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Enhancing Security Process And Systems In Hotel Industy Tourism Essay


Since its inception hotels have provided travellers with a place to avoid home and which offers them amenities that would ensure their comfort and security. The hotel industry core value is to provide quality service with their visitor, and with it also comes the responsibility of being responsible for their security while under their care. The security of the hotel's visitor and the way the hotel management and personnel take the steps to ensure this spells the success or failure of any establishment. A lax security means exposing the visitor to a different number of risks and would also mirror badly on the hotel's reputation. Therefore security is something the hotel industry should make investments after to ensure its success, because the end result is - the question of if a visitor will choose to come back to a hotel will depend solely about how safe and sound they feel while staying in a hotel.

However this basic premise is not that easy to put in practice. While different institutions have endeavoured to put in place security procedures that could ensure the security of its friends such as making sure confidentiality of its guests personal data, using monitoring equipment and so on; the fact is technological advancements have also been used by some unlawful elements to circumvent security measures because of their own unscrupulous motives. Cases of personal information theft using information stored in a hotel guest's key cards, and the recent risk of terrorist episodes are however, many of the security issues that the hotel industry must cope with. This paper looks for to review the security measures being put in place by the hotel industry and exactly how it relates to their operational effectiveness. Specifically this research study shall try to achieve the next:

To identify the types of breaches in hotel's security system;

To identify the security system and other safe practices regulations of three hotels;

To determine tips that will improve and additional develop the security system of the hotel industry.

The method that'll be used in this research newspaper is a research study of the security measures of three hotels: the Hotel Marriott, the Intercontinental Hotels Group, and the Shangrila Hotel. The three hotels were chosen in this study because they are regarded as among the leaders in the hotel industry; they have got confronted or are at risk of facing serious concerns related to security (the Marriot Hotel was attacked by terrorist bombers in the past); and they're also leaders in the field of hotel security. The examination that will be used in this research study will be based on the evaluation newspaper by Alan Orlob the Vice-President of Corporate Security for the Marriott International, the converse shipped by David Bradley Bonnel who is the Director of Global Security for the Intercontinental Hotels Group, and the Security protocol granted by Shangrila Jakarta. This research newspaper shall also review related literature regarding the hotel industry its principles and principles in relation to guaranteeing security, and related internet options relating to hotel security strategies and measures.

Literature Review

According to Capparella J. (2002), the term hotel is derived from the 14th Latin phrase hoste signifying person or thing that provides something for a visitor, usually lodging, and sometimes food. The concept of a hotel was to provide some sort of short-term lodging accommodations for transients. Hotels assorted little in historic times when they were first referred to as simply being a boarding house providing a location to rest and little or nothing more. Throughout the early decades (1 AD frontward) the evolution of the hotel was also nominal. In the centre ages the hotel started to change.

European and British inns became the variants of the hotel through the dark ages. More specific functions and amenities were contained in the inn's services. Among these amenities are the private rooms, general public kitchens and open public gathering rooms. Some inns have also made small taverns which were aimed to bring comfort and capability of the traveller. During this time period, the hotel versions were no longer treated and viewed as merely a location to spend the night. This development in the middle ages provided the transition of the hotel notion which will down the road become part of the hospitality industry.

As the said development surfaced during the middle ages, the latter part of the period provided another significant advancement in the inns. Laws, regulations pertaining to the businesses of the hotel as well as the related responsibility of the dog owner were imposed. A French legislations through the 1300s dictates that any lost property of a client must be changed by the landlord. A hundred years transferred when another French legislation mandates the registration of each hotel to their state. The English for this period in addition has formed another set of guidelines and restrictions that discusses at length the comfort and cleanliness provided by the hotel to their friends. The said guidelines eventually offered as the Western standard for hotels. However, regardless of these advancements, lots of hotels and inns remain lacking on actions involving the privacy and security of guests. Rooms that are considered private have no locks and the guests face an unsecured communal setting.

"Inside the 16th century, France founded culinary requirements for hotels that offered eating services which were based on a rating system geared toward quality, campaign, and competition. Within the next century, this technique of ranking a hotel was officially established throughout Europe. Because of the 1700's, specifically in France, is when the hotel industry or hospitality business officially established itself. Lodging also changed into a mixed-use business that now offered a variety of services and amenities. The criteria for quality, comfort, value, and service were now synonymous with any place of lodging adding to its definition of being a temporary destination to spend the night time. " (Caparella, 2002)

In America the idea of the hotel as we know it was further developed with the looks of bigger hotels during the 1800's. These hotels differentiated themselves from other lodging types by their size and by offering of luxurious amenities. Most of these hotels were in large towns and over the major travel routes of stagecoaches, and later the railways. " (Ibid, 2002)

With the duration of time the core aspects of the assistance provided by the hotel industry was already well established with good service and security as one of the key concerns.

Based on common legislation hotel patrons commonly believe that hotels have created a comparatively safe environment, and that the, "common legislations concept of the innkeepers doctrine addresses the hotelier's role in retaining a safe and secure environment by requiring the hotelier for taking all reasonable methods to give a secure environment for friends and to guard guests' property". (Feickert, et. al. 2006)

The idea of "reasonable safety" was further advanced by the courts upon which the levels of liability of hotel owners were increased. The small and 3rd party hotels were also likewise held liable to the benchmarks imposed on large and popular hotels this provides you with emphasis on the problem of security on the list of industry regardless of the size and acceptance of the establishment. The said impression of the innkeepers doctrine's common rules aims to focus on the role of the hotelier in sustaining a safe environment through the adaption of most logical measures to ensure a secure environment to enjoy by the friends. The idea of "reasonable coverage" was advanced by the courtroom and is rolling out into increasing degrees of liability of hotels.

To date, the problem of security within the hotel industry remains an initial concern among hoteliers. The said concern remains most important in the thoughts of both the friends and hotel managers especially in light of the turmoil of world occasions. Such concerns of professionals often dwell on the most appropriate security measures to hotel friends which will immediately be looked at as a strategy that will ensure security and safety. With these concerns, hotels must also ensure that providing a welcoming environment remains their highest priority.

The hotel friends' needs indicate their view on the hotel industry. While a traveller searches for experience in his travels in each area and country, he still needs to rest and relax within the confines of his accommodation. While he needs to experience thrills out of exploring places, he'd need to have usage of recreational facilities of the hotel like the use of the pool and the assistance in the hotel club. The guest anticipates the best treatment from the employees and desires characteristics such as honesty and esteem for privacy to be regarded. Being on any occasion, the guest will not expect neither hassles nor inconveniences to hamper his trip. Adapting this perspective of the hotel visitor, hotels have created several quick and effective steps to ensure the security of the guest without invading the privacy.

Hotels have also become the ideal aim for for terrorists since 2004, the post-9/11 period. Militants can suppose the same type of strategies to provide a statement contrary to the Western imperialism. Hotels stay one of the better goals for such terroristic acts since Traditional western businessmen, authorities officials, diplomats and cleverness officers frequent the hotels. Such place supplies the ideal arena for inflicting terror through international advertising without penetrating the security ranks of Embassies.

The shift towards the targeting hotels was traced to the episodes against hotels in a number of parts of the globe i. e. Pakistan, Iraq, Jordan, India, Afghanistan, and Egypt. Attacks instigated in Amman, Mumbai, Jakarta and Sharm el-Sheikh were coordinated to hit more than one hotel.

Addressing this matter, hotels have adapted measures that will develop security within hotels. The hotel security was perceived to have advanced since 2004. Such security mechanisms in a number of hotel have helped preserved lives including the Marriott Hotel in Islamabad. The hotel industry's vulnerability to attacks is brought on however by the tactical mother nature of hotels.

In addressing security issues, the typical notion of basic manages and security manages is the fact that the installation of obtrusive and indiscrete security mechanisms is only going to generate more matter from the guests instead of developing a safe and secured environment. Other hoteliers often see security measures as unneeded and merely increase the hotel bills. Nevertheless, the security department and its manager's role increased throughout the years. A primary concern of hotel owners is the merging of security actions in the operations of the hotel. Rather than isolating the security department from others, security must be included within the operating steps of the hotel. Security solution served within the hotel security workout particularly different types of technology such as electronic card-locking system, camera and communication system, and a closed circuit television set. Additional security features can include safe-deposit bins, guest-door locks as well as the regular life-safety systems i. e. sprinkler systems, alarms and fire extinguishers.

Hotel security features have been more and more developed in the past years. This may attributed to the increase in neighbourhood crime, scientific developments and a shift in the demographics of the hotel friends. Such is the truth of the electronic digital door locks which generates a feeling of security expected from the protection measure. Hoteliers also have taken a closer go through the needs and needs of the feminine traveller being mainly concerned over safety and security measures.

As expected, hotel managers may face problems as the press continuously focus on bringing criminal actions to the limelight specifically since the news of the 9/11 harm have evolved the perceptions on travelling and basic safety.

Body of the analysis and Research Results

Case Study #1 1: The Marriot Hotel Experience

On July 17, 2003 the JW Marriot and the Ritz Carlton in the upscale region of Jakarta, Indonesia were attacked by two suicide bombers. The bomb blast killed nine people and hurt about 52 individuals. Based on the investigation following disorders it was found out that the suspects inspected into the hotel as friends, and that the explosives they used were smuggled in to the hotel in their luggage which was not checked because it was too large and needed to be located in a trolley. The hotel personnel did not observed anything because they assumed that hotel friends cannot be terrorists. On Sept 20, 2008 another Marriott hotel was attacked in Islamabad, Pakistan. A dump pickup truck which was filled up with explosives was detonated in front of the hotel eradicating 54 folks and injuring 266 individuals.

Based on the record that the Vice-President for Corporate Security Alan Orlob made before america Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Federal government Affairs in '09 2009, the Marriott security options helped in protecting against a much bigger casualty in both the Jakarta and Islamabad problems. In Jakarta before the attack the hotel security were on Threat Condition Red. Orlob claims that the checkpoint located at the hotel gates averted the suicide bomber from travelling a vehicle loaded with explosives straight into the lobby of the hotel. Orlob also says that as a result of alert response of the Merriott's three security staff who had been manning the checkpoints that day, helped in protecting against the driver from getting into the lobby of the Hotel.

In the Islamabad attacks a combination of any hydraulic hurdle and a drop down hurdle prevented the vehicle of the suicide bombers from getting close to the key premises of the hotel. The automobile filled up with explosives was detonated at the barrier eradicating 56 people from the 1, 500 people who were billeted at the Marriott during that day. Orlob claims that the casualties could have been larger if there have been no security procedures that were put in place. During the problems in Islamabad, Orlob state governments that the hotel experienced 196 security personnel, 60 of which were working throughout that day. In addition they experienced sixty two CCTV cameras placed on the inside and beyond the hotel and bomb sniffing puppies.

However a newspaper by security expert, John Solomon the Head of Terrorism Research, World Check (2009) suggests that in both Jakarta and Islamabad Marriot's security program has had shortcomings on two aspects. First is usually that the hotel did not have adequate options for screening visitor and personnel for possible terrorism risk. Solomon pointed out that in both Jakarta and Islamabad episodes the terrorists could actually study the area of the hotel and gather brains information by looking at in as friends. The next shortcoming relates to the failure of the hotel security and risk manager to correctly assess the possible security dangers that the hotel faces. Regarding to Solomon the problem is because of security and counterterrorism specialists' penchant for examining a security danger solely on historical habits.

The common practice of hotels is to employ these security specialists to make a risk assessment that your hotel faces. However by experiencing terrorist episodes as recurring patterns - what goes on in the foreseeable future will be the same to what is occurring in today's and what transpired in the recent past - does not grasp the fact that terrorist techniques are constantly growing and developing. The consequence of this way of thinking is that security experts fails to adopt concrete actions that are applicable to the possible dangers the problem poses.

Ironically Orlob also possessed a similar observation when, as part of a team of hotel security specialist, he frequented Mumbai, India following the terrorist attacks in 2009 2009 to the Taj Mahal, Oberoi, and Trident hotels. Orlob included these conclusions in the same Senate Committee hearing that i've mentioned above. According to Orlob the Taj Mahal hotel didn't address the next security concerns:

Before the episodes the terrorists were residing in the hotel for a number of a few months posing as friends. They were seen taking images and also have been studying the structure of the hotel;

The law enforcement who taken care of immediately the attacks were not familiar to the building structure and the plans that were out-of-date and didn't signify the renovations that has taken place;

The Taj Mahal hotel reduced their security procedures due to an incorrect intelligence record that was presented with to them;

The hotel didn't have physical security steps such as barriers, sprinkler systems and the like that could have helped to decelerate the terrorists if not deter them.

Orlob has observed through the Senate Committee statement that after the problems on the Marriott the security steps in placed have already been assessed and developed to cope with the risk of terrorists categories.

Case Study #2 2: The Intercontinental Hotels Group

The Intercontinental Hotels Group (IHG) is one of the leading international hotel chains in the world today. Presently there are about 4, 186 IHG hotels working worldwide bearing the IHG brands of InterContinental Hotels, Crowne Plaza Hotels, Trip Inn and many more which are franchised and are owned by private companies. The IHG main headquarters is based in britain and there are regional offices for the Americas and Asia Pacific region.

During this year's 2009 Mumbai terrorist episodes the Intercontinental Hotels Group were able to send out instructions to two of its hotels in the region concerning security measures they should set up. According to the Director for Global Security of IHG David Bonne, this quick response helped to protect the IHG properties from the attacks. Bonnel points out in a report dated March 11, 2009 that the IHG could actually address the danger posed by the Mumbai event because of the timely and relevant information distributed by people who are responsible for the security and counter terrorism program in their respected corporations. This association of professionals coping with corporate and business security were instrumental in providing intellect that helped to accomplish appropriate respond to the crisis, effectively deploy resources, and guaranteed the stream of information between your corporate headquarters and the hotels that were influenced by the episodes.

Bonnel areas that after 9/11 episodes the IHG is rolling out a security plan that specifically addresses the threat posed by global terrorism. This security plan is dependant on the provision mentioned in Subject IX of the 9/11 Percentage Act which has mapped out problems management as the preparedness of the private and open public sector on three aspects of operation which deals with save, restart, and restoration.

According to Bonnel the IHG crisis management system can be an integral area of the whole framework of the corporation, organizational culture, and functions of the business, and provides an effective and flexible reaction to probable and expected dangers to security. The IHG system works through different but interconnected aspects which focuses on the next: constant threat assessment; crisis action projects and business continuity ideas that are specific to the website involved; a crisis response arrange for senior executives; crisis response clubs; a network for internal communications; and an exercise program for crisis response. The IHG crisis management systems main thrust is to ensure that in the event of a danger or problems its assets and guests are safeguarded and rescued if the necessity arises, and in case of harm to the corporation's asset, the system ensures continuity in businesses and business functions.

One of the central areas of this problems management system is the development of a comprehensive counter-top terrorism program which is dependant on responding to dangers and leads accumulated from a trusted intelligence network connected with the Section of Homeland Security (DHS). This counter-top terrorism program works by assessing and then categorizing most of IHG's hotels against a account on terrorist risk. Each hotel location will also be evaluated in a local strategic threat evaluation. The complete IHG hotel's capability to resist an attack may also be comprehensively evaluated, and management will discover an action plan that would boost the hotel's security functionality. A strict monitoring of conformity to the program will also be carried out to ensure its execution and in order to truly have a constant analysis of the complete implementation process. Matching to Bonnel the IHG's counter terrorism program was made with the view of utilizing it within the construction of mandatory compliance with standards regarding operational and structural safety and security.

Case Study Number Three: The Shangri-la Hotel Jakarta

Hotel Shangri-la Jakarta is one of the hotels that are in procedure in the Southeast Asia region. The information issued by Shangri-la Jakarta claims which it has an excellent reputation when it comes to guaranteeing the safety and security of its friends and workers, and the hotel cases that many experts in security has considered it to be always a preferred base in the location in case there is emergencies. The security actions integrated by Shangri-la Hotel Jakarta are quite like the Marriot and IHG. It has a UVS or Under Vehicle Scanning system which is situated at the main gate of the hotel; it offers EVDs or Explosive Vapour Detectors; it utilizes bomb sniffing pups which have been qualified by the Australian POLICE and Working Service Dog Handler Association; its X-ray machines for luggage scanning are advanced; around 330 CCTV cameras are installed in the hotel; there remain 200 highly trained security staff; there are satellite telephones in the event normal phone marketing communications are take off; and the hotel also has a helipad on its rooftop. The Shangri-la Jakarta also boasts of a thorough Civil Disruption Plan made to dwelling address different possible situations that may occur in its country of operation.

Like the Marriott and IHG the Shangri-la Hotel Jakarta hires security experts that operates as consultants to the hotel. Reliable cleverness is provided for by these security consultants. The Shangri-la hotel's team of local and international experts in security helps in keeping the hotel abreast to the security situation in Jakarta which grows its readiness and capacity to respond to any potential menace to its guest's security and safety. The chart below shows the comparative data of the three hotels predicated on the reference materials used:

Hotel Marriot


Shangri-la Hotel, Jakarta

Secondary 1" deadbolt lock

Smoke detectors and fire sprinkler systems

CCTV cameras

Explosive Vapour Detectors

X-ray machines

CCTV Cameras

X-ray machines

Smoke detectors and fire sprinkler systems

Other security options possibly use however, not identified in reference material used by researcher.

UVS (Under Vehicle Scanning) system

EVDs (Explosive Vapour Detectors)

X-ray machines

CCTV cameras

Satellite telephones

Highly trained security personnel

Bomb sniffing dogs

Expert Consultant

Highly trained security personnel

Bomb sniffing dogs

Expert Consultant

Highly trained security personnel

Bomb sniffing dogs

Expert Consultant

Viewports in every guestroom doors

interior corridor access only

access control on all guest exterior access doors

Viewports in every guestroom doors

bollards and barriers

Same although not mentioned expressly in the reference used by the researcher.

Same although not mentioned expressly in the reference employed by the researcher.

Roof helipad

Security Suggestions and Crisis Plans

Cooperation with International Security specialists groups and Government Businesses concerned

Security Recommendations and Crisis Plans

Cooperation with International Security specialists communities and Government Firms concerned

Security Guidelines and Crisis Plans

Cooperation with International Security specialists groupings and Government Organizations concerned


The case study of the security methods being implemented by the Marriott, IHG, and Shangri-la shows certain similarities in terms of the gear used, personnel involved, physical buildings built, and development of a comprehensive security and crisis management plan. All three has appointed security experts to provide in depth intelligence reports also to conduct and develop a turmoil and threat assessment in order to build up the hotel's preparedness when such dangers will occur. It is also clear that security programs are immediately related to the hotel's image and reputation, & most security plans is actually part of the hotel's determination to its guests to ensure that their peace of mind and security are considered cared of while under their health care.

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