Posted at 11.17.2018
Romanticism as a tendency in artwork and books of England surfaced in the 90th of XVIII century. Romanticism in Great britain took shape sooner than in other EUROPEAN countries, it had its stunning specificity and individualism. Its most glowing staff were William Blake, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Robert Southey, Thomas Moore, George Gordon Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Walter Scott, John Keats and others, who have left a rich history in the literature of Great britain and added to the entire world literature.
Romanticism is one of the most controversial tendencies in European books, in the literature Romanticism is mostly recognized not only as a formal literary tendency, but as a certain school of thought, which is through this beliefs that we make an effort to specify Romanticism.
One of the features of Romanticism in England was its impressive lyric poetry, especially lyric poetry, in which the personal information of the poet was brightly portrayed in whatever he wrote. English poets framed their observations and views in parables, fantastic visions, cosmic symbolism. Sublime things and feelings were grasped by them not only as something exclusive, but that may be present in the simplest things, in everyday activities.
One of the characteristics of romantic literature was a special focus on the spiritual world of man, but, as opposed to the sentimental literature, Romantics were interested not in an normal man, but "the exceptional man in the exceptional circumstances". Intimate hero is experiencing violent thoughts, is trying for excellence, dreams of an ideal. Romantic hero enjoys and sometimes idealizes the center Age groups time, "pristine nature", in powerful varieties of which he perceives reflection of his strong and conflicting feelings.
When characterizing the relation of passionate writers and poets to the planet, it is important to point aspiration to the perfect, human being impulses and emotions, the belief that not logic and knowledge but intuition and creativeness could disclose all the mysteries of life. Nonetheless it is aspiration to the ideal, sometimes illusory or unattainable, that business lead to rejection of everyday life which did not meet that ideal. Therefore, the passionate heroes experienced an "internal duality", required to reside in two disparate worlds of the perfect and reality, sometimes to arrive protest not only resistant to the bone of reality, but also resistant to the divine world order. Here arrived the so-called "romantic irony" of a man in relation to an established simple fact, that the average man took very seriously. In general, the idea is often coupled with irony, that is the peculiarity of British literature in any way stages of its development.
English Romantics were especially interested in social problems, regarding the modern bourgeois modern culture they opposed the old, pre-bourgeois relations, they glorified mother nature and simple, natural feelings. Bright agent of English Romanticism is Byron, who, regarding to critics, "clothed in a boring hopeless romanticism and selfishness. " His works are full of pathos of struggle and protest against today's world, glorifying freedom and individualism.
Understanding of aspect and its own image in the works of the Romantics
In the past due XVIII - early XIX century the understanding of characteristics has changed. First of all, it was associated with changes in life school of thought and world view of romantics, who then described all the phenomena from another perspective, not the same as the medieval and enlightenment views. The change in the "philosophy of the world nature" and in understanding of nature had effects on the romantic image of the scenery: Romantics view the world heart as a simple principle of character, as "weak, vacillating, the least comprehensible & most incomprehensible part of nature". With this knowledge of characteristics, the image of character and landscape made an appearance as dual: the nature itself and also the spirit that packed it and "governed" it. Some critics dispute that the difference of the charming interpretation of the nature was in the actual fact that romanticism "tried to carry balance of the world of pure ideas with the world of tangible and visible things, eradicating their opposition". (Abrams, 1975)
These questions are very important, because the nature of affectionate poetry has saved not only the cosmetic value of creative appearance of its beliefs, but and yes it reflected a profound ideas and experiences, great human feelings.
It is important to stress the actual fact that regarding to Romantics, aspect in general and everything its parts have specific top features of the human heart. Though it's important to say that such personalization and conception of nature as subordinate to the "world nature" is very important peculiarity of romantic literature, since it reflects the situation of man's romantic relationship to the earth.
Thus, the meaning of "nature" in the XVIII and XIX ages was totally different. What's the something else, something new that distinguishes an enchanting view of nature from its premises? Scientific books emphasizes such characteristics of views and behaviour towards nature in affectionate works:
the profound romanticism subjectivity, the subjectivity of character, precise, individual frame of mind to the content of aspect;
projection of ambiance of the article writer on nature and vice versa;
the id of the delicate subject with nature;
the animation of dynamics by subjective thoughts of the poet;
passionate romance of man to characteristics. (Moore J, 2010)
Subjectivity of dynamics is a broader theory than the organic view of Romantics on dynamics, as this concept unites a wide range of charming poets. In British and in German literature subjectivity of character is indicated more explicitly than other literatures.
Example of words of Byron, who very often expressed his want to nature, points to the actual fact that the subjective romance with nature is very important feature of Romanticism.
There is a pleasure in the pathless woods,
There is a rapture on the depressed shore,
There is society, where nothing intrudes,
By the profound sea, and music in its roar:
I love not man the less, but Mother nature more.
(Byron G. G. , "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage")
The main aspect in the loving view on the nature is its "subjectivity", the related relationship of the poet's disposition with the natural world. It is a subjective interpretation of character that is extensively used by Affectionate poets, and such features as variety of moral epithets, passion, and connection of objects with personal - they are the most apparent examples of this poetic temperament. "Nature knows, loves, suffers and dreams, just like a man, and together with the man". (Moore, 2010)
Thus, the Romanticism is characterized by a sense of unity between man and dynamics, but this is not always indicated in the pantheistic forms, and could be associated with different ideological positions. In addition, this unity can action in the forms of dualistic divide, when nature embodies peacefulness and harmony, and is also against sufferings and disharmony of human relationship. Passionate experience of relationship between your hero and character is inherent to all romantics, though it might be shown in another way by different passionate poets. On the one side, in their writings dominate the image of scenery, which shows their seek out beauty, for picturesque images. On the other, they pay more focus on the express of the human heart and his emotions, so the image of aspect is a projection of the point out of the heart, and the poet converts from the explanations of character to description of feelings, mixing up them and displaying marriage between them. Thus, the declaration of the partnership of aspect with the inner world of man can be an important practice in works of affectionate poets. (Perkins, 1994)
It is the hour when from the boughs
The nightingale's high take note is read;
It is the hour when fans' vows
Seem sweet atlanta divorce attorneys whispered term;
And mild winds, and waters near,
Make music to the lonely ear.
Each flower the dews have softly wet,
And in the sky the actors are satisfied,
And on the influx is deeper blue,
And on the leaf a browner hue,
And in the heaven that clear obscure,
So softly dark, and darkly pure.
Which practices the drop of day,
As twilight melts under the moon away.
(Byron G. , "Parisina" (st. 1)
It is important to notice that for passionate poets aspect was a manifestation of spiritual life, where they noticed the mirror reflection of either their own heart, or the ideal life that constituted the object of their dreams. Therefore, in their works characteristics is endowed with an increase of deep so this means, than the meaning of words.
Animation, humanization of mother nature in perception, creativeness was one of the favourite motifs of poets. In contrast to the dead to population, which kills a living spirit in the quest for profit, career, power, the nature involves life, filled up with the religious life of individuals. In cases like this they usually have in mind the wild character, untouched by man, gives recovery, forgetfulness and peace. Sometimes the opposition of population and nature needed the form associated with an antithesis of town and country, and then under the type was meant idyllic countryside, dramatically different from a stressed and noisy city. In contrast to the wrong and empty population, in aspect everything is easy, genuine and harmonious.
An exemplory case of the poetic chanting of aspect were the works of lyrical poet John Keats, who wrote on the high designs of love, beauty and art skill. In his poem "Autumn" (1820) Keats travelled completely from the mythological imagery, creating an image of fall months - the time of a miserable farewell to the past before the harsh winter. Scenery in the poem is from the image of a simple man - a peasant who lives in a perpetual work.
Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,
Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;
Conspiring with him how to download and bless
With berries the vines that across the thatch-eves run;
To flex with apples the moss'd cottage-trees,
And complete all super fruit with ripeness to the main
(Keats J. "To Autumn", in The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 2005)
The contradiction between your dream and the reality the passionate poet Keats portrayed as a contradiction between the desired ideal of beauty and bourgeois prose. Keats's admiration for the beauty was not, however, fled from life, from the problems of truth. In his poetry, he proved the truth of life, the substance of fact, he poeticized the wonder that was hidden in life under the cover of some unpleasant things.
But when the melancholy fit shall land
Sudden from heaven just like a weeping cloud,
That fosters the droop-headed plants all,
And hides the green hill within an Apr shroud;
Then glut thy sorrow on the morning rose,
Or on the rainbow of the sodium sand-wave,
Or on the prosperity of globd peonies;
Or if thy mistress some abundant anger shows,
Emprison her soft palm, and let her rave,
And feed profound, deep after her peerless eyes.
(Keats J. , "Ode on Melancholy", The Norton Anthology of English Books, 2005 )
Another prominent consultant of Romantic books in England was Lord George Gordon Byron. Byron was focused on the educational ideals and appearance of classicism, but he was a romantic poet. In his work the acceptance of the traditional rigor and clarity was combined with the image of the complex and ambiguous emotions, painted in a gloomy mood, but also with irony.
The moon is up, and yet it is not night;
Sunset divides the sky with her; a sea
Of glory streams along the Alpine elevation
Of blue Friuli's mountains; Heaven is free
From clouds, but of all colours seems to be.
(Byron G. "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage", A Romaunt, Canto IV, XXVII)
In the passionate poems we start to see the strong aspire to image dazzling and sharpened contrasts, also in the image of aspect. Romantics often searched for to portray a violent character, and Byron felt liked the the presence of danger, a surprise for him was a symbol of the fantastic, though often fatal passions.
Roll on, thou profound and dark blue ocean-roll!
Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in vain;
Man marks the planet earth with ruin-his control
Stops with the shore;-upon the watery plain
The wrecks are thy deed, nor doth continue to be
(Byron G. "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage", Canto II, CLXXIX)
Aspiration to a great and admiration of the perfect beauty of the type can be found in the beautiful poems of Percy Shelley. The character of pictures of nature by Shelley organically derives from his philosophical views, based on the knowledge of the annals of beliefs from old times, from truly encyclopedic knowledge. Shelley sometimes animates the type, gives it awareness and characteristics of highest creation - he signs and symptoms a hymn to the "Spirit of Dynamics", by declaring the whole Universe as its temple. The affect of the materialist: it were ideas of Enlightenment and the Renaissance that played out a decisive role in the progression of philosophical views of Shelley.
In "Ode to the Western Blowing wind" (1819) the symbolic image of the Western Wind is the thought of renewal of life: the west wind damages everything old in its course and helps to create new. The lyrical hero-champion is one with the mighty power of the Western world Wind.
O wild Western world Wind, thou breath of Autumn's being,
Thou, from whose unseen existence the leaves dead
Are powered, like ghosts from an enchanter fleeing,
Yellow, and dark-colored, and pale, and busy red
Wild Soul, which art moving all over the place;
Destroyer and Preserver; hear, O hear!
(Shelley P. B. , "Ode To The Western Wind", I)
Shelley shows the magic electricity of the breeze magically, explaining its role as "destroyer and preserver", by powerful natural metaphors the poet expresses his ideas about the energy and great effect of the nature.
Thus, we can easily see that the Intimate poets often proved the nature as free, powerful and beautiful world that is different from the man. Especially loving poets liked to portray the sea in this sense, its boundless opportunity and majestic ability, the wind, which has unlimited power and independence, and the mountains with their grandeur and sublime beauty. In this case, the flexibility and the power of natural elements have a figurative so this means, associated with free and powerful individuals spirit.
Romanticism is seen as a a feeling of unity between man and mother nature. Consequently, the most importantly in the affectionate views of mother nature is "subjectivity", the related relationship of the poet's mood with the natural world. The loving perception of dynamics is not just individual frame of mind of the subject to the outside world, but the nature helps to express the attitude of individual to the interpersonal conditions of his presence. In the notion and analysis of the nature is expressed the relationship of the individual to the public life, to the meaning of human lifestyle.