Essay on Participatory And Interactive Modes Of Policy Making

The effects of the switch from a top-down method of more participatory and fun modes of policy-making are far from crystal clear. Recent exploration on the rendering of Natura 2000 in France and Germany features indicated that the is a switch in rhetoric rather than used. "At all political levels a big difference remains between rhetoric upon participation and the real-life execution of participatory processes" (Rauschmayer et 's. in press). Insofar while participatory operations are put into practice, however , the results are unclear at best. Although participatory procedures have the potential to improve governance (Van den Hove 2000), there are numerous serious challenges.

The inclusion of a wide range of stakeholders inside the policy-making procedure is usually expensive and time-consuming. It therefore may well delay the urgently needed adoption of policy measures such as safety measures to get species which might be on the brink of annihilation (Wurzel 2008, 274). In addition, the democratic quality from the consultation process involving community stakeholders is usually questionable. The consultation method has to do with bargaining rather than arguing. It is catagorized severely in short supply of the requirements of inclusiveness, because the fortune of nature and biodiversity is actually placed in the hands of that 10 or 20% of the inhabitants who eventually live in the countryside. Excessive stress in interactive plan will cause politicians and policymakers to be kept hostage to local passions at the expense of wider interests, especially the interests of future ages in a healthier and beautiful natural environment (Dubbink 2008).

Aside from a democratic deficit, therefore the critics claim, increased involvement can lead to critical output insufficiencies. The shift from a top-d...

... a. Yet , because of serious criticism of the designation method by local authorities, foresters, and water managing institutions, the ultimate national list, prepared to get submission towards the European Commission, was decreased to about 50 % of their original size (Chmielewski & Krogulec 2008).

Bulgaria, which will together with Romania joined the EU in January 2007, is yet another case in point. Here, Composizione 2000 triggered fierce protests from people that feared that economic progress would be frustrated in areas where lack of employment and low income were raising. They took to the street while using slogan: "Natura 2000 away of Getaway. " Reacting to the pressure from landowners and local developers, the government considerably reduced the proposed Composizione 2000 areas to almost half of the most significant sites discovered by scientists, which acquired included practically the entire Black Sea seacoast.

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