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Effects on the Fetus During Pregnancy

This article will summarize prenatal development, labour and beginning. Before conceiving a child women take folic acid, this can help prevent birth flaws that make a difference the mind and spinal-cord. Women attempting to have a baby will also ensure that they eat healthily and drink less alcohol.

Prenatal development is the time from conception to delivery, it has three intervals within the nine-month period; the start of life occurs when the sperm and ovum unite, this is actually the germinal stage and continues between 8 and 10 days. The fertilised egg is called a zygote, the zygote will separate itself again and again, after approximately a week it will implant itself into the wall of the uterus, by fourteen days this will be completed and is currently an embryo, the embryo is guarded by the amniotic sac, it is made of two membrane bedding the outer sheet is the chorion and the internal level the amnion The embryonic level lasts until the end of the second month, the embryo commences to take on the look of a baby with a body, mind, legs and arms. The final level is the foetal level, the foetus will begin to develop fingernails and eyelids as well as commence to move, by the seventh month the foetus can breathe and cry; the last 8 weeks is when the foetus expands and sets on weight. (Thomas Keenan and Subhadra Evans, 2010)

During motherhood, the mom will be monitored by the physician and midwife to check on for blood type, anaemia, urine lab tests, glucose assessment and blood circulation pressure. Ultra sounds will take place at 12 weeks and 20 weeks, this is to check the baby's heartrate and expansion. The bump will also be regularly assessed.

The first stage of labour begins with contractions this starts off with a backache and then gradually becomes better, also at this time the mother will have a 'show' that's where the plug of mucus from your cervix comes away. Next the waters may break this is the amniotic substance that the infant increases in. In the next level of labour the contractions continue they get better and last longer, as this happens the cervix softens and dilates. After the cervix has extended enough, usually 10cm, the mother will begin to carry down and thrust. The head will come first; breech delivery is when the feet come first, after the head is born the baby is then turned so it can arch it's again and allow the shoulder, individually to pass, all of those other body then passes through easily. The umbilical wire is then trim. The third level of labour comes after the labor and birth, the placenta separates itself from the wall structure of the uterus and is also forced out by one last contraction, usually the mother has been given an injection which helps shrink the uterus allowing the midwife to pull it out. The midwife will be sure the placenta and cord are intact normally there's a risk of illness. (Reynolds, 1987)

Whilst in the womb the baby will be covered in vernix and lanugo, the vernix works as a moisturiser for the infant whilst it is in the amniotic sac and lanugo are fine delicate hairs that cover the infant, it functions as an anchor to hold the vernix. This usually falls off right before birth however, many babies still have lanugo when they are blessed. The midwife will check the infant using the APGAR report 1 minute and five minutes after the beginning, this is to check activity, pulse, grimace, appearance and respiration. The baby is obtained on the results: 7-10 baby is in good shape; 4-6 baby might need help; 3 or less immediate life conserving steps needed. Postpartum care and attention begins after the birth and lasts 6-8 weeks, this includes making certain the mom eats well, rests enough and cares for her vagina. A new mother will go through physical and psychological changes and it is important that she manages herself.

There are a lot of things that make a difference the foetus whilst carrying a child, this can either be hereditary and chromosomal such as spina bifida and Down's syndrome, Down's symptoms is caused having an extra chromosome instead of 46 they may have 47 chromosomes. This can be detected early in the being pregnant through ultra-scans and a test called amniocentesis, the doctor will extract a tiny amount of the amniotic substance and look at it. (Reynolds, 1987) Infections that contain been contracted by the mother can cause congenital anomalies such as TORCH, this consists of Toxoplasmosis, other (syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes infections. These microbe infections cause slight maternal morbidity and cause serious outcomes to the foetus, unfortunately treatment does not have any effect on the outcome of the foetus. A vaccine called the MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) is directed at all children in 2 doses, first between 12 to 15 months and then again between 4 and 6 year old to provent Rubella.

Other factors are teratogens, they are classified as physical infectious or chemical substance agents plus they can cause problems in the embryo or foetus; this is through smoking and drinking and make a difference the foetus by low delivery weight or foetal alcoholic beverages syndrome. (FAS) Drugs such as cocaine are bad for the foetus, babies exposed to cocaine have a tendency to be created prematurely or have low beginning weight, "cocaine open babies are 3 x as likely to have a very small head circumference or even to show some signs of neurological abnormalities. " (Helen Bee and Denise Boyd, 2004) Unfortunately, it continues to be unclear the particular long-term ramifications of cocaine use are to the unborn child.

The mother's health insurance and age can affect the foetus, the mom needs to have nutrients and calorie consumption to avoid malnutrition otherwise there may be the chance of stillbirth, low infant delivery weight or baby loss of life in the first season. Also, making sure the mother has folic acid reduces the chance of spina bifida this can be an abnormality in which the lower part of the spine will not close. (Helen Bee and Denise Boyd, 2004) Whilst it's important that the mom has a sufficient diet it is also important that she does not placed on too much weight, this could lead to a cesaren delivery and become susceptible to postpartum obesity this includes cardiovascular disease and diabetes. According to the Human Duplication journal, data was used to look at the potential risks associated with pregnancy in women older than 35, their conclusions showed that there surely is an increased risk of gestational diabetes, placenta praevia and breech display and still beginning was higher in aged women. (M Jolly, N Sebire, J Harris, S Robinson and L Regan, 2000)

Fortunately, there is a lot of support to help expectant mothers such as doctors, midwives and health guests. Pregnant mothers are routinely supervised to check the development of the foetus and are assessed for any complications that may come up, it is important to inform the doctor of any family impediments so that regular testing can be conducted and support is set up for the family.

The connection theory comes from the task of John Bowlby, he suggests that all children need to form a relationship with someone, definitely not the mom but the main caregiver; this is recognized as monotropism. Bowlby said that babies need to maintain proximity to their caregivers. He implemented on from Freud's psychodynamic theory and from ethology which is the analysis of animal behaviour, to build up his theory about the "bonding romance that evolves between parents and children and the disruption to that relationship that may appear through separation, bereavement or mental deprivation". (Barnes, 1995)

Bowlby felt there have been 4 levels of connection, the first level preattachment occurs in the first few months of life, the child will not show any choice to any caregiver. The next stage is attachment-in-the-making and this is from 2-7 weeks of age, the kid will start to discriminate between who they know and who they don't know and can have a preference. The third level is clear-cut-attachment, the child has developed accessories with their main caregivers and will positively seek them out, in addition they show signs of distress when they cannot see their caregiver. The ultimate level is goal-corrected collaboration and this occurs from about 2 years of age, the child begins to understand the caregiver's thoughts, up to the time the partnership has been one-sided, now the partnership is being reciprocated. (Peter Smith, Helen Cowie and Draw Blades, 2003)

The maternal deprivation hypothesis by John Bowlby came about from a report he performed with delinquent children, the study proved that sustained disruption of the connection between child and primary caregiver resulted in the child struggling to develop associations with others as well as having mental and behavioural problems. Bowlby thought there was a critical period, if the kid had not created an attachment by the time they were 2, then attachment would not take place, causing the kid to then develop issues later in life. Bowlby later amended this to 5 years.

Michael Rutter developed Bowlby's theory further by recommending that if a child will not develop an attachment at all of this is privation, if the child has created a relationship but this connection has been cracked this is deprivation. Privation might occur because the child has already established a great deal of carers, Rutter experienced that these children who are not distressed when separated will likely go on to be clingy, attention-seeking so that they grow older the inability to adhere to rules, form prolonged relationships and in some cases anti-social behavior and intellectual development. (McLeod, 2008)

As due to Bowlby and Rutter's results there has been changes in the attention environment. Before children without parents would stay static in orphanages or children's corporations, now children get into foster care and be with one family as opposed to having many carer's. Pre-schools now assign a key staff member to help children combine into school life this enables the child to create an connection with them making the child feel better. Previously children staying in hospital would stay on their own now nursing homes allow moms/caregivers to remain with the children therefore the child is not still left alone feeling worried and concerned.

Peer relationships are essential to the communal development of the kid, it is through getting together with peers that children find out about their communal world and the way to have interaction within it.

In the house the kid will interact with their parents and siblings, More mature siblings tend to have a whole lot of patience with the younger siblings and they act as their attachment amount in strange situations. Research does indeed suggest however that the child will establish their sociable skills firstly through their parents, parents provide the playmates and watch the interactions guaranteeing behaviour is good, the father or mother will also play with the kid themselves. Aged siblings would be the ones that show the child the rules of socialization.

Babies from 2 calendar months old know and appearance at each other, by six months they will laugh and stare at others and by 12 months they'll intentionally laugh, frown and use other gestures to their play spouse, they know about the way the other behaves too and adapt their behavior to respond to theirs. From 1 to 2 2 years the child will play alongside others, this is parallel play. Their connections last longer and language will become a factor in play; as the child goes from 2 towards 3 they begin to understand rules of public exchange and can show empathy towards others. From three to five 5 years the child

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