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Enviromental Impact Evaluation Of New Kuantan International Airport Engineering Essay

This environmental impact examination (EIA) has been made by Gemilang Alam Sekitar (M) Sdn. Bhd. as appointed consultant by the federal government to evaluate a whole environmental impact examination on New Kuantan International Airport (KIA) in Kuantan, Pahang. This report is prepared for the authorities review, accounting Malaysia Federal guidelines and legislation under Environmental Quality Action 1974 - Function 127. This survey has been produced securely based on:

Environment Impact Analysis (EIA)

Field visits to the Task site, and,

Few conversations with State and related Federal government officers with environmental obligations.

To carry out EIA process, some methods are being used including;

Meetings and discussions with National and State officials,

Visit to the Project site and adjoining areas,

Discussions with residents near the Task site,

Surround noise, quality of air and surface drinking water quality,

Sampling and testing the sample used the field and in the lab, and,

Gathering the methods with professional's knowledge, competence and experiences.

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

The rapid financial development and tourism industry in Kuantan, Pahang has resulted in a growing demand for air vehicles. The administrative centre city of Pahang, Kuantan occupied with an increase of than a one half million of individuals, approximately 607, 778 people. This 9th most significant city in Malaysia has 57% Malays, 32% Chinese language, 4% Indian and 7% other races. Kuantan is currently served by air mainly by Sultan Ahmad Shah Air-port but it is more on armed forces purposes. Public passenger and cargo launching are forget about available. The nearest international airport for general population air travelling can be reached from Sultan Mahmud Air port in Kuala Terengganu, about 207km or 4 hours journey on highway. A small air port in Kerteh which called Kerteh Airport terminal is located 115km from Kuantan city centre and it requires almost two time to reach the tiny airport. Kerteh Air-port operations are limited to oil-rig labours whose doing work for anchor national petroleum company, PETRONAS.

This proposed Project is to create and construct a new international airport for Kuantan to be able to re-operate the general public traveler and cargo air travelling in the city, thus rejuvenate and stimulate the travel and leisure industry into more impressive range. Site location studies were conducted in 2005 by appointed advisor, Megah Hijau (M) Sdn. Bhd. and the subject to run the EIA process was determined. In 2007, about 250 hectares (ha) of land was purchased by Federal Government of Malaysia to construct the KIA. Predicated on Megah Hijau's research, site clearing was completed in 2008 by local contractor within 6 months. The clearing process was under deal with the Team of Civil Aviation Malaysia.

The KIA development phase at first will meet up with the forecasting air traffic demand for the entire year 2010. This will likely employ large turboprop aeroplanes with relevant range for numerous areas locally and internationally. The development process consumes the improvement of garden soil and earthworks preliminarily to construct a runaway with 4000m length and 50m width. The Project also will adopt the development of:

Passenger and cargo terminal

Access road and car park

Control tower

Rescue building

Airport staff residences

Waste water management system

Electricity generator product and Energy farm

Airport navigational help and safe practices equipments

ENVIRONMENT DESCRIPTION ON THE PROJECT SITE

Physical Resources and Environment

Project Location

The Task location is in flat areas with small hillsides, which typically the topography of Kuantan located near the Titiwangsa range. Elevation on the project site is range between 20 and 53m above the mean sea level. The ground of the Job site consists of muddy clay with less organic and natural material. The health of the soil sufficiently fit certain requirements of building the embankment. The embankment can be used to flat the landscape areas. Fortunately, the Task site is clear of earthquake and soil erosion risk.

The weather at the Project site is warm and moist, typical with the climate of Peninsular Malaysia which located closeness to the equator. Rain falls throughout the year, with heavy rain normally in November to March credited to northeast monsoon.

The average every month rainfall in Kuantan is 250 mm. Meanwhile, the monthly temps throughout the day is between 29C - 35C, and 26C - 29C during the night. Kuantan average every month wind velocity is 4km/hour directed to the Southwest, hence there is no typhoon recorded so far.

The EIA performed the monitoring test for the quality of air and noise in three locations, where two on the Project site and one in the Kuantan city centre. The email address details are shown in the stand below.

Parameter

Unit

Sample Point

1

2

3

Wind direction

From

SW

`SW

SW

Wind speed

m/s

4

3

7

Temperature

C

31

33

35

Humidity

%

89

91

83

Atmospheric Pressure

cmHg

71

71

71

Suspended Particulate Matter

Ојg/m3

34

32

36

Oxide Nitrogen (NO2)

Ојg/m3

5

6

14

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

Ојg/m3

1

1

5

Carbon Monoxide (CO)

ppm

0. 101

0. 112

0. 173

Hydrocarbon

ppm

0. 020

0. 017

0. 031

Noise

dBA

34-41

36-43

45-67

Air Quality Standard is based on Recommended Malaysian QUALITY OF AIR Guidelines (RMAQG) Team of Environment, Malaysia.

Sample point 1 and 2 are extracted from two different locations at the Job site, whereas the 3rd point is located in the Kuantan city centre. We are able to see the different in the test outcomes at different location. The quality of air in each location was better than the recommend countrywide standard. The volume of hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide were higher in the town centre compare to the other sample points.

On the Job site and environment, there is no river, stream, or lake identified. So, you will see no impact of normal water pollution in the area. Because of this, the grade of the groundwater undoubted with minimal treatment and may be used to supply drinking water to the Project facilities somewhat than taking the normal water straight from nearest river which may considerably higher in cost.

Ecological Resources

The flora and fauna on the Task site are generally within most Peninsular forest. So, they are not endangered or safeguarded species. Animals like snakes, outdoors boars, and typical local birds will be the group of creature inhabit in the Task site.

The flora in the website is composed mainly with brushes and grasslands without canopy trees. There site currently has no indication of logging activity as the trees available are not ideal to log. Furthermore, there is no agricultural activity on the Project site with more arable land available.

Economic and Man Development

The KIA project site is situated in an area with low population amount. No indigenous human population found in the region. You will find about 500 young families residing in two villages, Kampung Melayu dan Kampung Cina, within a variety of 10-15 kilometres from the Task site. These house areas are dwelling by migrants within previous twenty years. They result from different places in the Peninsular Malaysia.

Moreover, there is absolutely no mineral resources on the site, so that, there is no mining industry. The residents in the area are mostly employed in the city as authorities servants, self-working, small entrepreneur and housewife. You will find mixture income backgrounds of the dwellers in the region. Overall, the income level in the region is at middle range.

Kuantan, as with the others of major capital city in Malaysia, is the one of the primary focus of the Federal Government to develop the town with more cost-effective value. Federal Government in the East Coastline Economic Region (ECER) has recognized the tourism industry probable in Kuantan. So, the government take this opportunity through the plan to coordinate a proper approach to improve Kuantan attraction by constructing KIA.

Quality of Life Values

On the website, there are no historical, wildernesses, archaeological, social or safeguarded resources, or in proximity to the website. General population facilities such as school, health care centre, power series, telephone line, aren't located in the Job site area or within 8km from the website. A lot of the facilities can be found near the residential areas. The main highways to be gain access to are East Shoreline Highway and basic access street provided by the regulators near the neighbourhood.

ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES

In this section, we will disclose the actual impact of the KIA development project on the encompassing environment and suggest mitigation options. The report will cover the potential effects associated with design, location, development and operation. Briefly, the impacts are summed in the next desk. Other additional effect on environment will be discussed out of the table.

Loss of Ecological, Cultural, or Other Resources

Action Affecting Environmental

Resources and Values

Possible Effects on the

Environment

Significance of Possible Effects

Not significant

Significant

Low

Medium

Impact of KIA Design

Flooding

Downstream flooding, erosion

X

Slope erosion

Siltation of caught drinking water affecting surface drinking water quality

X

Human and petroleum misuse disposal

Pollution of surface and groundwater

X

The development of KIA will generate a solid surface in the area its covers. There will be less significant impact on slope erosion and flooding or adobe flash flooding. An effective design of the airport basic and cutting-edge development technology will lessen adverse effect on the drainage system.

The embankment that will be built at the runway remove probably mitigates slope erosion result. Wastewater treatment herb will be place at the website project to lessen the effect of bacterias and turbidity from individuals waste. KIA will use recent human waste products treatment technology with environment friendly processes.

It is undeniable that there will be fuel spilling happening during the plane refuelling. So that it is vital to trap and treat these wastes before the wastes enter the key drainage system. To mitigate the impact, KIA's drainage system will be designed properly to route the waste in to the subsurface drains which contain trapping system to filter out the petroleum waste. Then, the petroleum waste streams to the wastewater treatment solution to break the hydrocarbon bonds which it initiated.

Action Affecting Environmental

Resources and Values

Possible Results on the

Environment

Significance of Possible Effects

Not significant

Significant

Low

Medium

Impact of KIA Location

Disruption of groundwater

Changes in hydrologic regime

Pollution by spoils leach ate

impairment of profits

impairment of

drinking drinking water source

irrigation usage

X

X

X

Resettlement

Disruption of houses

X

Changes in near by land values

Increases land prices surrounding the KIA and basic area

X

Environmental aesthetics

degradation

environmental aesthetics ideals decrease

X

Loss of archaeological, ethnic, or

historical sites

Loss of significant sites

X

The groundwater won't disrupt by the task because the level of the groundwater is 10-12 metres below the surface degree of the KIA's development site. Therefore the Project wouldn't normally impair normal water resources and irrigation usage.

The nearest home area located about 10km outside the Task site and sufficiently far from international airport operation. So, there is no necessary to relocate they settlement.

It will be modest appreciation of land value, particularly the land that closest to the Project site and main street access, East Coastline Highway and basic highway usage of the Job location. This impact can be mitigated by the strict legislation by the neighborhood federal government who may control the development job off the website. Planning, zoning and appropriate permits could help avoiding unnecessary development.

Action Affecting Environmental

Resources and Values

Possible Effects on the

Environment

Significance of Possible Effects

Not significant

Significant

Low

Medium

Impact during KIA Construction

Sediment runoff

Damage to aquatic ecology and/or flooding problems

X

Workers safety

Hazards to workers'health and safety

X

Endemic communicable disease hazards

Damage to workers'health

X

Malarial disease hazards

Damage to workers'health

X

Slum creation hazards

Slums building in construction property after completion

X

Cultural dissimilarities hazards

Social disruption

X

Escape of hazardous materials

Damage to health of local residents

X

Escape of air pollutants and dust

Damage to health and nuisance

X

Noise and vibrations

Damage to health and nuisance

X

Quarrying/blasting

Blasting hazards

Failure to revive quarry site

Hazards to protection of workers and local residents

Loss of environmental looks and land values

X

X

Disruption of nearby utilities

Disruption to services

X

Blocking of traffic/access to the KIA

Disruption of through highway traffic

X

During the Project construction, there are expected to subject minimal impacts, so long as the construction will adopt environmentally friendly and high technology design and development practises and types of procedures. A contractual promise between the companies and the local federal will be signed before the works start, as this agreement would be the provision to mitigate environmental effects. Special conditions and specs will be detailed in the contract to operate a vehicle the construction tasks undertakings in a good manner with no unduly effect to the natural environment.

The impact of sedimentation and siltation will be mitigated by structuring silt obstacles and sediment ponds. These short-term retention ponds virtually beneficial to produce topsoil for agricultural purposes because the topsoil is enriches with organic matter.

There will be no quarrying activity near the site or on the website. The noise and vibration from the engineering works will be little as no piling and drilling activities expected. Since the personal areas are 10km away from the Task site, it is expected that particles from the primary construction operations and the sound from the equipment will not influence the villagers prominently. The local government regulated that there surely is no construction operation allow at night, as part of the mitigation actions.

Worker security is one of the key factor should be outlined by the designers. The workers will be covered by a deal and insurance policy. Good building practise suggestions must be complied to put into practice safe site undertakings. Evidently, there is no risk from aircrafts onto the workers as KIA is a fresh airport project. Workers health will be supervised by the -panel health care centres appointed by the builder companies.

To mitigate traffic congestion in main gain access to roads, contractors will build a temporary street especially for the pickup trucks and heavy gadgets to gain access to easily into the Project site. Also there is absolutely no disruption of utilities expected because the Task will be powered by special generator.

Action Affecting Environmental

Resources and Value

Possible Results on the

Environment

Significance of Possible Effects

Not significant

Significant

Low

Medium

Impact during KIA Operation

Noise disturbance

Hazard or nuisance to near by residents

X

Vibration disturbance

Damage to nearby residents

X

Water pollution

Damage to surface and groundwater quality

X

Air pollution

Hazard or nuisance to nearby

residents/buildings

X

Erosion from recently completed earthworks

Risks to aquatic ecology or flooding

X

Pollution from normal

highway runoff

Risks to aquatic ecology

X

Highway spills of hazardous materials

Risks to residents and passerby

X

Escape of sanitary wastes

Health risks to passengers or near by residents

X

Congestion at international airport access or leave points

Loss of time/air pollution

X

Hazards to traffic on highways near KIA from proximity to planes getting/taking off

Highway accidents

X

As the KIA manages, there will be minimal aftereffect of noise and vibration to personal area nearest to the international airport. Through the EIA study, the 10km away residents are just subject to 36-43 decibels from daily vehicle traffics. The noise analysis has been executed using approved methods by the International Civil Aviation Business with the help by Office of Civil Aviation of Malaysia. The research turned out that the plane noise would not bring significant impact to the domestic area as anticipated earlier.

The sanitary wastes will be cured in the wastewater treatment solution. Therefore, there is no issue of polluted water about the Task site. Furthermore, Malaysia has enough experience in controlling sewage treatment operation and maintenance in KIA as the seed system adopted and increased Kuala Lumpur AIRPORT TERMINAL (KLIA) wastewater management system. The machine meets the globe Health Firm (WHO) standards within the Project requirements.

As explained prior, there is minimal air pollution surrounding the KIA site. The lack of industry around the website area decreases the impact. Carbon emission from the run aircrafts will not massively alter the condition.

It is expected that during the KIA operation, the quality of life of the nearest inhabitants to be much better compare to existing life. The construction of KIA more-or-less will donate to the growth in the socioeconomic to the region near to the KIA as well as city of Kuantan and other neighbouring districts, Pekan and Rompin. In addition, the infrastructure and general public facilities indisputably will be increased because of the operation of KIA.

COST Profit ANALYSES

Items

Description

Internal Rates of Return

Estimated economical rate of go back is 15%.

Financial inside rate of go back is 4. 5%. A rise in financial rate is due to increase in air-port rates and charges.

Economic Benefits

Increase in world wide web visitor expenditure

Savings travel time

Value to foregone travellers and cargo traffic

Savings cost in home aviation procedure.

Reduce risks to aircrews and passengers.

Generate employments

Increase property ideals at nearest land.

Project Costs

Civil works

Equipment and its installation works

Consultation costs

Supervision costs

Environmental conserving costs

Monitoring and Reporting Costs

Monitoring environmental effects costs

Consultant and Guidance costs

Maintenance costs

Nonquantified Environmental Impacts

Noise pollution

Air pollution

Surface and groundwater pollution

Monitoring Program

The influences on environment of the suggested KIA Project are expected to be less value. However, a sensitive monitoring program is required to ensure the environments aren't arbitrarily harmed by the irresponsible staff.

Monitoring program started as soon as the Project starts. Monitoring during the construction process mostly highlighted on controlling the sedimentation and ground erosion. Drinking water quality, worker protection and traffic smoothness also will be covered. Following the project finished, believed 4 years, monitoring program will be prolonged during the operational phase. Water circulation and quality, sound and vibration and air quality will be examined on regular monthly basis.

Department of Civil Aviation and Malaysia International airports Holdings Berhad are the bodies that accountable to screen the engineering process so the Project construction progress well. Department of Environment and local specialists are in charge to monitor polices on environmental issues. The bodies must ensure that the contractors carry out necessary handles and mitigation methods as written and authorized in the contracts. Monthly progress studies on environmental monitoring process will be prepared by the appointed consultant, Gemilang Alam Sekitar (M) Sdn. Bhd. the records will be handed to the government bodies for revision.

CONCLUSION

From the EIA process, the KIA construction won't adversely affect the surroundings of the Project site, significantly. The utilization of approved structure techniques will mitigate the impact of ground erosion, in reality improved the land condition. Small negative environment influences can be prevented by cutting-edge technologies, good management on the Project site and appropriate regulations.

Monitoring program is essential to review the building works from the pre-construction until the post-construction phases. To be able to ensure the monitoring program succeeded, consultants and government bodies must play their role well, so that, you will see no more injury to the environment.

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