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English As Global Terminology English Terminology Essay

The chosen subject is "English as global languages" and the question is" how English languages developed the entire world". An English language is the key languages spoken in the United Kingdom. furthermore, English languages is a dominant vocabulary and has great impact in the world. Not it is only the words is apply as second languages for example France, Germany and India however in the multimedia for example magazine, internet, tv set and news newspaper (India publication). the author David crystal point out that " British is not about structure, punctuation or even from the spelling. It is about the energy of culture, technology, military and financial" (the quotations illustrate is from youtube video recording of the show global. The foundation will be indicating in the bibliography). The dialect does have an impact in other area but an effect will need to have a "foundation".

The raison of the chosen topic

As the undergraduate project is based on British as languages studies and I specifically choose this device because it is about English. English isn't any languages however the most spoken languages. The job would be based about the past of English vocabulary and how it developed to become global language. the aim of the dissertation is to find and studies the origin of the languages. Once the readers start to see the name and the question the first question would be "English as global languages?" and speak about "that super easy to understand. It really is about people speaking the languages". Actually, it is approximately communicate the languages However, English as a worldwide language has a history, a former that nobody recognized. by writing the introduction of English language and give a proper descriptive information, new students or researcher would be acknowledge and they are in a position to use for further study.

English as global languages would be another challenge since this is a new unit that it will be examined in the first semester. The lessons will be educating by the lecture Phil Vellender. I did so the research method for business student in the last years and it is like the project (expect the number of words). However the topic was based in the accounting field and it was a difficult job to complete the coursework. Furthermore, to complete the dissertation, all documents provide by the lecture Phil from the first semester in "English as global terms" will help to achieve the target, know the choice of catalogs to be read and write relevant information.

The origin of British as global language

Definition of global languages

A global words is a vocabulary expanded around the world now it is basically recognise in all continent. For instance English and French languages (People from france is only included for example only) will be the most spoken languages in world. Furthermore, additionally it is the mother tongue of uk, Canada, new Zealand, united state, France, Belgium and Canada(some part of the region) (the red represent English languages and the blue represent French languages. countries were highlight to allocated the mother tongue of every languages). But from the e book on the fourth webpage, David Crystal reveal that mom tongue do not have to global languages. Global languages could be developed as "second languages". Second vocabulary could dominate the initial languages and can be in official languages of the country for the sack of education system, government and marketing. India is one the example, prior to the colonisation Indians only speaks Indi and even more but not european languages. During the colonisation, Britain guidelines their land and oblige the population of India to follow their legislations such even must be used at secondary school and pressure the students to speak only in English languages. Since that time India recognize and adopt English as their languages now India wide open international branch and franchise like MacDonald, Subway, HSBC loan company and jean Paul Gauthier perfumes. It demonstrates that British languages influence not only in communication but also in marketing and business.

History

English vocabulary has long histories but from the later years to modern languages. It unveils that the languages are filled with much knowledge and people very mounted on their origins. However, the annals has two different stories about the foundation the language. It really is called the internal and external record (the inner history is based from the info used the file and text message, the exterior information is based from previous written record). The first parts will description the old English, the next part is the center and the last part (not related to the topic title nonetheless it explain the results from the past) will be the modern now English.

Old English

The language started out 200 years ago, the "Celtic Briton" lived in a place which is know as the north of Great britain in the present day and called "Caer Ebruac". Later on, the roman came and called "Eboracum". Then, the terms was develop around 400 years ago when the "Anglo-Saxon" called " Eoforwic" and when the Vikings turn up, it became "Jorvik" also called York in the modern time.

Celtic

In the past, English begin with Celt dialect or Celtic. The etymology of Celtic was often consider from indo- European group (fusion of European countries and South Asia) languages in almost all of history literature but several advocate it is form Hamito-Semitic group (Afro-asiatic terminology). Before the romaine domination in the country, the words was spoken in Celtic known as welsh and Gaelic which at this time speak in Scotland and Ireland to maintain their dialect inheritance. The Celt people origination are unfamiliar but David Graddol suggest they have relocated from " La Gaule"(Gaulish) which is now France. Celtic was spokes has two band of dialect which is spoken in brytonic (British) and goidolic (Gaelic) and constantly isolated first by Latin and then by Anglo-Saxon language. Although Latin expands by Europe, Celtic language handles to remain notable and continue to be integrating in several parts as bilingual (speak two dialect). Before the Anglo-Saxon invaded the country, goidolic was constrained to Ireland. Therefore they need to speak only brytonic. Celtic was a substandard dialect compare to other terms due nevertheless they plagiarism word and most survived for exemple places(Avon, Devon, London, dover and Cornwall), latin( candelere for candle) and geographic(cumb for a comb or valley). The term "British "is from the Celtic that your origins phrase was "brytonic".

Roman

In the first century before Christ, the Romans invade Britain later became the "Roman Empire" and launched their dialect which could be the most spoken and the most recognise until the 17th century, Latin. Latin was not a terms who dominated the people but proclaim as the dialect of "higher civilisation" which signify only higher position person for example politicians and military services who require to converse Latin until it extend from spiritual to education. Latin was merging as the first "old British". During that period Latin was the most spoken terms and refer as "lingua franca" and Latin language was considering an important impact for English language even following the Anglo-Saxon conquered Britain, Latin is survive in the period of Anglo- Saxon toward the renaissance. Although Latin disappears and British is spoken in modern terminology, Latin remains the state terminology in the Catholic Chapel and serves as source in methodical and medical field.

Anglo-Saxon

Anglo-Saxon established in England following the end the Roman Empire (also called Roman Britain). the Anglo-Saxon were a people resided in the northern Germany or Denmark. Anglo-Saxon was called after the merge between your "Angles"(British), The "Saxon" and the "Jude" in the 5th century. They spoke in "old Germany" known as German today since they come from northern Germany. Before they conquered THE UK, native of England spoke in Celtic and welsh. They invaded in 500 Advertising (after death). Anglo-Saxon was ruled by King Alfred the great before Norman Conquest in 1066. Relating from David Graddol, writer of English :history, diversity and language, Alfred decline the data of Latin scheduled of the Vikings dread however, not for long as they triumph over the " house of Essex" and governed in the 9th century. With this paragraph, Celtic and German are mention despite these were unrelated. Germany should be attributing for the name of English (angles) and the first ancestor of the modern terms of "Dutch, Flemish (Dutch dialect), Frisian(west Germany language)", including British. Currently, Celtic terms became "Gaelic and welsh" language in Scotland and Ireland (indicate in Celtic words section).

The Vikings

The last influence of the English language from the old British is the Vikings. Albert C. Baugh (writer of a brief history of the English language, site 90) say the Viking were a sign up for of Germany and Denmark populace and neighbours of the Anglo-Saxon (this can be a opportunity that Vikings were pertains to the Anglo- Saxons from blood to language). these were a calm population but scheduled of greet and desire of more vitality in politic and monetary, they made a decision to invade their neighbours from the Norway to England. It really is identified as the "Vikings era" Vikings or the Scandinavian in the ancient history, harm England in "three well staged" to mark their territory. The first is the monastery in the "southern cost and east Anglia" to grab jewellery, sacred vessel and other valuable entity. The second is London where king Alfred reign prior to the invasion. Although he tried out to avoid by their attacks, he was beat. The 3rd and last territory is "east Saxon". For 25 years England was ruled by the Scandinavian.

The information above shows that the terms was created by means of migration from differing people in one place and refers as the "five linguistic affect on English".

The Midsection English

The Norman

The Norman are in fact the Vikings who made a decision to convert themselves (religion, language) once they had negotiate in the north of France (also known the Normandy which is a French place) and was governed by William the conqueror. In 1066, the Norman opt to attack Great britain by forcing his military to cross from "seine-valery sur somme" ( a French region ) to hasting. William decided to disorders as revenge. According to david howarts, the kings Edward the confessor promised his cousin William to be the next king of Great britain. However, he select Harold Godwinson as his successor rather than William. The battle was called "the fight of hasting" as a result of warfare location.

following their victory, English dialects developed further with yet another languages which is the Norman dialect, French and can become the "Anglo-Norman" changing the "old English". In this instance, English terminology was "transform" and broaden into less traditional word including the word" trust" would be designed in "faith" which really is a French phrase. David graddol says "People from france is undoubtedly having negative influence on English and it has been cast just as the role of villain" (webpage 123). Actually, English terminology was nearly changed by French vocabulary and the British vocabularies were affecting by the France.

Perhaps French language was regarded as cured and an "enemy " for British words but since People from france was introduce in Britain, both the language and the country maintain a well balanced relation in many aspect.

http://www. regia. org/hastings. htm

Howarth, David (1993), 1066: THE ENTIRE YEAR of the Conquest, New York: Barnes and Noble

The modern English

Modern English started out in the year 1500-1900 and completes the "English language history". Modern English is mention after Middle English greatly translates the middle ages length of time to "society". It started in the sixteen century, because of this in the "Renaissance" term and until renaissance looks, French continue steadily to dominate and consider as a "prestigious literary language" (important words) and Latin is still remained an important words for "scholarly work. Nonetheless, people started to be influence by the European countries culture and became alert to English language recognitions from William Shakespeare, john Skelton and Samuel Pepys by their contribution of poetry and play write for illustration "Romeo and Juliette" and loved as "great works" in today existence. David graddol (1996), cited that modern British is the most important because not only it do progress the language but also the complete "modern culture system" from the increase of the economy market, breaking the demanding condition of the catholic cathedral to the technology of printing. Also, populations living in modern English permit to realize than rather to trust in "enchanted or witchcrafts", they must imply on intellectual point of view and use their knowledge to form an argumentative thoughts and opinions specifically in politic field. English language was transform from a vernacular(mother tongue of the dialect) to standardisation (normal British).

How it developed in other country?

Which terminology was the most affect?

According from the writer, Joseph M. William, 15% Latin were consider as origins of British but it is France who had the best percentage with 41%. Germany came with 25% and other by 10%. Latin was mainly requested business for example professional context. Today Latin disappears but Latin is utilize in cathedral, in biology science and medication.

Methodologies

The next page is approximately methodologies. This part will discuss about research strategies, research methods and data collection. Research strategies, research methods and data collection will be individual because each research has a different term. By the end a final result would be include about which research is going to designed and define why it was consider.

Research strategies

A research strategy has several ways of produce a precise and coherent job. There are seven which: survey, action research, research study, ethnography, grounded theory and experimental design. Each strategies would cover the talents and weaknesses

Survey

A review is a technique can be applied in form of questionnaire and statetistic to gahter information and compares it. According from Uma sekaran (research options for business) they tend to be utilized for exploratory and descriptive research. Study is usually based in form of application form, interview by cellphone and staff questionnaires in the mag. The survey is easy and simple research strategy because data and information could be collect effortlessly and vastly from the population which is more understanding

Strengths

inexpensive research

Easily administrate location in different form ( e-mail, mobile phone, leaflet)

Able to obtain information from variety of people

Weakness

Require time to review and analyse

Most review are either return or reply

Limitation of the question

Action research

Action research is mainly focus to resolve problem separately with the collaboration of other as it is simpler to improve the problem and it is merely focus between action and "critical reflection" that form a change. Action reasearch is mostely use by large organisation and organization with the aim to progress their strategies and gain more knowledge.

Strength

Working with co-workers and share their view and ideas

Less environment control

Find more evidence even unrelated and irrelevant

Express their findings by producing models

Weakness

Time consuming

Argument between colleagues

Disagreement about findings

Case study

The third strategy is the case study. A research study is a study mainly applies to examine an event, explore an company or investigate about a person. case study is rather more descriptive than analyse a predicament. Case study is often utilising to find the cause to be able to solve the trouble. Case study have the ability to answer "most of the question" asked by collecting data, analysing information and make a summary so the researcher will comprehends the reason why it happened and they take care of to look deeper in the future to develop their research. Corresponding from ischool website, research study doesn't have to be a sole research as it could occur more often than once.

Strength

The more it is investigate, the more research made by scholar gain more knowledge from on the evidence that they had colleted

Do not need to do test study

Weakness

Student must be well prepared

Require plenty of investment

Insufficient evidence

Consider if it need to be study

Ethnography research

Ethnography is a "sociological approach" and it mainly use by the anthropologists. The role ethnography is to review the people and their behavior t by assembling multiple data collection including interview, questionnaires and observation. Ethnography is often compare to qualitative methods but ethnography cannot be (it will be explain in the following paragraph) however, minus the theories, ethnography could not be identify. Ethnography is more interest about aspect, culture and real human behaviour. In fact ethno means "to describe people" and is about are the "social world and see trough them"

Strengths

Apply other form of research for example observation and build relationships people

Understand their "natural habitat"

Establish set up a baseline for follow up research

Reveal certain resources not been identify before

Weaknesses

Researcher could impact the data collected

Consistency of resources as sometime is not reliable to the research

Require tome to study because ethnography need long-term studies

Often compare to qualitative

Grounded theory

Grounded theory was founded by Strauss in 1967. Grounded theory is a study which sometimes appears more as data method than theory method and usually compare as qualitative methods which apply volumes. The aim of the grounded theory is accumulate date and components some code rather than search research and form a hypothesis. The writers of "Basic of qualitative research: the grounded theory treatment and techniques" Strauss and Corbin talk about "the grounded theory approach is a qualitative research method that uses a systematic set of procedure to develop an inductively produced grounded theory about phenomenon". Grounded theory has three elements which can be concept, category and propositions.

Strength

Researcher can verify, refine and develop his idea from the finding

Require specific procedure for example writing meme or use the coding

Lead to analyze practise (data sampling, data analyse and theory development)

Weakness

Complex research strategy since it is difficult to identify researcher using bias

Time consuming

Inadequate information because theory is less use

Experimental design

An experimental design is a process to planning analysis to meet specific aim. Experimental design is the most careful of all the research strategy as it give explanation the reason and impact surrounded by varying (changeable volumes) and distinguish "correlational research" which only analyse the partnership among variable but not interest to determine the foundation. Experimental has two different experiments. They are really lab experiments (experiment made in non-natural environment) and field tests (experiment take in environment). it is also about accumulate data as it'll decide if it'll support or unsupported the hypotheses.

Example:

(Source: http://www. ejshs. eu. dodea. edu/03_experimental%20design. html accede 28/01/2011)

Strength

Could show the results from research and form an argument from the result

Easier to replicate the experiment and valid the findings simultaneously

If the study is based on numeric data, experimental design could provide a precise answer by manipulating the variable

Improve past experimental design if needed

Weaknesses

Expensive research strategy and require to a great degree of their time to study

Difficulty to reach a evidence to confirm the theory

Information could be excessively accurate

Affect the varying from manipulation

Research methods

A research method is dissimilar to research strategies for the reason why that research methods focus more on data information (charts, percentages, quantities, and formulary) than theory. Research methods have three techniques which are quantitative, qualitative and combined method. The three methods will be summarize and will be explain the purpose each approach is utilise.

Quantitative method

A quantitative method is a way surrounded with numerical information as known as data. The purpose of quantitative method is about analysing and explaining evidence related with figure for illustrations charts, statistic, graph, hypothesis, study, frequency and

*Correlation. It is also connect with make an evaluation. Quantitative method is at first intended to be develop in environmental knowledge among sociology, anthropology and biology and review the experience of the type. Fortunately, it proves to be a successful in other subject as the guy can examine the data already collect for example survey. Saunders. M quoted that "range between creating simple desk or diagram that show regularity of incident and using statistic such as indices to permit comparison, trough establishing statistical marriage between varying to sophisticated statistical modelling. " (Research Method 2009). However, there exists another recommendation that quantitative is a controversy method because researcher often neglect or underestimate the "non-measurable factor" which is very essential and have a tendency to be difficult to understand.

*A relationship is a statistic that illustrates the "direction and advantages" of the partnership between one or two changing for example price and sales (see in appendix). They are measured to be compared. ( http://www. answers. com/topic/correlation)

Qualitative methods

Qualitative is repeatedly compared to quantitative methods although there aren't any similarities. Qualitative is assembling data in form of word. Qualitative is utilization in the internet for product, reports or video. The aim of qualitative is to find response to a question, understand the research problem and interfere for overwhelming amount of collected data after analyse the data. sekaran and Bougie(2010)claim that qualitative is continually repetitive since it involve sampling, collection of data and data examination. The sole weakness is qualitative is not really a simple method anticipated of assessment with quantitative method, need to follow the "rule and guideline" for data accumulated by the qualitative method. In qualitative, three step have to be applied: data reduction, data screen and draw the conclusion.

Difference between quantitative and qualitative

As it mention from the first word, there is dissimilarities between quantitative and qualitative methods. Although quantitative is acquire data, it also check the hypothesis when qualitative concentrate only on simple fact. Furthermore, qualitative is more versatile than quantitative as qualitative form an organization to question-answer. Qualitative can asked "open concluded" question (all the participants could answer openly than say "yes or "no"). in addition, qualitative is more collecting data information in wording format than quantity.

Mixed method

Mixed strategy is most interesting of all the three method present. Mixed is method predicated on the blend of quantitative methods and qualitative method. Therefore both quantitative and qualitative methods are either consider pretty much important. The purpose of merged method is to focus on the research collect sources, analysed and designed both quantitative and qualitative in an specific or multiple studies. Combined method was founded 30 yr ago by the qualitative method. Blended method is generally required because it gives the opportunity to understand the given analysis and answers from question seldom respond due of this lack of information gather. The effectiveness of combined method is allocate amounts could precise with word or picture, use additional good thing about another method to overcome the downside, able to conclude the study and acquire more knowledge from the study. However, this can be a complicated method as it calls for more time to study and difficulty between analyse and get the info. Corresponding to Vanessa traynor (research capacity), there tow kind of mixed method that are merged model and mixed method. Mixed should be proceed each step in order to create the study. (see appendix).

Data collection

The last paragraph of the strategy is approximately data collection. Data collection is planning and collecting data (not related to quantitative). data collection record information, show to other researcher and in a position to reach a decision for important theme.

Primary source and extra source are the two method of data collection though they will vary. The first paragraph will devote to the primary source and second paragraph, secondary source.

Primary source

Primary source means provide "original" documents by the researcher for example dental data (interview), data (original loan provider statement, company data), video (convention, assembly) and image (photography). Most important source has "first-hand" and archive. A first -side is documents made by the researcher such as question/survey and an archive is a report producer very long time ago for example image of the 20th century or traditional object. Principal source can be an essential method since it correlated to the past and will continue to be from era to generation. It also really helps to understand the history has an importance in life, require university student and researcher to become more critical if indeed they should do more research after examining the source. Most important source may help to attain a viewpoint. Before analyse principal source, student need to find out if it's "bias" or not and could it be not a replicate of the document origin otherwise maybe it's a plagiarism.

Secondary source

Secondary source is similar to most important source which is delivering information for the study. But, extra source is collect information already can be found mostly literature books or article. Secondary source is accumulated by someone else. However, researcher use supplementary source because they want information as they not present in the function especially in the past such as middle years. Second source of information is capable to interpret and analyse and analyse source for example books (talk about above), federal statistic, study and internet. The other features of extra source are much easier to usage of information than looking or produce information, help to main to complete to research for example the researcher has got Leonard de Vinci information but need further so he allocate in the booklet, less expensive and help clarify the question. Alas, information could be inefficient and need additional time to study. Secondary could be demonstrate as data model such as "history sale figure", "annual statement", "economic sign", " census data", " data foundation" and "marketing". Research study and archival (point out in research strategies) are beside regarded as second source of information.

Discussion and conclusion

This paragraph will conclude the choice which method will be trying to get this particular task and emphasis the chosen method. many methodologies covered (research strategies, research method and data collection) but after much consideration, secondary source is a suited method because the dissertation is about how the vocabulary of British expands from days gone by for this and it will demand an amount of source. The decision of the study method had been consult with the lecture Gail Langlai recently. The project doesn't need qualitative or quantitative method since the select job is more about explaining, contribution of the derivation (origin) and does not require any specific data information, specifically number. In addition, it was point out in past paragraph (see second source information) secondary is about information already interpreted by different person as he lived during that period. Secondary source can help the researcher or scholar to create a coherent and complete job and able to make a clarify research by using unique literature books as it has range of English language knowledge and it will have the ability to access information because the university of south loan company London library, has got well-known author literature for instance David Cristal and David Braggs. Although it is unnecessary, principal may be considered for the dissertation because in the job a supplementary doc will be place which a review. A survey will be included by the end of the project (see appendix). it will be very difficult because the written project are made up more the introduction of English language in the past period than in the modern period but you will see an attempt to create an accurate review and reach to people as much as possible. Furthermore, the review will be analysis and be explaining in the next paragraph.

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