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Essential Anatomy and Physiology Components

  • Mahbubul Alam

Task 1

Most of the nutrition in the feed are large molecules that can not be directly consumed in the gut due to their size or hydrophobicity. The digestive tract is accountable for the decrease in the size of these molecules directly absorbable smaller units and the change of hydrophilic substances with hydrophobic complexes. Proper procedure of absorption and move mechanisms is essential for the delivery of products of digestion in body skin cells. An abnormality of 1 of the systems can cause malnutrition even in the presence of adequate nourishment.

Functions of Digestive System

The job of the digestive system is the physical and chemical breakdown of food. Furthermore, energy needed by the body, as well as raw materials for development and repair of body constructions come from the food and drink that ingerimos. In the digestion process will be the following functions: Test food through the senses of smell and flavor, food crushing, dissolution in normal water, food transport smashed decomposition of food into simple substances using digestive enzymes, absorption simple chemicals, and removal of indigestible residues.

Regulation of intestinal functions

Digestive functions grip and secretion are managed by two main types of rules: the stressed regulation and hormonal rules.

Neural Mechanisms

Nervous rules of motor unit and secretory phenomena uses two types of neural systems : an area system, the enteric nervous system and the autonomic anxious system (ANS ). Nerve receptors are hypersensitive to various stimuli : the substance composition of the chime

(acidity), stretching out (sense of fullness ), etc. . They send impulses to the muscle and secretory skin cells of the digestive tract via the enteric nervous system includes the myenteric plexus and submucosal. Neurotransmission is stressed or chemical type ( enkephalins, somatostatin, serotonin, bombesin, neurotensin, etc. . ). The ANS involves two contingents of materials : sympathetic fibres that run along arteries, and the parasympathetic fibers of the vagus nerve. These two contingents have antagonistic activities: roughly, sympathetic fibres are inhibitory as the parasympathetic materials are excitatory.


Core Set ups : Mouth area, pharynx, esophagus, abdomen. . . slim intestine, Ano

Associated structures : salivary glands ( three pairs ), Pancreas, Liver, Gall Bladder ( with their associated ducts), and Appendix.


The chemicals that the body needs are utilized from food, it passes through the digestive tract. When nibbling food, it is moistened by saliva. As food is sufficiently fragmented and damp mouth are pressed by the tongue in to the pharynx and swallowed. The muscles in the surfaces of the esophagus agreement and relax to cause motion in waves, known as peristalsis, which reduces food in to the stomach. On this, mixed with acidic juices made by the wall structure of the organ. These juices accomplish the fragmentation of food in even smaller debris, the muscles of the stomach wall also long term contract, and facilitating the higher fragmentation.

Thereafter, they pass in to the small intestine where certain products within the intestinal juices, known enzymes continue the degradation of food in dietary components which can be consumed by the blood vessels through the surfaces of the tiny intestine. Leftover food particles, that are not digested in the tiny intestine pass into the large intestine where normal water is absorbed. The remaining food is a partly solid waste materials is steadily propelled across the large intestine and needs the form of feces reach the rectum. The depositions are stored in the terminal part of the digestive system and are then expelled through the anus.


The esophagus is a tube or membranous muscle that stretches from the pharynx to the belly. Incisors to cardia ( portion continues where the esophagus and tummy) there are about 40 cm. Esophagus begins at the neck of the guitar, breasts and traverses into the tummy through the esophageal orifice diaphragm. Usually this is a exclusive cavity ( ie that its surfaces are joined in support of wide open when the bolus moves ). Measure reaches the esophagus 25 cm and has a composition comprising two tiers of muscles which allow contraction and relaxation of the esophagus downward. These waves are called peristalsis and is causing the improvement of food into the stomach. It's just a passing of the bolus, and is also the union of different openings, oral, nasal, ear and larynx.


The stomach is an organ so that varies depending on point out of repletion (amount of healthy content present in the gastric cavity) that is usually designed J. It consists of several parts that are: fundus, body, antrum and pylorus. Its less extensive edge is called the less curvature and a more substantial curvature. The cardia is the boundary between the esophagus and abdomen and pylorus is the boundary between your abdomen and duodenum. In an individual measures approximately 25cm cardia to the pylorus and the transverse diameter is 12cm. To check out what's inside the stomach click here.

Small intestine:

The small intestine begins at the pylorus and ends at the ileoceal valve, which is attached to the first area of the large intestine. Its length is variable and its own size gradually decreases from its source to the ileocecal valve. The duodenum, which is part of the small intestine, is about 25 to 30 cm in length, the tiny intestine consists of a proximal part and a distal jejunum or the ileum, the boundary between the two portions is not very clear. The duodenum joins the jejunum after 30cm from the pylorus. The jejunum-ileum is part of the small intestine that is characterized by relatively set ends: The first originates in the duodenum and the second reason is limited to the ileocecal valve and first part of the blind. Its size reduces slowly but steadily on the large intestine. The boundary between your jejunum and ileum is not obvious. The tiny intestine villi has numerous surface increasing intestinal absorption of nutrition.


The large intestine. starts off from the ileocecal valve in a blind pouch called from where the vermiform appendix and ends at the rectum. From the cecum to the rectum details a series of curves, developing a frame in the center of the grips are yeyunoleon. Its length is adjustable between 120 and 160 cm, and its size slowly but surely reduces, being narrower in the region where it joins portion rectum or rectosigmoid junction, where the diameter is not often exceed 3 cm, while the blind is 6 or 7 cm.

After the blind, the second portion of the top intestine is called as ascending colon, with a amount of 15cm, to provide rise to the third portion which is the transverse colon with an average amount of 50 cm, producing a fourth part which is the descending colon 10cm long. Finally differs sigmoid, digestive tract rectum and anus. The rectum is the last part of the digestive tract. It is the continuation of the sigmoid intestines and ends up checking to the outside through the anal opening.


Gland is intimately related to the duodenum, the excretory duct of the pancreas, which ends meet with the bile through the ampulla of Vater, their secretions areimportant in the digestive function of food.


The liver is the largest internal organ of the body weighs about 1500 grams. It consists of two lobes. The bile ducts will be the excretory ducts of the liver organ, bile for the coffee lover is driven in to the duodenum. normally get two stations: remaining and right, that converge alongside one another to form a single duct. the hepatic duct receives a finer duct, cystic duct coming from the gallbladder housed in the visceral side of liver. Get together of the cystic duct and the hepatic bile duct, descending duodenum, into which alongside the excretory duct of the pancreas is shaped. The gallbladder is a reservoir musculomembranous shunted on the key bile duct. It contains about 50-60 cm3 of bile. Is oval or marginally pear-shaped, and its major diameter is about 8 to 10 cm.


The spleen, for its main functions is highly recommended an organ of the circulatory system. Its size depends upon the amount of blood covered therein.

Digestive Physiology

The gastrointestinal tract is accountable for the digestion of the ingested food, so that they can be used by the body. The procedure of digestion begins in the mouth area where food is included in saliva, crushed and divided by the action of chewing and once formed the bolus swallowed. The belly is not an essential organ for life, for though his removal in man and animals cause certain digestive disorders, not fundamentally have an effect on health.

In humans, the fundamental function of the tummy to lessen food to a semi-fluid mass of homogeneous consistency called chyme, which in turn passes in to the duodenum. The belly also functions as a momentary reservoir for the acid foods and their secretions, has some antibacterial action.

The chyme moves the pylorus and enters the duodenum intervals where it is transformed by the secretions of the pancreas, small intestine and liver was continued digestive function and absorption. Chyme is progressing through the tiny intestine until it reaches the large intestine.

The ileocecal valve too fast hinders the emptying of the tiny intestine and avoids reflux of the contents of the large intestine to the tiny intestine. The primary function of the top intestine is the development, transport and disposal of feces. A very important function is to absorb water. In the cecum and ascending intestines faeces are almost liquid and that is where the best amount of water and some dissolved substances are consumed, but also in more distal areas ( rectum and sigmoid bowel) fluids are assimilated.

Digestion and absorption

Digestion of food is effected by hydrolysis using intestinal enzymes and cofactors such as hydrochloric acid or bile. Cofactors are also involved in the mechanisms of absorption. Enzymes are of 2 types: exoenzymes and endoenzymes.

Digestive enzymes are exoenzymes mainly synthesized by special cells of the oral cavity, stomach, pancreas or small intestine and this are released in the digestive light to catalyze the hydrolysis of the meals to the exterior of the cell. The enzymes are endoenzymes localized on the membrane lipoproteins intestinal mucosal cells. The bond to their substrate therefore when those second option penetrate in to the cell. Ingested food are ingested about 95%. This particular, inorganic salts, monosaccharides, vitamins and alcohol are soaked up without change. As against, disaccharides, polysaccharides, lipids and proteins are to be altered by hydrolysis into simpler components before being consumed.

Factors influencing the digestion

Psychological factors:

The appearance, smell and tastes of food offered modifies the psychological climate through the meal which influences the digestive function of ingested food. Indeed, salivary secretions, gastric, etc. . and alter motility of the digestive tract. Emotions such as dread, anxiety or nervousness take action via the hypothalamus and the autonomic nervous system affect digestion by lowering secretions, inhibition of peristalsis and increased sphincter shade.

Bacterial action.

  • The intestinal flora is a intricate community with over 100 different types.
  • At delivery, the gastrointestinal area is sterile, but many species speedily colonize the digestive system.
  • Lactobacillus is the key bacteria flora until the child gets a different diet.
  • Then Escherichia coli dominating in the terminal ileum, and the anaerobic flora in the colon appears. However, the number of lactobacilli persist in subject matter taking a normal diet.
  • In the stomach, hydrochloric acid (HCl ) has a bactericidal action, which damages most bacterias in the gastric acid chyme. In hyposcrtion gastric circumstances, bacterial overgrowth can be in charge of gastritis resulting in inflammation of the mucosa.
  • In the bowel, bacterial action is more intense. It contributes to the formation of gas (H2, CO2, CH4, O2, NH3, etc. ), Acids ( lactic, acetic, etc. ), And several other substances ( indoles, phenols, etc. . ). The smell of feces is related to many of these components.
  • The meal ingestion alters the fecal flora in very different ways depending on the specific. The ingestion of carbohydrate fermentation will increase while the increase of proteins putrefaction.

Effects of food preparation and meal structure.

  • Cooking makes them more easily digestible : baking meat relaxes connective structure, facilitates chewing which makes it more accessible to digestive juices cells.
  • A heat weight and composition similar meals low size and more can be better digested than luxurious meals.
  • The chemical type reactions during baking alter food digestive function. Acrolein made by frying foods at elevated temp, delays gastric emptying. Instead, meats extract ( bouillon ) stimulate digestive function.
  • Finally, there's a wide variation within and between specific awareness to food, their physical properties (temperature, acidity, etc. . ) That's frequently from the talk about of repletion of the digestive system.

Task 2

The Endocrine System and Its Working

The endocrine system is a term for all the organs and cells that produce human hormones. They are allocated throughout your body and can show results over long ranges on:

  • Growth
  • Development
  • Functions of several organs
  • Coordination of metabolic processes

The endocrine glands are organs, but who have no ducts, because they spread their products directly into the blood or an autocrine or paracrine effect, however. Therefore, there is at this tissues with a thick network of blood capillaries with windowed endothelium. Exocrine gland secretions free to oppose it using their inner or exterior surfaces: on your skin, on the wall structure of the abdominal or in the pancreatic ducts. The hormone-producing cells can be divided into three communities:

  • Purely endocrine glands, used entirely for the production of human hormones;
  • Exo-endocrine glands, as well as the hormones produced other exocrine secretions;
  • Certain non-glandular structure such as the autonomic nerves, which also secrete hormone-like chemicals =neuro secretion

Location and Function of 3 Endocrine Glands


Developmentally, the thyroid gland is out of the intestinal epithelium of the pharynx bottom level from the tongue bottom part. This gland stands at the start of the development through the ducts thyroglossus still with the ground of the mouth in combination and is located in forward of the trachea after a descent. Anatomically, the thyroid gland comprises two lobes, which can be on an isthmus that is sometimes formed as a genuine pyramidal lobe, along. Without thyroid human hormones cannot live. The thyroid hormonetriiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4) are iodized. They work in virtually all cells and energize there on the vitality metabolism. The thyroid itself is terms of an control system by the hypothalamic hormone TRH (TSH-releasing hormone), and originating from the pituitary TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) in their function governed (Hiller-Sturmhofel, 1998).

Endocrine Pancreas

The pancreas can be an exo-endocrine organ by both intestinal juices in to the duodenum and releases hormones in to the blood stream. The endocrine portion, the islets of Langerhans are localized mainly in the pancreatic and stand out because of the brighter appearance. They secrete their secretions directly into the blood vessels. A difference is to impact different kinds of cells:

  • B cells: 60-80%, are used to create insulin
  • A cells: about 20%, and are therefore designed to antagonist to insulin
  • D cells: about 2% help to have an inhibitory effect on the A-and B-cells as well as on the exocrine pancreas.
  • PP skin cells (pancreatic polypeptide): ~1-2% and inhibit pancreatic exocrine

These islands consist of a net-like firm of several thousand epithelial cells set up in categories and are crossed by numerous capillaries with windowed endothelium (Carter, n. d. )


The pituitary gland is situated at the lower of the mind and is composed of three parts. In contrast, the anterior pituitary produces own human hormones. The activity of its skin cells is determined by intricate humeral and neural mechanisms controlled (= control hormones). It is above all the hypothalamic releasing - and release-inhibiting human hormones that play an important role (Drake, 2010)

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