Posted at 11.30.2018
In the center East, along with many Muslim communities there exist many Non-Muslim areas: the Coptic Religious community is one of the most significant Non-Muslim areas in the Middle-East. The Coptic Religious community can be found in Egypt and a brief overview about this community: the Coptic Christians believe Christianity was taken to Egypt by "the Apostle Draw" in 64 CE and the ones who accepted his concept of Christianity were the old competition of the pharaohs (Henderson). The term "Copt" is derived from the Greek word "Aiguptos" indicating Egyptian, furthermore the word "Copt" is also linked to the traditional Egyptian name for the town of Memphis. In the seventh Century Islam disperse throughout Middle-East and Africa, Egypt was conquered by early Muslims in the entire year 641, before the invasion 80 percent of population in Egypt consisted of Coptic Christians (Henderson).
As Muslims came to regulate in Egypt they recharged the Coptic Christians "Jizya" for two important purposes: the first purpose was to encourage the Christians to convert to Islam in order that they could avoid taxation and the next goal was to collect money to invest in the nation's army. The "formal system and designation" for Non-Muslims (Coptic Christians) had become known as "Dhimmia" (Henderson). Through the 1970s and 1980s Anwar Sadat became chief executive, under his guideline there was much discord between Muslims and Coptic Christians, the Muslims argued that the populace of Christians has quit Egypt from becoming a strong Islamic Country. The Coptic Community gained support from the U. S and formed an "anti-Islam" plan, eventually after much turmoil the increased tensions lowered as Sadat lost his support to the Islamic fundamentalists (Henderson).
Today Coptic Christians constitute only five to fifteen percent of the total inhabitants in Egypt the others which are Muslims, for their low human population the Christians often face public pressure to convert to Islam (Vliet). Furthermore, Coptic Christians argue that they face discrimination, underrepresentation and also face problems when building or repairing their churches. Within the viewpoint of Muslims the Coptic Christians are an shame, a couple of years ago some students of "Tafsir" in Al-Azhar College or university were asked what distinguishes a Coptic Religious from woman, and the students answered a Muslim believes in Islam and that he's of Arabic origins (Vliet). Since Coptic Christians are also Egyptian meant that in addition they would have experienced an Arabic qualifications but they did not follow Islam making a problem.
Recently there have been many problems among Coptic Christians and Egyptian Muslims. There is a constant have difficulty between Egyptian Muslims and Coptic Christians to develop their id in Egypt, both the sects pursue the federal government to support them. Corresponding to "THE DAYS" several Coptic Christians were killed in the southern Egyptian towns as they remaining a midnight Mass celebrating the Coptic Christmas, witnesses reported that three gunmen in a car opened flames to a group of Coptic Christians who got just remaining the Church going out of about nine people wounded and eliminating seven people (Times). Among the witnesses Bishop Kirollos of the neighborhood diocese said that he had received threats caution of your possible harm on the Coptic Christians to exact "revenge for the rape of your 12-12 months old Muslim girl by the Coptic youngsters" (Times). Bishop Kirollos also said to the press that, "It is all spiritual now. This is a religious conflict about how they can finish off the Christians in Egypt, " he said (Times). The tension between Coptic Christians and Muslims has been on the rise in the recent years whether the discord is about land or women. The Coptic Christians "complain of common discrimination, including severe restrictions on spiritual building sites" (Times).
Coptic Christians were the majority of the populace before and during the invasion of Egypt in 641, however in modern times Muslims are the majority of the population. As the population of Muslims keeps growing in Egypt, the Coptic Christians not only face the pressure to convert to Islam but also feel a lack of identification. The Christians want "acceptation and integration instead of refusal and exclusion" within the society (Vliet). As the Muslim population helps to keep on growing in Egypt the Coptic Christians face continued discrimination, government restrictions on the building of Churches and underrepresentation.
According to BBC News Coptic Christians often get tattooed with a mix which determines their identification and community because they are not given the proper Identification Cards. Amyan Raafat Zaki is a member of the St. Michael's Chapel for nine years and has the tattoo of the combination to stand for that he's Coptic Christian; nevertheless the state has refused that he's Religious because his mommy was a Religious but his dad had changed into Islam (BBC Reports - Fraser). Since in Islam the father determines the religion with their children, Amyan was refused to be given a proper Recognition Card that establishes his religious beliefs and identification, from age sixteen Amyan has resided an private life and doesn't can be found in the eyes of the state (BBC News - Fraser).
Another account is that of Nahla, Nahla resided with her sister who acquired changed into Islam to be able to marry a Muslim man; Nahla was required by her brother-in law to convert to Islam as he previously found her lady partner. When Nahla refused to marry, she was taken to a police station where she was beaten, eventually she married the Muslim Man but down the road ran away to marry a Christian (BBC News). Nahla's children are Religious and she attends the Chapel on a regular basis but yet she is refused to get a proper Identification Card by the state of hawaii which says that she is Christian. Law firm Peter Ramses Al Nagar currently is handling the situation of 3, 200 Christians pressured to accept female Identity, "The law says when a person becomes 16 years old, when they need to get an identity card, she or he has the right to take papers from the church to prove these are Christian", however when these paper are earned front of Interior Ministry they receive only two choices. The first choice is to have a Muslim Identity Card and the second choice is to reside in without an Recognition Cards which can cause great problems (BBC Information).
Samuel Huntingdon in his discussion regarding "Clash of Civilizations" has outlined six reasons as to the reasons civilizations will clash: "how they deal with fundamental social/political relationships, globalization, personality crises as a result of modernity, replies to Traditional western domination, the steadiness and ability of personality, and the role of culture in promoting economic regionalism" (Ayesha). In some ways Samuel Huntington is right as Coptic Christians and Muslims combat over personal information, Coptic Christians face identity crisis as they face discrimination, and underrepresentation by the Muslims. Muslims feel that as Coptic Christians fight for their tone of voice that it'll cause them (the Muslims) to loose electric power and steadiness of their own identification.
Samuel Huntington also says that turmoil at the "Micro-level" between two civilizations is often upon the control of territory which is correct among the reasons Muslims and Coptic Christians have had violent clashes is to gain land. Furthermore Samuel Huntingdon mentions that issue at the "Macro-level" between two civilizations is often for Armed forces and Financial control as well as promoting spiritual and political principles (Ayesha), this is also true as Coptic Christians were constantly under pressure by the Muslims to convert to Islam and were also politically persuaded to simply accept Islam by not giving them proper Identification Cards. One flaw in Samuel Huntingdon's debate is the fact he describes the nature of conflict between civilizations but fails to mentions as to why "why principalities, nation-states, ideological-states, and civilizations clash" (Ayesha).
In terms of identity there are major dissimilarities between Coptic Christians and Egyptian Muslims. Both the organizations follow different religions, Muslims follow Islam while the Christians follow Christianity. Coptic Christians were the majority of the populace in Egypt prior to the invasion in 641, however today they make up only ten to fifteen percent of the total population; they have got lost their personality as they continue steadily to face discrimination and underrepresentation: not being given proper jobs, education, Identification Credit cards, and even the right to develop or repair their Churches.
The Christians also face the pressure to convert to Islam when they are taxed "Jizya" and are obligated to accept a Muslim Identification Card. Within the view-point of the Muslims, the Coptic Christians are also a problem as they don't follow Islam and are of Arabic descent (because they're Egyptians). The Muslims also feel that as the Coptic Christians combat because of their right and land that they (Muslims) would lose their identity. The tensions between Muslims and Coptic Christians is continuing to grow within the modern times, as both groups vacation resort to violence to gain electricity (Land) and for his or her voice to observed by the government, an example, that was mentioned was the shootout by the Muslims on the Coptic Christians as these were leaving their Cathedral after a Christmas celebration.