Posted at 11.22.2018
Effectiveness of Play Remedy in enhancing Sociable skills in Intellectually Impaired Children by
The present review was targeted to measure the performance of play remedy in enhancing public skills in pre-diagnosed intellectually handicapped children of light and moderate level. The study was comprised of ten intellectually disabled children of moderate and moderate degree of age groups 5-15 from Army Special Education Academy Rawalpindi. Sociable skills were regarded as dependent adjustable, whereas play therapy as independent changing in this study. The method of the research was quasi, pretest-posttest type with an experimental and control group. Friendly Skills Checklist (Heather Thomas, 2013) was administered in pretest and posttest. It had been hypothesized that play remedy on experimental group will be effective as it'll produce significant positive results in enhancing sociable skills as compared to the control group. The research included paired sample t-test and studies were presented in tabulated form. The existing study can help in understanding the use of play remedy to facilitate children with intellectual disability and it'll bridge the distance between the mental health needs of exceptional children and the available services.
Play remedy is a therapeutic process between the consumer and the therapist where in fact the therapist uses play as a healing intervention for resolving the child's emotional and social issues and for incorporating required skills and appropriate action (Connection for Play Remedy). Play remedy operates as a mode of communication between your therapist and the child. This method is based on the assumption that play is a means of children making contact with their environment. Play therapy is to children what counseling and psychotherapy is to individuals. Young children go to town pleasantly through play when they cannot through meaningful discussion. Therefore, play is an indirect method for therapists to comprehend and change children's perceptions, cognitions, and behaviors.
Intellectual disability means impairments in overall mental skills which impacts adaptive performing skills of three multiple domains or areas that come up during the passage of children's development. Limitations should be present compared to other peoples of the same get older, gender, and social-cultural upbringing. They show complications perceiving and assimilating new information, learning new things quickly and completely, applying knowledge and skills to resolve new problems, considering imaginatively and flexibly, and responding swiftly and correctly. The standards identify three domains of adaptive functioning i. e. conceptual, interpersonal, and practical. Individuals with intellectual disability should show impairment in at least one area. The first one is conceptual site that includes skills in terms, reading, writing, mathematics, reasoning, knowledge and the ability to learn please remember information and skills. The second domain is social skills which include interpersonal communication skills, empathy rules following, social adjustment, understanding others, making and keeping friends. The final domain is sensible skills and it offers activities of everyday living skills including personal care and attention basic safety, home activities, school/work skills outdoor recreation and using money. (DSM V)
In the case of children with intellectual impairment, thorough training must integrate appropriate interpersonal behavior. When the intellectually impaired children are provided the opportunity to socialize with others during child years, they'll achieve communal competency. Therefore training should be started very early (NIMH, 1990). Public development is multidimensional operations by which children gain competencies and the mandatory social patterns that enable them to operate in a public environment appropriately, in a manner that is favorable with their welfare and that of others as well. Communal skills have been explained in various terms. Eisenberg and Harris (1984) have identified it as developmentally related abilities that lead towards obtaining the optimal degree of social competence. Corresponding to Charon (1986), cultural skills are a structure of skills that enables us to communicate, socialize and develop human relationships with others. They may be made up of both verbal and non-verbal types of communication.
According to North american Psychological School Relationship (2012), schools are a source of enhancing and producing social skills. Corresponding to them, sociable skills stand for the acceptable set of patterns and etiquettes to behave and have interaction in the modern culture and to refrain from the negative habits unacceptable in the community as a byproduct of these positive affects and interactions. If there are services provided in university environment where concern is focused by the counselor on the cultural skills and interpersonal development of the students, additionally, it may boost the academic performance (McClelland, Morrison, & Holmes, 2000). If the kids achieved important and positive social human relationships in the primary years i. e. 6-12 age groups; they will have the ability to face the challenges of adolescence and perform much better in their cultural and academic lives (Feldman, 2014).
Wlkinson and Carter (1982), author of the Sociable Skills Training Manual; included cultural behaviors that are: greeting behaviours such as hands shaking; smiling; hugging; stating: "Hi"; in communicating with others, preserving eye contact and become at a reasonable distance. Inappropriate public habit of intellectually disabled children may be due to their incorrect notion about their sociable environment and situations. They might be facing complications in understanding and discovering social interactions, misguiding others emotions and inability to comprehend the required cultural rules conformity. They could also be unable to understand different manners and ways of communicating with peers, parents and family (Kronick, 1983).
Children express themselves readily in play remedy because it is a problem which does not lead to any serious effects although it is fun and joyful. It can help the kid in forgetting the scary world and it offers a safe environment where risk can be studied and there may be no rules or public conformity and the child is 3rd party from the real world (Skynner & Cleese 1983:298).
Play isn't any manufactured environment created by the therapist or experimenter; instead it is child's natural world where they may be free from hurdles of lifestyle charades. Office of the US High Commissioner for Man Rights expresses that play is an undeniable right for every child in 1989. The American Academy of Pediatrics released a white newspaper to commemorate the significance of play for the healthy expansion and development of the kids (Ginsberg, 2007).
Play therapy offers a safe, nurturing and comfortable environment where children play out what they have observed, their reactions and emotions about those experience, what they need in their lives, and how they feel about themselves. Play is also use to teach new skills to the client. It is therefore a complete healing process. Play therapy is the most effective way as it makes the child feel safer. It is a location which is completely safe, a location where in fact the child is accepted as the individual he is. It is a dynamic process where the child is permitted to be creative, make flaws and become himself. Play is a function of embracing new information and so that it is part of their personalities.
Social Skills and Play Therapy
Social skills are a symbol of the ways that your child could in order to relate with others, to make new friends, to express their needs. It creates the kid understand his boundaries, others thoughts and needs and he learn cooperation. For the social skills to be developed completely, the child has to understand and become familiar with multiple activities and behaviors and become aware about the results.
As explained by Landreth (2001), all children can gain positive actions and affects by participating in a manipulated play therapy where they receive the chance to exercise their cultural skills. Group play remedy could also advantage the kid in refining new skills, agreeing to their social self and their peers, figuring out their social capabilities and in reaching self-control (Landreth et al. , 2005). Counseling provided at elementary level in the institution arranging help children in learning of new skills as well as in becoming aware and reactive of their traditions, ideals and priorities (Gladding, 2011). Working along a tiny group who are exceptional same difficulties improve the skills of students to work through their social, internal and emotional challenges (Campbell & Bowman, 1993).
Functional skills are essential for the intellectual impaired children to learn in the educational process as unlike to normal children who could choose the required actions and skills through observation with their environment and daily experience. The curriculum of intellectually disabled children is designed by keeping in the view the importance of teaching lifestyle skills. Even the basic things such as placing nut products and bolts mutually are utilized by the children. The intellectual handicapped children require immediate training in specific activities and duties lo learn generalization and to perform the tasks more regularly and easily (Narayan & Kutty, 1998).
Teaching the age appropriate sociable skills helps the kid in acquiring the skills compulsory for living separately in the interpersonal community. This program for teaching such skills differs from the standard academics curriculum and it maximizes the self-esteem, self-reliance and competence in daily life of the kids (Heward, 2006).
It is explained that a small group involvement can contribute positively in the process of developing sociable skills (Kayler & Sherman, 2009). Group interventions supply the opportunity to develop and sustain interactions as well as improve the personal characteristics that can influence accomplishment. It really is a multidimensional, effective and useful method of educating new habits and skills (Akos & Milsom, 2007).
Theories of Intellectual Disability
The intellectual handicapped also progress through the same cognitive developmental phases described by Piaget as their peers (Zigler, 1969). The one difference is that their cognitive levels develop much slower and their cognitive talents cannot be weighed against a non-disabled person. An intellectual impaired individual cannot reach the older degree of cognitive functioning at any point. Based on the various studies, intellectual disabled individuals will perform poor on cognitive jobs as compared to the control group of same mental age group level. It was known was "mental-age lag" phenomena (Spitz, 1982).
According to developmental theorists, children suffering from intellectual impairment also experience the similar information restructuring as described by Piaget, but their process is a lot slower when compared with the standard children. According to Anderson, Children with intellectual impairment have slower quickness of processing and this is the reason that they could understand information in chunks as compared to information entirely. The people with intellectual disability, if they are children or adult, they'll face deficits in intellectual skills and knowledge handling in comparison to the people with same mental age. This means that intellectual disability has an enduring and lasting result which can't be reversed.
The results of intellectual impairment may differ from person to person as different skills level within people without the such difficulty. Around 90% of the intellectual impaired are at mild level plus they only change from normal population because they are much slower in learning new group of skills and information. Rest of the 10% will have problems in daily working and interpersonal skills (Gallagher et al. , 2000). If they are diagnosed in early years and a proper individual educational plan is formulated according to their specific needs; they can become a supportive and adding member of the society.
Children with intellectual disability are capable to learn things in the same 12 learning techniques as other normal children do, but due to their labeling and exclusion from normal education, they are generally failed to see as learners. This is the lead reason which cause low literacy level in intellectual disabled society. The researcher conducted a meta-analysis of the researches on intellectual impairment and learning in special education and only 1 of the research results pointed out that special education proven useful for children with intellectual disabilities. In the other researches, learning at home and normal organizations also seemed to profit the intellectual handicapped (Jackson, 1994).