffers to capture network traffic, rootkits at the kernel level to get super user access and Trojan horses to gain repeated backdoor access, also download the password records to access the machine at a later time. Once the Trojans are in place, the attacker can assume to obtain gained total control of the system.

During this period the attackers may harden the machine against other attackers by repairing the vulnerability which allowed them to access the system or the network.

Clearing Tracks

This is where in fact the attacker will try to cover the evidence of his activities for various reasons like keeping access or legal activities. During this phase the attacker deletes the system logs preventing the system administrator from monitoring the unconventional activity, Rootkits are installed as they are effective in covering songs and also because sometimes they disable logging.

Other techniques like Steganography which can be used to hide the info in a image or a record, are made used by the attacker in order to pay tracks

Typical Hacking Techniques

There are several ways an attacker can gain access in to the system such as

Operating system attacks

Application Level attacks

Shrink cover code error

Misconfiguration attacks

Google Hacking

Google Hacking is the art work of creating complex search queries to be able to gather information of the prospective system. Yahoo is the principal tool used for Yahoo hacking. Advanced Google operators are used to filter information.

Google hacking repository identifies files filled with password, sensitive internet directories, vulnerable webpages, error messages formulated with sensitive information, internet pages formulated with firewall logs etc

Figure 3: Google advanced search option

Basics of Yahoo Hacking

Below are some of the essential ways Google is utilized for hacking

Directory Listing Strike: Website often accidentally shows files and directories that exist on the net server when top level index file is lacking or invalid as website directory listing is not taken care of. A lot of the times they do not prevent users from downloading files or accessing hypersensitive information without authorization. Finding directory list in Yahoo is very self-explanatory.

A query of Intitle: Index. of is the general search for directory site listing

Figure 4: Google hacking for Directory Listing

An attacker can use this information to access sensitive information of the application.

Information Disclosure

Error emails can disclose a whole lot of hypersensitive information about the prospective like the operating system, network architecture, customer information etc.

A query of intitle: error fetched 4, 070, 000 results

Figure 5: Yahoo hacking for Information Disclosure

Below is the problem message shown by an application.

Figure 6: Problem message shown from Google hacking query

The error message reveals very sensitive information about the prospective system including the application is built in asp. net, IIS 4. 0, MYSQL databases. An attacker can now launch attacks that are susceptible to these technology.

Sensitive Information:

Here are some of the Google search syntax's to crawl for Delicate information such as passwords

filetype: xls inurl: "security password. xls" -Appears for username and password in ms excel format.

intitle: "Index of" master. passwd -index the master password page

index of / back up- Looks for the index back-up document on server)

intitle: index. of passwd. bak - Looks for the index backup password data.

intitle: "Index of" pwd. db- Searches for database security password files

inurl: "consumer. xls" intext: "security password"- Searches for url that save username and passwords in pass on sheet files

Site Digger, which explores Google's cache to consider susceptibilities, errors, security loopholes on website and Gooscan which automates questions against Google internet search engine are some of the other tools used for Google hacking.

Certified Moral Hacker Recognition Course (CEH)

CEH is the professional recognition provided by the international council E-Commerce consultants (EC-Council).

Figure 6: CEH Process

Apart from EC council, there are other certified hacking course used by some popular Hackers like Ankit Fadia Certified Ethical Hacker (AFCEH) and also some other suppliers like karROX Certified Honest Hacker Course.

Ethical Hacking Services

As part of ethical hacking services, Penetration assessment which is nothing but creating a real life hacking scenario and striving to break into the system is offered by various sellers. Different tools, technique and methodologies are used to gain access into that program. The service offered could be either a black box evaluation (where only the application form Link is given) or a grey box trials (in which a dummy user accounts with least privilege is established for the pen testers). Penetration trials will be transported over by the team of dedicated moral hackers.

Some of the main element great things about penetration testing are

Find security loopholes which can't be found through functional testing.

Identify business reasoning flaws which can't be diagnosed by Code Review.

Real world simulation of hacking thereby revealing soft goals for possible attacks.

Meet Regulatory Conformity like PCI, HIPAA, GLBA and ISO regulatory conformity.

Reduction in web request development security flaws.

Development of effective mitigation strategies predicated on your specific environment

The Pencil test article provides advised remediation's for the recognized attack.

Follows the industry expectations for security such as OWASP TOP 10 10 and SANS 25.

Commercial tools like Cenzic, Acunetix, and IBM Rational Appscan are some of the trusted tools for Pen Test.

Social Engineering Testing is offered as complementary service by some distributors which testing the organizations "individual firewall" by attaining access to an organization and its property by tricking key employees over communications medium such as telephone, email, talk, bulletin boards, etc.


Vikram :P

Related Knowledge Briefs or References

Have to check.


In recent years Web applications are the target of varied forms of problems. Regarding to a Gartner statement 70% of the security attacks are targeted on the net program. Competition is so high that corporations can't ignore the risk associated using their vulnerable application. Reduction incurred could change from monetary loss to lack of credibility. In certain cases it could indicate end of business. You cannot stop an attacker from hacking, the thing you are able to do is make it harder to get in.

Ethical hackers will be the security specialists who use their hacking skills for defensive purpose. The process of ethical hacking would depend on, what's that organization is wanting to safeguard, against whom and how much or resources the organization is preparing to spend. The hacking tools are designed for research and educational purpose only and should not be used for destructive purpose.

Your Name then enter into a short two or three line biography, together with your BU/practice and location.

Was the info contained in this Knowledge Simple useful? We strive to improve our content by continuously refining it. You can discuss the document, or download the most recent version, from the details page of this Knowledge Quick. Your responses is valued!

More than 7 000 students trust us to do their work
90% of customers place more than 5 orders with us
Special price $5 /page
Check the price
for your assignment