Posted at 01.03.2019
This paper studies and analyzes the effect of super star endorsement in advertisements on folks in India. In this particular era, people face different voices and images in periodicals, papers, on billboard, television set, radio as well as website. Every single company tries their best to give a finest idea about their products and attempts to notify more about the astonishing and different attributes of their product. And in this competitive market, the largest concern for all your companies is to find the hook that will hold the consumer's attention. Also to achieve consumer's attention, star endorsers are one of the essential weapons used as marketing strategy. As, India is the next populated country on the globe with huge variety, it's very difficult for the marketers to target the entire consumer in a same program. Besides, in India, superstars are treated as idol and the general public is overwhelming desire for celebrities. Everyone employs their footprints; hence it offers an immense chance to the firms to endorse celebrity to market their product.
Companies spend millions of money to endorse superstar as they is convinced celebrity adds on to the overall impact of the business and the endorsement of celebrity provides more visibility to the consumers. Even if consumers disregard all the adverts in Tv set, radio, magazines and other press, the glamour of super star seldom goes unnoticed. Mostly companies, attempts to relate and portrait their products with a star image to attain closer to the consumer's mind. It has been seen that endorsing a celebrity to a particular product wouldn't normally only increase the revenue of the business but more or less it will have a positive impact on the company or the brand (Amos, Holmes, & Strutton, 2008). Celebrity endorsement even helps the consumer to recognize the certain brand or product which improves the brand's charm for the certain product. It's been seen that endorsing superstar for a brandname is not a one-way process, folks consider celebrities to be a brand, which gives increase value to the brand or the product (Temperley & Tangen, 2006; Tantiseneepong, 2012). Also, research has shown celebrity endorsement provides a direct effect on the consumer's purchasing habit. Consumers have a tendency to give more attention, and also have an improved recall, evaluations and buy intentions (Temperley & Tangen, 2006).
Mostly, superstars are those who have a huge open public appreciation and reputation by an enormous fan following. Stars generally have a high degree of public appearance plus they generally will vary from the general public. Mostly, stars have an alternative persona which can't be measured nevertheless they are considered to have an outstanding lifestyle (Khatri, 2006).
Celebrities may be belongs to different domains. They may be an entertainer, a sports activities person, a entrepreneur, or a politician. And it's been seen that different superstars have a different way to appear in the public (Khatri, 2006).
The most well-known superstars of India are as below:
Entertainer-Shahrukh Khan(Actor), Amitabh Bachhan(Actor), Aishwariya Rai(Actor and Model), Lata Mangeshkar (Singer)
Sports Athletes- Sachin Tendulkar (Cricket), MS Dhoni (Cricket), Sania Mirza (Rugby)
Businessmen- Ratan Tata(Chairman of Tata Group), Vijay Mallya (Chairman of Kingfisher)
Politicians- Laloo Prasad, Sonia Gandhi
Companies typically have either of two type of endorser: Super star endorsers if not created endorser. Always it's been seen that companies have a more control on the created endorser over movie star endorser. It is easier for the company to build a character according with their needs which complements their brand, target audience and even ensure that the created character endorses a specific brand (Erdogan B. Z. , Superstar Endorsement: A Literature Review, 2010). And on the other hand, movie star endorser is very uncertain, since sometime the product or the brand will not match with the celebrity's account. Also, it isn't assured that the superstar won't endorse more than one product or brand. Hence, it's been seen that companies have limited control over the super star endorsers (Erdogan B. Z. , Superstar Endorsement: A Books Review, 2010). Superstars are mostly considered as effective endorser as they are views as highly likeable, trusted and most significantly reliable (Silvera & Austad, 2003); but research has shown that there might be variation in the potency of celebrity endorsement. It's mostly linked to the relation between your product and the movie star and mostly is determined by how they "fit" to each other. (Silvera & Austad, 2003).
Created endorsers efficiency can be well discussed via an example. In April 2009, mobile network operator Vodafone Group Plc. launched an ground breaking advertising campaign for Indian customers which captured immense focus on both the consumer and advertising experts. They had created a unique character instead of using super star for the marketing. They have created a figure called: Zoozoo, which communicate the entire concept to the customers (The Economics Times, 2012). And it has been seen that the new strategy has connected to the Indian consumers perfectly and was a large success in India advert history for an scope that zoozoo merchandise, like zoozoo t-shirts, zoozoo mugs, zoozoo key-chains, zoozoo playthings became quite popular in retail stores.
In the modern competitive era, in a market of high propagation of local, regional and international brands, celebrity endorsement was thought to provide a specific differentiation. The marketers believe celebrity endorsement offers an enormous positive affect to buyer's purchase decision (Madan, 2011). In addition, it has been noticed that advertising which features super star would often appears to be more engaging compare to others (Temperley & Tangen, 2006). Superstars get the command line to help adverts stand outs from the surrounding disturbance and hence helps the brand to mention their meaning to the buyer in a better approach. Research has showed that movie star endorsement is a potential solution, whenever a company or a brandname image is tarnished (Erdogan B. Z. , 2010).
One of the many examples of super star endorsement and its own results on the brand was endorsing Amitabh Bachan, bollywood superstar, for Cadbury India Ltd. After the awful event of worm infestation controversy in the year 2002, Cadbury India, the country's major chocolate major, has roped in superstar Amitabh Bachchan to endorse its brand and released a new presentation for its flagship Cadbury Dairy products Milk (CDM) so that they can regain consumer self-confidence after the devastating worm infestation controversy. The worm infestation controversy adversely impacted Cadbury's sales by around 3-5% within the last 1 / 4 of 2003. Chocolates sales fell sharply by 3% in Oct 10% in November. The management made a decision to endorse Amitabh Bachchan who is a universal charm and they presumed that his endorsement of CDM would help their goal of increasing chocolate utilization among all age groups (Majumder, Case Review-1 Cadbury Dairy Milk Chocolates: How Celebrity Affect and Changes Consumer Understanding, 2010). Amitabh Bachchan endorsed and helps bring about the brand for two years. With time it's been seen that endorsing of a brilliant star made a positive impact on the chocolate intake among all age ranges allover India (The Economics Times, 2004).
In many circumstances it has been seen that there is high risk entail in endorsing a celebrity with a brand. Sometime Negative information about the movie star may effect on the consumer analysis for the certain brands. Research shows that when a brand endorses a superstar, there is a opportunity that the negative information have more printed about the star at the time of advertising campaign (Right up until & Shimp, 1998). The business or the brand needs to affiliates their name with the super star and put the nice that is known about the celebrity into their name. In that case, single negative discusses the superstar can ruin the business or the brand which are tightly associated with each other (Hood, 2012).
The biggest example for of negative impact of super star endorsement is: The PADRAIG HARRINGTON scandal in '09 2009. Tiger Wood is a global renowned golfing player who at that time was associated with six different companies out which three are activities related companies. The companies he was associated are Electronic Arts, Nike, Pepsi, Procter & Gamble (Gillette), Accenture, and AT&T. The scandal shredded his private, guarded persona. Along with him, the firms associated with Tiger Real wood had a massive loss. Because of the scandal, it was reported that the shareholders from the stock of the firms had a damage upto $12 Billion. This demonstrates endorsing a movie star to the brand is a higher risk (Hood, 2012).
Selecting an appropriate person for the product or the brand is an important, yet very difficult. Marketers give enormous attention on choosing the right celebrity which connect with the product well. It's been seen that different theories have been proposed for the strategy of selecting right star and the entire procedure for how this stars influence your brain of consumers (Dash & Sabat, 2012). Out of different ideas, the popular are 'Source Trustworthiness Theory', 'Source Appeal model' and 'Interpretation Transfer Theory'. These theories are originally produced well prepared for the analysis of communication and later used in endorsement process for selecting right celebrity (McCracken, 1989).
This theory mostly identifies about the popularity of the advertisement by the audience and generally focus on the 'Expertness' and Trustworthiness' of the advert. This theory helps the audience to evaluate the merchandise and accept the concept (Dash & Sabat, 2012). In addition, this theory contends that the success and the effectiveness of a message rely on the recognized level of competence and trustworthiness in an endorser (Erdogan B. Z. , 2010). The trustworthiness is the blend of honesty, sincerity and integrity of the endorser. Hence, the selection of right celebrity depends upon the target audience perception.
The theory can be well explained by a good example. The famous cricketer MS Dhoni and Bollywood acting professional Bipasha Basu was the brand ambassador for Rebook. In an advertisement two of these were seen racing against each other wearing shoes to promote Reebok's new product HEX RIDE (Indian Tv, 2009). In genuine life, both of the stars are well-known for their health and fitness. In that advertisement, audience can easily connect the product and the stars. The brand and the merchandise is relate to fitness and sports which the celebrities can portray and convey the correct message to the audience.
This theory generally explains about the acceptance of the advertisement by the audience and largely concentrate on the familiarity, likeability and similarity of the advertising campaign, where the familiarity portrays understanding of the source from the audience's coverage, likeability portrays the foundation appearance and the habit, and similarity portrays the connection between your source and the audience (Dash & Sabat, 2012). Moreover, research shows audience tend to be attracted on the attractive communicators compare to unattractive one, hence attractive source can bind more audience (Erdogan B. Z. , 2010). Especially for the elegance related product, the bodily attractive and glamorous stars can significantly improve the measures of the reliability of the spokesperson and even significantly improve the hang on the audience toward the advertisements and gives a good impact on the behaviour of the audience (Biswas, Hussain, & O'Donnell, 2009).
It can be well discussed with the exemplory case of the marketing strategy of Sony Limited while adding their new range of Sony VAIO X laptop. The brand tried out to pottery and mixes their product with the image of superstar Kaarena Kapoor (Campaign India, 2009). The business attempts to connect Kareena's iconic status, success and attraction with the Sony brand. In this scenario, the glamour of the celebrity also boosts the glamour of the brand.
This theory mostly identifies about the popularity of the advertisement by the audience and generally give attention to the encoding a so this means, transferring a interpretation and acquiring a so this means to the audience (Dash & Sabat, 2012). Encoding meaning refers to the initial set of meaning includes time, gender, race, wealth, personality or lifestyle where in fact the celebrities encode a specific group of meanings in their image. So this means Transfer identifies, celebrities transferring the initial set of meaning to the product to depict and portray the communication powerfully. And the meaning capture refers to the way the audience capture the desirable and therefore the celebrities offered to the product (Dash & Sabat, 2012). This theory establishes the amount of identified fit between the brand and the celebrity in an ad and exactly how they match to one another, also relate how the audience will act in response and respond to the ad (Erdogan B. Z. , 2010).
It can be explained through an exemplory case of the online marketing strategy of Tanishq, the famous jewellery brand in India which is own by Tata Group. In their latest commercial for its gemstone range, the brand has endorsed the Bollywood star couple, superstar Amitabh Bachan and his movie star partner Jaya Bachan who are famous for their committed and trustful romantic relationship for years. Within the similar way, the commercial pottered the info about the stone: its purity and trust to the audience. In this commercial, the celebrities lend reliability to the brand meaning which connect with the audience and spread the recognition among consumers about the purity of diamond (The Economic Times, 2011).
Multiple star endorsement refers to brand endorsing several than two celebrities to advertise for the same brand in a certain period whereas multiple brand endorsement refers to celebrities endorsing two or more than two different brands in a certain period (Hsu & McDonald, 2002).
The question is to learn the consumer frame of mind for the multiple super star endorsement as well as the multiple brand endorsements. The study shows that the consumer feels a celebrity who endorses multiple brands is comparatively less reliable and trusted than the super star who endorses a single brand (Tripp, Jensen, & Carlson, 1994). And the study also demonstrates use of multiple stars for an individual brand helps the brand to a feeling of tranquility and helps to keep away the advert from boredom and hence, draw in more audience (Hsu & McDonald, 2002).
Multiple superstar endorsement can be described through the exemplory case of the famous beauty bathing bar 'Lux'. The brand has always placed itself as the 'favorite cleaning soap of Film superstars'. Such has been the attractiveness of the brand that more than fifty Bollywood celebrities have been associated with the brand. The adverts always focus more on the brand rather than the superstars endorsing the brand (Majumdar, 2010). Also, it can help the brand to attract more audience and keep way the audience from boredom. On the other hand, Sachin Tendulkar, the famous Indian cricketer, has endorsed numerous brands at the same time. In such a situation, the audience may well not bear in mind all the brands he is endorsing. This means that that in multiple brand endorsement the energy and the strength of the brand and its own advertisement declines when compared to the reputation of the superstar (Natekar, 2012).
The Big Endorser the Brand
Sachin Tendulkar :Boost, Toshiba, LIC, Hitachi, MRF Tyres
Shahrukh Khan :Nokia, Pepsodent, Dish Television set, Hyundai
Amitabh Bachchan: ICICI Prudential, Tanishq, Cadbury's, Boroplus, Birla Cement
Aamir Khan: Tata Sky, Samsung, Samsung Mobile, Titan, UNICEF
Mahendra Singh Dhoni: Emami, Sony, Televisions Superstar City, Pepsi, Binani Concrete, Boost
Abhishek Bachchan: Idea, Videocon HD
Aishwarya Rai Bachchan: Nakshatra Diamond, Lux, L'Oreal,
Source: The Financial Exhibit, 2011
In the modern era, endorsing movie star actually is a modern name. The use of celebrity for endorsing a brandname is common phenomenon which works as the being successful formula for the business's commercial image building and the product marketing. To improve the customer attention, endorsing well-known super star becomes a common tendency for all the companies which results in the increase of market share in the companies (Dash & Sabat, 2012).
The Indian context offers a very special circumstance for the marketers. It is very unique, with mixture of diverse culture and economic with a strong cultural connection, with mixture of western culture & most essentially the rural areas which is the critical factors which marketers have to consider in through the formulation of marketing strategies (Kumar R. S. , 2009). India is a country, where endorsement of movie star provides high possibility to impact the consumers for the purchasing decision. According to a research analysis, it shows that star endorsement for a brandname or product serves as an drive factor for the consumers and pretty much, it's been seen that purchase attitude also changes with the selection of right star (Pughazhendi, Thirunavukkarasu, & Susendiran, 2011).
India is a country, where celebrities are treated as idol where in fact the Bollywood superstars and TV celebrities as well as sportspersons were roped directly into endorse different brands. Largely every individual have enormous desire for knowing a common celebrities professional as well as personal lifestyle. Along with the celebrity endorsement is mostly used to portray high glamour and to appeal more audience attention rather th0an celebrity's much involvement with the product which indicates the marketplace scenario in India is high context in culture (Biswas, Hussain, & O'Donnell, 2009). Hence, In India, in the struggle for mindshare and market show, companies or brands endorse celebrity for market their product making immense sense (Kumar R. S. , 2009).
In India, the jewelry industry competition getting tougher. There is certainly lot access of upcoming earrings brands as well new boutiques signing up for the fray, where the brands have to do something out of the way to hook up with the audience. If so, the simplest way for the brands to gathers attention and come closer to the audience is to endorse superstars which portray their brands.
In these picture, Katrina Kaif as the brand ambassador of 'Natraksha' range of diamond earrings and Bipasha Basu as the brand ambassador of 'Gili', one of the very most popular diamond brands in India (Refernce. . )
In India, in the similar way there's a difficult competition in the wintry beverage industry, where the star endorsements have been the bedrock of frosty beverage's advertising. Over the years, cold beverage industry has used and is constantly on the use numerous superstars from different fields for the advertisements.
In these advert, famous Bollywood professional Amir Khan endorses as the brand ambassador of 'Coca Cola' (Majumder, Coca-Cola Moves Rural with Thanda Marketing campaign, 2010), in this ad, the brand was focusing on rural and semi-urban consumers to boost the volume of consumers. Within the other advertisements, Indian cricket team captain MS Dhoni endorses as the brand ambassador of 'Pepsi' where in fact the company was focusing on the young group of the united states (Kumar S. , 2010).
This shows different brands are concentrating on and portraying their product by the celebrities of different fields to catch entire audience from the several segments.
In the existing scenario, the super star endorsement and advertisements strategies are rightly combined. The marketers generally connect the strength of the brand combined with the characteristics of the stars (Khatri, 2006). In addition, it's important that the marketers should become aware of the complex process of the star endorsement as well as the ideas like super star source creditability and appeal, match-up hypothesis, multiple product endorsement etc. which are being used in selecting right superstars. Marketers concur that the star endorsement will not warranties the increase of sales but it gives an overall positive impact on the brand and makes the audience feel better about the brand.
However, the celebrity endorsement advertising strategies has high cost associated. And the study implies that the celebrity endorsement in an advertisement only impact on the consumers attention and may not change the purchase action of the consumer. Hence, star endorsement involves risky (Biswas, Hussain, & O'Donnell, 2009). However, it has been seen that there are different brand where in fact the non-celebrity endorser or the created endorser are doing much better than the stars endorser (Khatri, 2006). Hence, the marketers have to review the market properly before taking a ideal decision about endorsing celebrities.