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Effect of Same Making love Parenting on Adolescent Developement

Outcomes for children with gay and lesbian parents: An assessment.

What evidence will there be to support the assumption that gay or lesbian parents have a negative impact on child and adolescent developmental outcomes?

Same sex parenting remains a controversial theme; the most important assumption being same gender parenting has a poor effect on children and adolescent developmental final results. The term "same-sex parenting" is intended in this paper to include households headed by gay and lesbian couples. The books in this review is limited to studies of children from divorced lesbian and homosexual parents, as well as studies conducted on children of lgbt individuals that are designed. The newspaper will consider if the evidence suggests a negative or positive impact on children, or nothing whatsoever in conditions of gender role, behavioural and mental development of children lifted with gay and lesbian parents in contrast to heterosexual parents, to ascertain whether sexual orientation of parents is a key signal to the impact of development. The range of the review will cover all children from a life-span perspective (0-24 years) to include those blessed into a divorced lesbian, those followed or conceived through unnatural insemination. This review will start with an overview of previous research in the results portion of this paper. A critique of the assumptions guiding this area of research will observe in the conversation section together with highlighting the limits of these studies and provision for further research before a bottom line is drawn to ascertain whether same gender parenting has a positive or negative effect on developmental results.

Findings from the study on long term development of children and adolescence increased by gay and lesbian parents is of high relevance to both theoretical debates; especially the importance of mothers and fathers and their results on child development, and also public debates to provide assistance regarding parental protection under the law of lgbt parents (Patterson, 1992). Historically, lesbian mothers were denied artificial insemination and same sex parents were rejected the permission to look at children on the lands that they were unable to provide an ideal family environment on the other hand their heterosexual counterparts with the assumption lgbt parents have a negative impact on the permanent developmental well-being of the child. Commonly, women who acquired bourn children in a heterosexual marriage which broke down irretrievably, were rejected custody of their natural children on the lands that the children would show atypical gender development, causing behavioural and emotional problems in long term development because of the mother not been an affective father or mother. However, (Patterson, 1992) has provided research on the subconscious development of children increased in lesbian mothers and has didn't provide empirical research which helps the assumption that same-sex parenting has a poor effect on long-term development, recommending that they are developing well psychologically, behaviourally and emotionally in positive directions across the lifespan

Method

A comprehensive review of the books on the outcomes for children with same-sex parents was conducted in an attempt to understand the key patterns in the torso of literature to consider the development of gender role, behavioural/psychological effects of children with same-sex parents. A search of the literature was limited from 1990 and up to 2014. A search of the next databases was conducted; Summon, Academic Search and Yahoo Scholar and wanted to identify key patterns within case studies, research studies, peer reviews, journals and books. Key words were chosen with the goal of the books review at heart and modified based on the demonstrated location of the pertinent literature. Types of keywords used are the following:

  • ("same-sex parenting" or "homosexual" or "lesbian")
  • ("heterosexual parenting" or "mothers" or "fathers")
  • ("lesbian individuals" or "homosexual families")
  • ("child rearing" or "child adjustment")
  • ("prenatal" or "children" or "adolescence")
  • ("divorced" or "planned" or "adoption" or "surrogacy)
  • ("psychological" or "behavioural" or "emotional effects").

A overview of the books was completed on all works located through the limited search and which were relevant to the topic under discourse. Additional materials referenced in the works were read which made an appearance relevant to the topic.

Results

Gender development

Many discussions surrounding the controversies of same-sex parenting is going by the assumption that gay and lesbian parents have negative effect on gender development of a kid. For the purpose of this newspaper, "gender role" is supposed to add; gender identity, gender-role behaviour and intimate orientation. Tasker and Golombok, (1995) conducted a follow up analysis of 46 adults aged 17-35 and concluded there were no significant distinctions between adults from lesbian moms as opposed to those going by heterosexual single-mother homes. From 46 participants, 6 youngs people (five daughters, one boy) lifted by lesbian moms, reported same-gender intimate attraction and got entered into a same-gender sexual relationship. However, because of the in semi organized method implemented in the follow-up study, this figure may be underestimated. Moreover, all the adults from the analysis acquired experienced at least one opposite-gender sexual relationship but none of the adults from households headed by the heterosexual single mom reported same-gender erotic attraction. In the test, only two women were currently in a lesbian marriage with almost all figuring out as heterosexual. Bos, truck Balen, Sandfort and van Den Increase, (2006) strenghtened these findings when they recommended daughters (around 10 years old) concieved through aritificial insemination by their lesbian mothers were less inclined to have heterosexual idenitity than those who where conceived conventionally with opposite-sex parents. Although, these results are relatively low, they actually provide proof against homosexual family members, notwithstanding, it would not be proper to summarize same-sex parents have a poor impact on child development, without critiquing further research from advocates of same-sex parenting.

In compare, (Crowl, Ahn, and Baker, 2008) conducted a homogeneity test across 19 studies in relation to include six developmental benefits (parent-child romantic relationship, cognitive development, gender role behavior, gender personality, child sexual choices and psychological adjustment). The study adopted the preset results model with 64 effect sizes between same-sex and opposite-sex parents. 564 same-sex individuals and 647 heterosexual individuals concluded the sample; the children's time was from 5-24 years. In evaluating the groups, the analysis concluded heterosexual parents reported creating a significantly better relationship with the children. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in parent-child relationship reported by those children living with same-sex parents and the ones coping with opposite-sex parents, the findings concluding that there surely is no significant difference in gender role development between children of same-sex parents and complete opposite intimacy parents.

Bailey, Bobrow, Wolfe, Mikach, (1995) recruited a sample of 82 sons of 55 homosexual and bisexual fathers to conduct a study of erotic orientation. In their report, clear indications were concluded that 90% of sons are heterosexual which implies, gay fathers do not effect on the intimate orientation with their sons. The study also concluded, there was no positive relationship between the probability of being gay and the time that your sons lived using their fathers. However, the analysis has the limitation of no control group, partly therefore of population-based studies being inappropriate in comparision anticipated to underestimations of homosexuality due to underreporting of noncoporation. Notwithstanding, its constraints it is clear from this conclusion, that a large quantity of sons lead by homosexual parent homeowners are heterosexual which in turn dilutes the idea that intimate orientation is lead by environmental factors. Bailey, Bobrow, Wolfe, Mikach, (1995) study can be concluded as an advocate for positive gender role developmental effects for children with same-sex parents.

Turning to some other sizing of gender development in children of same-sex parenting, (Fulcher, Sutfin, and Patterson, 2008) conducted a report of four to six 6 years old children from lesbian parent and heterosexual mother or father family members and reported no significant dissimilarities in tastes for traditional masculine and female activities and occupational personal preferences between the two groups. The study figured children found with parents who possessed less stereotypical attidudes presented less gender-stereotypical behaviour making a healty organised environment. The conclusions elevated in this review, is that same-sex parenting does not create less masuline and feminine environments, alternatively it highlights the value that non-traditional gender stereotypical environments can create a wholesome child and their behaviour towards gender.

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