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Elements Of Promotional Mix

The term mixture means that a company's promotion strategy is targeted on several element, so the obstacle is to combine these different communication tools in an efficient way. Following will vary elements:

Advertising: Any paid form of non-personal communication of ideas or products in the prim media, i. e. tv set, the press, posters, movie theater, and radio. it owns strengths and limitations, and should be combined with other promotional tools to form an integrated marketing and sales communications campaign.

Media vehicles:

Television: Existence in room with place started up at turn of clock minute to relevant channel, provided that occurrence in room with place on is ideal for at least 15 consecutive seconds

Press: Read or viewed any issue (for at least two minutes) within the publication period (for example, for weeklies, within the last a week)

Posters: traffic history site (including pedestrians)

Cinema: Actual movie theater admissions

Key characteristics:

Good for understanding building since it can reach a broad audience quickly.

repetition means a brand positioning notion can be communicated effectively

Can be utilized to aid the sales work, to legitimize a firm and its products

The top five promoters in UK

  • Procter and Gamble
  • COI Communications (UK Govt)
  • Unilever
  • L'Oreal Golden
  • BT

Source: Western Marketing Pocket Publication2006, Henley-on-Thomas, World Advertising Research canter Ltd.

Personal Advertising: Personal Offering occurs when the company representative interacts immediately with a consumer or prospective consumer to connect about the nice or service. This form of promotion is a far more intimate way to speak to the marketplace. Many organisations relay heavy on personal advertising because at times the 'personal touch' can bring more excess weight than media material. In a business-to-business market situations such as at sash UK participating in international industry events has an example for sales representatives at sash o display their goods, provide a personal touch, and get started to develop vital interactions with clients. Also, many professional products and services are too complex or expensive to market effectively in impersonal ways (such as through mass advertising)

Another advantage of personal selling is that salespeople are firm's eyes and ears on the market place. They learn which opponents are talking to customers, what's being offered, what new rival products are on the way and a variety of competitors brains. Salespeople execute a essential role in the success of firm's consumer marriage management system- providing a way to obtain timely and accurate informational suggestions about customers and market. Personal selling has much importance for students because many graduate careers with marketing qualifications will get into professional sales jobs. The old business adage 'little or nothing happens until something is sold' results in many firm's placing quite a lttle bit of focus on personal advertising.

Key characteristics:

Interactive questions can be solved and objectives overcome

Adaptable: presentations can be altered depending after consumer needs

Complex arguments can be developed

Relationships can be built because of its personal nature

Direct Marketing: Direct Marketing refers to 'any direct communication' to a customer or business recipient that is designed to generate response by means of an order, and/or a stop by at a shop or other office for sale of product. Direct marketing covers several methods including:

Direct email: Direct mail is sent through the postal service to the recipient's house or business address with the goal of promoting the merchandise and or maintaining ongoing relationships. Immediate mail at its best allows close concentrating on of individuals in ways extremely hard using mass advertising marketing. For instance, Heinz employs direct mail to focus on its customers and leads.

Telemarketing: Telemarketing is a marketing communication system where trained specialists use telecommunications and information solutions to execute marketing and sales activities. For instance callers by utilizing their bank cards may reserve theatre seat tickets or sports seat tickets or purchase products online.

Catalogue Marketing: Catalogue marketing is the deal of products through catalogues distributed to brokers and customers, usually by email or at stores if the catalogue marketer is the store owner. Catalogue marketing is popular in Europe, with such organisations as Otto Versand and Quelle Schikedanz (Germany), GUS and Next Directory site (UK). Key characteristics:

Individual targeting of customers most likely to respond to an appeal

Communication can be personalized

Short term performance can be easily measured

A continuous marriage through regular contact can be built

Activities are less visible to competitors

Internet promotion: The web gives the marketers to attain customers in a new and interesting way. The campaign of product pr s to consumers and business through electric media. Internet marketing is continuing to grow in European Union to 6. 8 billion in 2007, having significantly increasing in later years. Specific types of internet advertising include banners, keys; pop up ads, search engines and web directories and e-mails.

Banners: These rectangular graphics at the very top or bottom of webpages were the first form of web advertising. Although the potency of banners remains in question (banners now obtain significantly less than one percent click -through rate), they still continue to be most popular form of web-advertising.

Buttons: They are small banner type advertisements that a company can place everywhere on a page. Early in the life span of the internet, keys pushing suffers to 'Download Netscape Now' became a typical on many websites were in charge of a lot of Netscape early on success.

Search Engine motor and Directory Entries: As the yellow internet pages and other internet directories of advertising marketing, so too are search engines and other online directory site listings. Increasingly, organizations are paying search engines for more noticeable or higher location on end result lists.

Pop up Advertisings: A pop-up ad is an advertisement that appears on a screen while a website is being filled or after it is packed. Because the pop up ad will take the centre of the display screen while surfers are waiting ti desired webpage to load, they are simply difficult to ignore. Because surfers find pop up's nuisance, most access to the internet software has an option that blocks all the pop ups. A pop-up ad starts in separate web browser window. Web promoters are typically recharged only if people actually click through to the advertisement.

E- email: To promote, E-mail is becoming as persuasive as radio and tv. It really is one of the simplest way of communication with customers because marketers can send unsolicited e-mail advertising communications to a large number of users y spamming- sending unsolicited e-mail to five or even more people not privately known to sender.

Key characteristics:

Global reach at the relatively low cost

The quantity of site goes to can be measured

A dialogue between companies and their consumers and suppliers can be established

Convenient form of searching and buying products.

Direct sales possible

Sales Promotion: Sales Promotion as 'marketing activities usually specific to a time period, place, or customer group which encourage a direct response from' consumers or marketing intermediaries, through the offer of additional benefits. Marketing and non media communication are employed for a predetermined to increase consumer demand and improve product availability. Types of sales marketing promotions:

Non-Standard: Deals are usually temporary, and could be limited to certain customer groups (such as air travel frequent flyer plans) or specific to a specific distribution route (just as 'tailor-made' promotions regarding a developer and a single retailer.

Response Oriented: Campaigns seek a primary response from customers, or those who package with customers on the producer's behalf. The immediate response sought is definitely not for a sales. Campaigns may encourage customers to send for a brochure, go to a dealer or consume a sample. The ultimate aim is usually sales, but this will additionally apply to all marketing activity.

Benefit Focused: Offers offer their focuses on, additional benefits, beyond the 'standard' marketing combine. The improved nix could include extra product, a reduced price or an extra item, service or opportunity.

Key characteristics:

incentives provide quick increase to sales

Effects may be only short term

Product trial often twinned with a competition

Gift Coupons helps to encourage do it again purchases

Suitable if push strategy is used

Suitable if the merchandise is Expensive

Public Relations: PR will be the communication function that seeks to construct good relationships with an organisation's people. These include consumers, stockholders, legislators and other shareholders in the organization. Today marketers use pr activities to effect the behaviour and perceptions of various groupings not only towards companies and brands but also towards politicians, stars, and -not-for revenue organisations. Public Relation is crucial to an organisation's ability to establish and maintain a favourable image. The communication of something or business by placing information about it in the mass media without paying for enough time or space immediately. For example, marketers create and control publicity; unpaid communication about an organisation that gets multimedia exposure. This plan helps to create awareness in regards to a product or event, as when a local publication reporting by using an forthcoming concert feature, an interview with the band's lead guitarist around the time that the seat tickets go on sale. A number of the Public Relations programs are Magazines and magazines articles/reports, charitable contributions, pr announcements, workshops etc.

High credible as communication comes from another party

Higher readerships than advertising in trade and technological publications


Practising managers confronted by a mix of five tactical choices

Target: Prudent marketing professionals will make sure their selections are indeed predicated on carefully considered market analysis, pulling as appropriative on the advice of the professional consultancies which may have proliferated in every the subdisciples during the last decade.

Message: A less apparent tactical factor is the nature of the promotional meaning. A straightforward, brash statement might provide itself to poster advertising, perhaps, while a complicated persuasive argument could be achieved by highly personalised and carefully targeted immediate email shot.

Cost: The expense of available promotional option is plainly an integral criterion of choice. The facts are easily available in practice but no complicated and vunerable to change overtime that it might be rash to attempt even a summary here.

Measurement: equally plainly prudent professionals will get worried with the range for the measurement of success.

Ex: Advertising through there is certainly ample range for debate concerning their real well worth among experts.

Control: The ultimate main factor in deployment describes is the amount of control, an individual can exert over the outcome of the initiative.


Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is the procedure that marketers used to plan, develop, implement and examine coordinated, measurable, persuasive brand communication programs as time passes about the organisation and its own products to targeted followers. The objective is to put products and organizations obviously and distinctively in the market place. Integrated marketing communications facilitates the procedure where this is achieved by sending out steady text messages through all the the different parts of the promotional mix, so that they reinforce one another. As the selection of communication multimedia expands there is certainly greater need to organize the messages and their execution. This has led to the adoption of 'integrated marketing communications; by a growing volume of companies. FOR INSTANCE, it means that people site visuals are regular with the images portrayed in advertising and that the communications conveyed in a directing marketing campaign are in the with those developed by the public relationships department.


Step 1: Identify Aim for Audiences

Step 2: Establish Communication objectives

Step 3: Determine and Allocate the marketing

communication budget

Step 1: To ascertain who the target market is. Here good customer databases is most significant. By maintaining the customer database marketers know who their marketplace as well as the buying behavior of different section within the full total market.

Step 2: To determine communication objectives. The complete point of conversing with customers and potential customers is to tell them that the company has a product to meet their needs in a timely and affordable way.

Step 3: Determine and Allocate the marketing and sales communications budget seems to be easy the truth is it's not that easy. It offers three steps:

Determining and allocate the marketing: Most organizations count on two budgeting

Techniques top down and bottom level up.

Top down budgeting techniques: requires top management to determine the overall amount that the company allocates for the promotional activities and this amount is then divided among adverts, public relations and other promotional departments. Mostly used approach to techniques are:

Percentage of sales

Competitive parity

Bottom Up: At the beginning identify promotional goals and allocate enough money to promote them. Most commonly used method:

Objective task

Deciding the strategy

Push Strategy: Push Strategy means that the business wants to go its products by convincing associates of the distribution channel such as wholesalers, agencies or retailers to offer them and attract their customers to select these items. Ex girlfriend or boyfriend: Personal offering, Trade advertising and sales campaigns.

Pull Strategy: Take strategy is relying on consumers desiring its products and so convincing stores to react to this demand by stocking them. In cases like this, efforts will give attention to mass media advertising and consumer sales advertising to encourage interest among end consumers who will 'yank' the product onto shop cabinets then onto their shopping baskets. Ex: Procter and Gamble reduced consumer sales campaign spending in the first 19900's when implementing its 'value costs' strategy.

Designing the Promotional mixture budget

Factors impacting the IMC budget:

Organisational Focus

Market Potential

Market size

Step 4: It includes determining the precise communication tools which will be used, what concept is to be communicated. Organizers must ask how elements of promotional mix can be used most effectively to communicate with different target followers. The communication should concentrate on

Get attention

Hold Interest

create desire

Product action

Step 5: The final step in marketing and sales communications is to choose whether the plan is working. The marketer needs to determine if the communication targets are effectively translated into marketing and sales communications that are reaching the right target people.


The most immediate way for a marketer to get hold of customer is simply to inform them how wonderful the product is. This area of the personal selling aspect of the promotional blend we mentioned previously. It's the direct interaction between your company consultant and consumer that occur in personal or by phone or even over interactive computer link. Personal appeals can be immensely effect, specifically for expensive and complicated consumer items such as computers or cars and for professional products where 'individual touch' is vital.


The other pieces of the promotional combine are those emails which are designed to reach many perspective consumers at exactly the same time that happen to be impersonal and having less 'real human touch'. Examples of mass appeals advertising, Sales campaign and public relations.


Many marketers are needs to find out that they must find alternatives to traditional advertising. Especially young consumers are extremely cynical about the efforts of big companies to buy their allegiance.

Types of Hype Appeals:

Word of Mouth area: 'Offering people a reason to talk about your products and services and making it easier to the conversation to take place. Former mate: Burger ruler and Nike

Buzz Marketing: Using high- account entertainment or news to get people to discuss your brand. Ex girlfriend or boyfriend; Puma, Procter and Gamble.

Viral Marketing: Creating engaging or informative communications that are designed to be exceeded along in an exponential fashion, often electronically or by e-mail. Ex lover: Microsoft and Nestle.

Guerrilla Marketing: The concept of Guerrilla marketing was invented as an unconventional system of marketing promotions that relies on time, energy and creativeness rather than a huge marketing budget. The aim of Guerrilla marketing is to create a unique, interesting and thought provoking idea to generate buzz, and consequently convert viral. It is specifically geared for small business and entrepreneurs.


One golden guideline of offers management is the fact over - use of any approach will blunt its effectives. Advancement and creativity are key success factors, and recent innovations in product packaging and information technology have provided many interesting new ways to offer customers extra benefits. The implications for marketing management of the increase in promotions have become increasingly clear. In today's competitive market place the professional management of promotion has turned into a matter of life and loss of life for an ever growing variety of brands.


Promotion is one of the four elements of marketing combination (product, price, place, promotion). It is the communication link between your buyers and sellers for the intended purpose of informing, influencing, or persuading a potential buyer's purchasing decision. Types of promotion

Above the range promotion: Advertising in the media. For example (television, radio, papers, internet)

Below the lines promotion: All the other promotion, much of this will be suited enough for the buyer to be unaware that promotion is taking place. For instance (direct mail, sponsorship, public relations)

The specification of these elements creates a 'promotional mixture'. These elements are advertising, personal offering, direct marketing, sales advertising, public relations. A promotional mixture has wide range of goals i. e. new product popularity, sales to be increased, positioning, creation of brand equity and creation of corporate image.

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