Posted at 12.11.2018
Communication is essential to us as humans. It enables us to connect to others and make sense of what is going on around us. Effective communication can be an essential element in establishing an optimistic helping romantic relationship. The ways that care-workers talk convey to the service individual the way they value that person.
For communication to be effective, a person must use all the means at their disposal to ensure that they send a definite message. Michael Argyle (1972) argued that interpersonal communication was a skill that might be discovered and developed. Argyle further recommended that skilled social interaction included a cycle where you have to convert or 'decode' what other people are interacting and constantly adapt your own behaviour to be able to connect effectively. Verbal and non-verbal communication is not necessarily straightforward.
Effective communication involves many features, such as, listening skills, non-verbal communication, using appropriate language together with the right firmness and pace. Listening to patients is not merely about reading what the patient is saying, but about giving them time expressing worries or concerns that they may have. Listening will involve being aware of what patients do not say, through non-verbal communication. Facial expressions, hand gestures and postures can often express emotions that the patient may have a problem verbalising. Hearing skills can be maximised by paraphrasing the patient's thoughts and expressing understanding of their emotions (Bush, 2001). The importance of being attentive skills is also underlined by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), Code of Specifications of Carry out (NMC, 2008a), which claims that in looking after patients the Professional Nurse must:
"Pay attention to the people in my care and react to their concerns".
Non-verbal communications are the messages that people send without using words. Gaze, body posture and cosmetic expressions are all used to convey text messages about our curiosity about another's communication and our determination to communicate with them. Not being aware of non-verbal communication may impair nurse-patient communication. Patients continuously monitor care-staff responses and will need constant feedback related to understanding and reactions. For instance, if staff low fat away and look in other places patients will expect they aren't interested, the way staff sit or stand can send text messages. Leaning back again can send the note that you will be relaxed or bored to death; leaning frontward can show interest or intense involvement. Care-staff may appear friendlier if they adopt an wide open body posture; that's where their body is not included in folded biceps and triceps or feet. When two different people are talking they often feel convenient if they're at the same level. When the care-worker towers over the individual they could feel intimidated, or that cannot move away. Cosmetic expressions can often convey how see your face is sense and can be utilized effectively to talk feelings. It is therefore essential that the care-worker shows warmth and friendliness. (Miller et al, 2007).
The language found in interactions with patients is of great importance, each patient/service consumer is an specific and therefore it is necessary for care-workers to adjust and tailor their words to suit each individual patient/service user. All too often care-workers, without thought, use 'jargon' and acronyms which can frighten patients. Clear terminology should be utilized when talking with and before patients and family so they can feel part of the decision-making process. Asking clear questions secures the info more easily. Age the patient is highly recommended, using childish words when talking with an older person for example is patronising and shows no respect. It is useful to check that what's being said has been grasped.
Patients are often in pain, scared, in a new environment and could never have experienced hospital before. Level of sensitivity, caring and empathy help to build romantic relationships and help in good communication but, even so, there are barriers to positive communication including pain, being hungry and lack of understanding. Many of these can cause anger, defensiveness and inhibit effective communication. (Neville, 2009). These results can be minimised by keeping patients informed of changes with their care; responding to their questions to the best of your capability; allowing time for questions. Communication obstacles usually arise because there is a malfunction in understanding between the person who is sending the message and those who are designed to be acquiring it. Communication barriers can be within the cultural environment of the person, in their physical environment or happen because of personal disabilities or experiences. Once barriers to effective communication have been recognized they could be addressed, there may be sensible issues to consider, including the provision of a private place, the provision of interpreter, or simply the physical presence and support of a staff member to encourage and advocate if necessary.
Lack of knowledge of what the patient is feeling can be a barrier to effective communication. Building empathy allows the carer to discover and try to understand something that is affecting the patient. It is about imagining yourself in the other people shoes (Egan, 1998).
Carl Rogers (1902-1987) emphasises three center conditions to promoting good interactions (Rogers, 1991): empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard. Service users may have very different experiences from the care-worker so it is important to try sincerely to understand something user's thoughts and feelings. Through the carer's expression of empathy and the opportunity of talking easily, many service users experience great relief at having the ability to inform their innermost emotions without getting a negative response from the care-worker. Understanding can grow from a conversation which conveys value for the service customer.
Congruence is genuineness: being totally genuine. This means that care-workers need to be honest, open and be themselves. There is absolutely no room for performing or using terms that confuses the service consumer. Like any other skills, forming a supportive relationship with a service user improves with repetition, and care-workers should regularly evaluate themselves. It's important for care-workers to accept opinions from peers, mentors & most notably the service users.
Unconditional positive regard means recognizing someone unquestioningly as having value. It really is conveyed through exhibiting both popularity and friendliness. The care-worker may reveal comfort by non-verbal communication, like a warm look, a assured manner relaxed and soothing gestures and movements. Comfort may be mirrored through verbal communication such as expressing a wish to help, supplying reassurance about confidentiality, using friendly words, not patronising.
If the care-worker pretends to be interested, warm or understanding then the service end user will sense this and it will jeopardise the complete relationship.
In all areas of care it is essential that accurate documents are taken care of not only on the service users but also on organisational issues. A part of every care-workers role is to take responsibility for the correct, legible and complete taking of information. Information provide a historical record of incidents which might be required at a later date. The NMC suggests that every medical professional must:
"keep clear and exact files". (NMC, 2008a).
Confidentiality is an integral factor within written communication; this is based on the requirements of the Data Protection Work 1998.
When completing files and reports it's important to ensure appropriate terms is used, it needs to be clear what are facts and what exactly are opinions. When there's a good system of record keeping progressive changes in individuals needs can be determined and appropriate amendments designed to that folks plan of care.
Within this assignment the writer has identified a range of verbal, non-verbal and written communication skills necessary for health insurance and midwifery practice. The primary focus of the task has been predicated on the SWOT Research (Appendix 1), which identifies non-verbal communication as a location of weakness. The article writer has completed an action plan (Appendix 2), which identifies opportunities to develop this area of weakness.
The writer is rolling out an understanding of the task of Carl Rogers (1902-1986), and will endeavour to ensure his approach underpins her future practice. The article writer has experienced misunderstanding in practice because of this of inappropriate cosmetic expressions and body language, including the behavior of folding her hands across her body, the writer now recognises this to be always a hurdle to communication. If the writer is stressed or unsure in a situation she sets her hands in her pockets or over her mouth area, again these are now recognised as non-verbal barriers to effective communication.
Cutcliffe and McKenna (2005) and Long (1999) reported that during treatment, medical center and community patients interact more with nurses than every other doctor in the multidisciplinary team.
Nurses should try to connect to patients by using the full selection of communication skills at their removal, to help patients understand that practitioners are there to help just as much as they can, both physically and psychologically, in light of patients vulnerable condition of health. Patients must be given time and space expressing their doubts, anxieties, concerns or worries they could have. Therefore, patient appearance can be facilitated by the very existence of nurses, and by nurses' willingness to engage, interact and communicate.