This chapter describes the techniques of research and explains the methods used in the present study. This chapter is split into five parts: goals of the study and the study questions; information of the research types; data sampling and collection techniques; data examination of the info collected; stability, validity, and generalizability of the research methods and studies.
For the purposes of this study, I am going to classify the English terms skills and functions for guides into four main categories. The words skills and elements are comprised of hearing, speaking, reading and writing. Translation, and vocabulary in travel and leisure including grammar and some useful British expressions will be discussed and included into those four main categories.
Objectives of the Study and Research Questions
This study aims to investigate present English words needs and advantages of learning English for Vietnamese guides. This studies' data also desires to reveal a few of the problems foreign visitors face when coping with Vietnamese tour guides, and the dialect skills and functions that are useful for tour guides to help triumph over them. This research will try to answer two of the four main research questions:
2. What exactly are the English terminology needs necessary for Vietnamese guides?
3. What are the benefits for English speaking Vietnamese guides, when compared to people that have only their native language?
The design of research options for the present study was predicated on the most effective and successful way to answer both of these research questions.
Overview of Research Types and Their Characteristics
There two main types of research: qualitative research and quantative research.
Qualitative research is a research type that can be involved with the analysis of what goes on in natural configurations. The process of the research handles an inquiry and understanding based on unique methodologies within the traditions of inquiry that explores a communal or real human problem. The researcher is the key device of data collection to create a complex and alternative picture, to collect words also to analyze these details inductively, and also to report in depth views of informants. In planning a report, one works together with philosophical assumptions, possible frameworks, problems, and questions; and data collection through techniques such as interviews, observation, documents, and audio-visual materials (Cresswell, 1998). A few examples of qualitative research are: biography, which really is a study about the same individual when material is obtainable and accessible; phenomenology, which examines a trend and this is it holds for individuals; a grounded theory, which is a study to create or create a theory; an ethnography, which studies the behavior of any culture-sharing group; and a research study, which examines an instance bound in time and place and looks for contextual materials about the setting of the circumstance. Last but not least, it could be seen that qualitative research and quantitative research differ in conditions of their key ideas, goals, approaches to design, and the types of issues that research workers have. Therefore, the selection of which research strategy is appropriate in confirmed study will depend on the problem of interest, available resources, the abilities and training of the researcher, and the audience for the study (ibid).
Quantitative research is a kind of research that is concerned with an inquiry into an recognized problem, based on screening a theory composed of variables, calculating with quantities, and studying data using statistical techniques. Reichardt and Cook 1979 cited in Nunan, 1992 suggest that quantitative research is "obtrusive, controlled, generalizable, outcome driven, and assumes the living of 'facts' that are somehow exterior to and in addition to the observer or researcher". The main characteristics of quantitative research will be the following beliefs: reality is something that may be studied objectively; the researcher should remain distant and independent from what is being explored; research is value-free and is situated generally on deductive types of logic and theories; hypotheses are examined in a cause-effect order; and the study goals are to develop generalizations that contribute to theory and to enable the researcher to anticipate, describe, and understand some phenomena Bogdan and Bilken (1982 cited in Maurice et al, 1987).
There are considered to be three basic types of quantitative methods:
1. Experiments, which are characterized by random assignment of topics to experimental conditions and the utilization of experimental settings;
2. Quasi-experiments, where studies share almost all the features of experimental designs except that they require non-randomized task of things to experimental conditions; and
3. Surveys, such as cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using questionnaires or interviews for data collection with the intent of estimating the characteristics of a sizable population predicated on a smaller sample from that human population (Maurice et al, 1987).
Research may sometimes incorporate both quantitative and qualitative methodologies as will this analysis in order to obtain the reliability and trustworthiness of the research from results obtained from the questionnaire and the interviews carried out.
Type of research in this study
This study applied a qualitative methodology utilizing some quantitative techniques in a needs research for the analysis of tour guides in Vietnam. The main method of the analysis was a survey conducted to explore the utilization of British of tour guides in Vietnam to be able to analyze the present needs of using the prospective terminology in their work area. The members of the analysis were selected on a basis of convenience and supply.
A questionnaire, with of an rating scale, was used for data collection. The info was then analyzed predicated on simple reports, looking for averages and simple groupings to identify the needs and problems and discover answers to the research questions.
Sampling procedures in the present study
The participants in this study were guides who work in the areas of Central, North and South Vietnam including 50 from areas in and encircling Hue, Da Nang and Hoi An, 25 from the HCM City and adjoining area and 25 from the Hanoi region. The details of the travel businesses were found from the internet websites and from local knowledge. The method to assess the English vocabulary needs and problems of Vietnamese tour guides was a questionnaire.
Several methods were used to make the questionnaire in order to keep up its stability and validity. The benefits for the tour guides and the tourism industry were assessed from the interviews conducted. The interviews conducted were mainly limited to the local area with 20 individuals from Hue, Da Nang and Hoi An although there have been 5 interviews done in HCM City.
The Structure of the questionnaire
To create the questionnaire found in this review, I reviewed a number of clinical tests associated with the needs examination and British for Specific Purposes (ESP mentioned in the literature review Section 2), and i quickly reviewed some examples of questionnaires from similar research to find their outlines. In addition, a variety of textbooks about British for tourism were researched to find relevant information to use as content in the questionnaire. The first draft of the questionnaire was written in British and made up of the objectives of the study and the research questions. The questionnaire was found in this study to acquire information from the guides in Vietnam. The questionnaire, given to the tour guides, had five main parts: General information; general viewpoints; needs of the British language for tour guides; Problems/difficulties faced with English terminology; and viewpoints about the benefits associated with learning English for Vietnamese tour guides.
1. General Information
The general information was made up of three areas. The first asked the individuals some private information about their age, gender, education, and the amount of time that they had did the trick as a head to guide. The next section asked about the importance of English, the amount of English they had a need to use when they guide international travelers and who they use British terms with in their daily responsibilities. The past part was about their British proficiency. The participants were also asked to rank dialect skills and elements that they used regularly, and problems with English language that they had most. The words skills and elements in this questionnaire were composed of hearing, speaking, reading and writing. Translation, and vocabulary in travel and leisure including grammar plus some useful British expressions will be talked about and included into those four main categories.
2. Standard Opinions
The second part consisted of two items. Item 1 asked the individuals to point their feelings about the need of English dialect elements. They were to ranking the elements on a scale of 1 1 to 5 in their ideas:
Item 2 was about the issue of English terminology elements. The members were asked to rate their troubles of English skills again by using a rating of 1 1 to 5.
2=Not very difficult
3. Needs of the English Language for Travel Guides
The third part was about the needs of tour guides for the utilization of British skills or elements in the work. The questions covered information with various British vocabulary functions for tour guides. The questions were divided into four main domains of vocabulary skills: hearing, speaking, reading and writing. Questions about translation, pronunciation, vocabulary in tourism, sentence structure and expressions were also included. Within each skill, the questions were divided into sub items requesting about various roles and the functions for the guides. The participants had to rate those answers on the 1 to 5 scale the following:
5 = Most
4 = A lot
3 = Moderate
2 = A little
1 = Least
4. Problems and Issues Faced with British Language
For this part the questionnaire was again used, as it was partly three, to discover and confirm problems and issues experienced by the guides in the daily activities. These questions directed to indicate common issues caused by miscommunication or insufficient understanding with all the English terms. Again the members needed to rate those answers over a 1 to 5 scale as follows:
5 = Most
4 = A lot
3 = Moderate
2 = A little
1 = Least
5. The benefits associated with learning English for Vietnamese head to guides
The questionnaire ended with an exposed item, allowing the individuals to fill in either their feedback or suggestions. Some expected benefits were suggested and offered as alternatives to acknowledge or disagree with. The members were also asked to rank those benefits in order of importance to them in person and professionally. This is implemented up, where possible, with interviews requesting further clarification of the suggested benefits and those that were suggested to them in the questionnaire.
Putting ticks in bins and crossing amounts were means of answering all the elements of the questionnaire. There were yes/no answers, multiple choice questions and rated questions. The questionnaire found in the present analysis was written in English and then translated into Vietnamese to avoid any ambiguity, misinterpretation or problems for the individuals.
A pilot analysis was conducted to test the effectiveness of the questionnaire also to identify and eliminate ambiguity in the questions before it was used in the main review. Five people in different areas of the travel and leisure and hospitality industry from the local area in Hue City were the members in the pilot study, carried out at the start of March 2015. Just over one week was allocated for the collection and overview of the pilot questionnaire, but due to conflicting schedules it required just over fourteen days to have the results. The go back rate and the completed questionnaires was 100%.
In the pilot questionnaire, an item of 'others and please designate' was included at the end of each section, where members could propose any extra questions or English vocabulary expressions and functions they thought must have been asked (see Appendix 2). To administer the questionnaire, the researcher firstly passed out the covering letter to the director of the chosen people where had a need to require their authorization. The cover letter consisted of an launch of the study study and the college or university, the aim of the study, the importance of the study, general instructions and words of because of the individuals and their management. Then, the questionnaires they could complete received to the participants. This was then accompanied by arranging a time and particular date that the questionnaires could be accumulated and interviews with the individuals could be given. The individuals in the pilot research were 4 men participants and 1 female participant. The results of the survey showed that the members were worried about the value of English in their head to guide occupations. They all advised that speaking was the most important skill they needed in their careers, accompanied by being attentive. Writing, reading, vocabulary in tourism, translation, grammar and expressions were the least important. However, related to their difficulties of using English elements in their jobs, the majority of the participants found hearing caused the most issues, accompanied by speaking (including pronunciation problems). Translation, writing, grammar, words expressions and reading were all considered to have fewer problems for them. Vocabulary for Vietnamese guides was generally found to be the least problematic and the easiest to triumph over.
After the questionnaire was revised and created predicated on suggestions and advancements to the pilot review, it was presented with to, or sent to, the participants picked for the key review: 100 tour guides from different companies and individuals through the first week of April 2015. They were then delivered over the following weeks with the previous of them received in late Apr 2015. Similar steps to the pilot research were used for the assortment of data. First of all a covering letter was submitted, presenting the study, with reference to the Hue College or university College of Foreign Languages, to the managers and/or owners of the travel companies to get agreement. The go back rate within this time was 60% and any that were returned later then than Apr 2015 were overlooked of the analysis; only 50% of the were completed properly and used for the data analysis.
The research of data in the present study
The questionnaires were examined and analyzed using basic statistics. The procedures in the present study searched for specific repeated developments and used, percentages (%), averages (X), and standard deviation (S. D. ). The info was analyzed using the next statistical steps. First, the percentages were found in the evaluation of answers, regarding the general track record of members (Part I). Second, a five-point level was used to rating the degrees of necessity, difficulty, needs and problems of English language for tour guides in Vietnam (Part II, III, and IV). Third, the information about the central inclination of the results and Standard Deviation (S. D. ) exhibiting a measurement of the dispersion, presenting home elevators the magnitude to which a set of scores varies in relation to the average score. Averages were used to compute the level of need, difficulty, needs and problems of British language skills for guides in Vietnam. Fourth, ratings were weighted to ranking the needs and problems of British vocabulary elements for guides in Vietnam. A particular weight, as illustrated below, was allocated for each specific rank:
Finally, the dependability of the replies for those items, which used a five-point range was analyzed.
Reliability, Validity, and Generalizability.
Definitions of Stability, Validity, and Generalizability
Reliability is the amount to which an unbiased researcher, on inspecting one's data, would reach the same conclusions and, a replication of one's study would produce similar results. You will discover two types of dependability: internal dependability, which identifies the uniformity of the results obtained from a bit of research; and exterior reliability, which identifies the level to which unbiased research workers can reproduce a study and acquire results very much like those obtained in the original study (Nunan, 1992).
Validity is the power of a musical instrument to evaluate what it was created to measure. Analysts and experts in the field are people who decide an instrument is watching what it is set out to observe. Two techniques of building the validity of a research instrument are logic and statistical information. You will find three types of validity: face and content validity (the common sense based upon the logical hyperlink between your questions and the goals of the study); concurrent and predictive validity (the wisdom based on the amount to which an instrument can forecast an results and exactly how well a musical instrument compares with another analysis done concurrently); and build validity (the common sense based upon statistical types of procedures) (Kumar, 1996).
Generalizability is just how of drawing logical conclusion, or making an inference from certain results which clarifies some important implications of the results or relates to the study questions.
Reliability, Validity, and Generalizability in the Present Study
To check the stability of the questionnaire, I used an internal reliability check for steadiness of the results from the analysis. The questionnaire used in the pilot analysis was considered to be more than satisfactory for the intended purpose of this review.
To ensure the validity of the questionnaire, the first draft of the questionnaire was made and revised based on recommendations from the members and other folks in the field. In today's analysis, the researcher used face to face interviews about the questionnaire to find out opinions on the validity. I then built the questions in the questionnaire based on the targets of the study and the research question being asked. By looking at the validity, each question or item on the scales and the questionnaire content must have a logical hyperlink with the aims. The common sense that the questionnaire and interviews was calculating what it was supposed to, was based upon the relevant inferences the findings had to the analysis. Additionally, the validity of the questions was also inspected by the participants in the pilot research.
This review used a largely quantitative methodology with three set up needs including sampling, reliability and validity checking. Therefore, the results obtained could be generalized to the target population, the tour guides in Vietnam. This chapter has dealt with the research technique and the look of today's study. The aims of the analysis and research questions; research types; data sampling and collection strategies; data analysis of the data collected; consistency, validity, and generalizability of the research methods and results were also mentioned. The results of today's research will be shown in the following chapter.