Posted at 12.31.2018
Main Roads American Australia People Environment Record 2008 New Transportation tasks nowadays is noticeably increasing across nations all over the world, especially the facet of making new roadway and highway sites, due to the tremendously unstoppable increase in the population of people on the planet, thus, the demand of life resources, the need of moving in one place to another (from location A to location B) is also increasing, in response compared to that governments of different countries are spending billions of dollars each year just to enhance and develop the transportation networks, concentrating on the neighborhood roadway and highway systems, this motion of development was notable after the battle world II. C:\Users\Emad\Documents\School Jobs\Year 4 ((2012 - 2013))\Highway Design\Tasks\Assignment 1\Referrals\Road and The environment. jpg
According to the Central Brains Agency (CIA) 2008, the United Arab Emirates has paved roads of 4, 080 kilometres (including 253 km of expressways), as the United States of America has paved roads of 6, 506, 204 km, this shows the huge increasing demand on paved highways.
Road tasks can be studied as an indication of how metropolitan the united states is, the greater developed the roadway network the better the market, because it provides more usage of different locations with little travel time, thus it offers more jobs, health services and education. But as the saying goes everything has its price, producing new highways can have some bad influences on the environment and the ecosystem surrounding the roads. Within this report, both the positive and the negative impacts of new highways and highway on the surroundings and ecosystem will be reviewed, nevertheless the different types of physical environmental impacts.
Fragile Dynamics by Joel Sartore Impact of new roads on the environment is becoming a more serious concern that government authorities should take care and be alert to, due to increasing demand on building new roadways nowadays, what comes after constructing a new road most of the times is a long term change with the environment surrounding the road and could develop with time and business lead to a significant harm with the ecosystem that cant be reversed, so reckless planning and constructing of new highways could have an enormous impact on the encompassing environment and the ecosystem. Alternatively, well designed and operated new roads could have positive impacts on the surroundings and the ecosystem, yet sometimes it cost more money to avoid impacting on the surroundings, so technical engineers and environmental experts are still attempting to build up some new alternatives by using the new modern tools ways to avoid any interruption that the human kind is triggering by dominating environmentally friendly resources without looking at the consequences of the activities. http://images. joelsartore. com/gallery/B/BEA014-00001. jpg
Recently many environmental engineers and scientists are conducting Environmental Impact Diagnosis (EIA) studies to monitor and monitor any physical impact on the surroundings and the ecosystem that may be final result because of making new roads, the procedure of environmentally friendly impact assessment may take some time, depending on the size of the project and where its located.
There a lot of environmental impacts of creating new roads and highways that can be observed, each of them can be categorised in three details:
Direct Influences - this impact will need effect in the near future.
Indirect Impacts - this impact will take impact in the even future.
Cumulative Effects - this impact will need impact in the very good future after accumulation.
*All these different impacts could have the positive or a negative effect on the environment and the ecosystem.
Direct impacts on the surroundings can directly appear during the process of the new highway construction, for example the 1st step of making a new street between two towns separated by a renewable area or plantation is getting rid of the greens (trees, plants, . . . , etc. ) to put the roads gravel and asphalt (pavement), on the whole direct impacts are easier for environmentally friendly assessment, because they are more predictable than the other two types (the indirect and the cumulative impacts), thus the impacts can be easily handled to prevent any serious damage on the surroundings in case there is the negative effects.
Although that the immediate impacts may have a lot of negative impacts, they involve some positive effects, for example, rechanneling a river or a normal water stream might enhance the water retention of an village near by the street. Some developed countries want to merge the renewable and urban alongside one another, for example constructing new roads with rainfall retention or drainage systems by including some vegetation. C:\Users\Emad\Desktop\Lawrence Village Road Job 026. jpg
Lawrence Village Road Job (Image by Flat iron Age)
Direct Negative Influences:
There are a lot of direct negative impacts that could damage the environment, for example some major streets have to be designed between major cities, so sometimes the procedure of construction requires getting rid of or redirecting some hurdles like the flow of any river or drinking water stream that will lead to an enormous effect on the ecosystem, removing farms and private properties. Polluting of the environment could have the greatest impact on the environment (CO2 vehicles emissions) and sound air pollution which all have negative effect on the ecosystem bordering the road.
Indirect influences can be known as string impacts, from the name we can tell that chain effects require time to develop which will be hard to see and measure through the engineering of the new highway.
some new modern roads that are being produced involve some facilities for pedestrians and bicyclists, thus this may help to decrease the impact of polluting of the environment by reducing the amount of vehicle users (CO2 emissions), furthermore some new roads has a special lane for buses which will encourage people to use the bus more often and this might also decrease the air pollution.
When it involves negative indirect influences, the very first thing comes is deforestation and the decrease in forest pets or animals and bird kinds, in 1994 Affluent et al. drew attention with his survey that the reduction and extinction of some bird species is most important because of new roads (noises and light). In 1982 Burke & Sherburne analyzed the population of animals of mammals and parrots after and during building of new highways, they found there's a little motion of both mammals and birds densities to different places.
These types of environmental effects could be called as silent effects, because the results of the impacts will require time to build up.
Global warming could be one of the cumulative impacts, many researchers are discussing the incremental percentages of CO2 going back 5 years, where they come from the emissions of factories, nevertheless, the vehicles emissions, thus, building new streets means more vehicles and even more CO2 emissions.
Environmental Impact Assessment also known as EIA, it will happen whenever there's a project that wanted to be constructed, the goal of this environmental analysis is to check on and consider every predictable impact (positive or negative) that might occur or affect the environment, it can be performed by firmly taking study corridors, for example for renewable field highways a corridor of 10 " 100 kilometres is highly recommended along the street that has been constructed, to be able to assess and anticipate any changes that might occur adjoining that new highway.
As what we've observed in this report there are a great number of impacts may occur because of building new highways, some are positive influences plus some are negative influences, some will take place in the long-term plus some will arise in the short-term, so to be able to control and also to anticipate them environmental impact assessments (EIA) need to be done before building any new highways for a much better green future.