Posted at 10.14.2018
Modernization is a theory that looks at the domestic factors of a country with the assumption that, with help underdeveloped countries can be brought to development in using the same methods that more developed countries used. Modernization theory focuses on the sociable elements which help social progress and development of societies, and further aims to make clear the process of social development. This theory not only strains the procedure of change but also the results of that change. Furthermore, it talks about internal functions of any society while referring to social and social structures and the adaptation of new ways of living. It is because inside situations in societies greatly have an impact on the operations of modernization. A country in which favorites are compensated and governmental corruption is rampant hampers the state's capacity to effectively improve in conditions of modernization. This adversely impacts the state's monetary development and efficiency and eventually results the country's money and resources to stream out to other countries with more favorable investment environments. Such mechanisms decrease the procedure of modernization and consequently the country falls into internal conflicts so as to aid the process of modernization credited to scarcity of resources. On the other hand Modernization has through the years been hastened by globalization- as the entire world has become integrated on many levels (political, economic, and sociable); modernization has had the opportunity to multiply across edges through the actual fact which it has encouraged the development of a global market that focuses greatly on better utilization of resources and method of production, technology- which really is a major contributor to social change through the actual fact that the release of new technology forces people to adopt to them thus promoting sociable change, secularization of societies- this plays a part in modernization by the fact that folks become less superstitious and are therefore more inviting to change and consumption of newer resources open to them. Despite all the positive results of modernization, it and yes it negative aspect as it contributes to higher air pollution levels and over human population especially in urban areas, increased crime, gaps in the social structures including the rich and the poor(rich become rich, the emergence of any middle income and the indegent seem to have difficulties even more due to raised cost of living), local cultures suffer and the economic markets are more advantageous to the already developed countries as their products tend to be competitive as they have got been through the modernization process for a longer time than the developing
Modernization is therefore measured by the following factors:
On the other hand, the dependency theory focuses on the actual fact that resources stream from the indegent and underdeveloped expresses to the already developed claims while enriching the second option as the poorer says continue hurting. Poor areas are impoverished and abundant ones enriched due to the power syndication in the international system. The main element tenets of dependency theory are that: Poor nations provide natural resources, cheap labor, a place for obsolete technology, and markets for developed nations, without that your wealthier nations cannot have the typical of living they enjoy. Furthermore, wealthy nations actively power circumstances of dependence by various means which differs from economics, mass media control, politics, bank and fund, education, culture, sport, and all aspects of real human reference development. Finally that prosperous countries normally hamper tries by dependent nations to deal with their influences through economical sanctions and/or the utilization of military push. Dependency theory states that the poverty of the countries in the periphery is not because they're not part in to the developed world system but because of the place they maintain in the machine.
The theory arose around 1970 as a a reaction to some earlier theories of development like the modernization theory which said that all societies improvement through similar levels of development, and this underdeveloped areas are thus in an identical situation compared to that of today's developed areas sometime in the past, and that therefore the task in assisting the underdeveloped areas out of poverty is to speed up them along this expected common journey of development, by various means such as investment, technology exchanges, and closer integration in to the world market.
First of all, it ought to be said that Dependency theory was developed in response to Modernization theory out of large criticism of the latter theory by the supporters of Dependency theory. Normally, this fact decided the principal difference between these ideas, but, nevertheless, you may still find certain similarities between Modernization and Dependency theories.
Speaking about the similarities, it is generally necessary to explain that both ideas pay a whole lot of focus on the gap existing between developed countries and undeveloped ones owned by the third world. To place it more accurately, Modernization and Dependency theory stand on the floor that European countries are the world leaders due to their higher level of development, which influences nearly all spheres of life, including financial, political, social, and even social life (Leys, 210). As a result, there exist a solid website link between developed and expanding countries.
Furthermore both ideas state that the knowledge of developed countries is accompanied by growing and undeveloped countries, which in essence develop in the same direction as developed countries but still they cannot get the second option up and remain in the rearguard of the world development. In stark compare, developed countries play the key role in the development of the entire world and the integration of most countries of the world in the global economy is one of the major means of connections between developed and growing countries and both theories agrees that interaction constantly enhances.
At the same time, both Modernization and Dependency theories underline that the human relationships between developed and developing countries is unequal and there are present some sort of dependence of developing countries on developed ones, although views upon this dependence vary considerably. Nevertheless, both ideas underline the prominent position of Traditional western countries in today's world and leave little room for the choice means of the development however the european one, which is viewed as the only path of the introduction of the future world in the context of the global current economic climate.
It is worth point out that both ideas are ethnocentric in ways because they nearly ignore the prospect of the alternative development of expanding countries but, instead they demand that the introduction of western countries would be the example growing countries, willingly or not, will follow, while, at the same time, they don't really admit the choice means of development of countries of the 3rd world (Preston, 137). However, it is worthy of mention the example of China which current economic climate is progressing swiftly but its way of development differs noticeably from the dominating american way, but this country will not meet to the basic assumptions of either of the theories.
In spite of existing similarities between Modernization theory and Dependency theory, variations between them are much more substantial and it is even possible to estimate that these ideas are antagonistic in their views on the development of the planet and international interactions, especially on the partnership between developed and producing countries. In fact, differences between Modernization theory and Dependency theory result from the foundation of Dependency theory which, as it has been mentioned previously above, originated in response to Modernization theory. On studying existing differences between the two theories, first of all, it is necessary to underline that Modernization theory views the introduction of the globe and relationships between developed and expanding countries as the romantic relationships of potentially equivalent countries that are just at a different level of development at this time. To place it more exactly, Modernization theory stands on the ground that western countries are well-developed and western way of development is viewed as the most successful and perspective while there is practically no other alternatives to this way of the development. This is why the supporters of this theory insist upon the necessity to build up the cooperation between developed and expanding countries to make the latter closer to the former. What's meant this is actually the fact that Modernization theory underlines the necessity of borrowing the knowledge of traditional western countries by expanding countries of the Third world (Scott 196). Basically, developing countries should follow blindly the exemplory case of more developed american countries which will bring them economic, communal, and cultural wealth.
Naturally, to achieve this goal, producing countries should develop their assistance in every spheres of life, including economy, politics, culture, education, and interpersonal relations, with western countries, as the latter, being more advanced compared to expanding countries should help them achieve the highest degree of development through education, technical assistance and consulting of countries of the Third world. In such a way, this theory views modernization of socio-economic and political life of producing countries based on the example of european countries as the only possible solution of the problem of backwardness of poor countries since european way of development is, according to Modernization theory, is the one appropriate way to wealth.
In stark distinction to Modernization theory, Dependency theory underlines that associations between growing and developed countries are structured not on the growing co-operation between them but instead on the dependence of developing countries on developed ones. To place it more precisely, followers of Dependency theory stand on the ground that traditional western countries are actually more complex than producing countries however the latter follow their example not merely because they're willing to do so nor because they really assume that american way of development is actually better but, in contrast, they are forced to choose the same manner of development as traditional western countries have previously manufactured in order to become part of the world community and prevent the isolation of the country or, what is more, even the involvement of western countries in their insurance plan. In this admiration, it is necessary to underline that supporters of Dependency theory claim that european countries impose their politics and their guidelines to producing countries forcing them to simply accept western benchmarks and norms, while any disobedience from the part of expanding countries threatens by economical sanctions or even military services treatment from the part of developed countries (Schelkle, 231).
In such a means, unlike Modernization theory, Dependency theory does not view the decision and only western way of development as the panacea from all problems or as a mindful choice that is absolutely supported by the populace and top notch of producing countries but such westernization of expanding countries is viewed as a violent disturbance of developed countries in the life of the 3rd world. Effortlessly, such an insurance plan leads to the growing dependence of expanding countries on developed ones and, therefore, makes the socio-economic breakthrough impossible. In contrast, Modernization theory is convinced in its possibility due to the modernization of socio-economic and political life of growing countries and their closer assistance with developed countries, which is meant to be a conscious and happy act of producing countries researching to prosperity.
Thus, taking into account all previously listed, you'll be able to conclude that Modernization theory and Dependency theory are similar in their views on today's world. To put it more exactly, both theories say the leadership of american countries and their presently dominating position in the modern world, while undeveloped countries are seen as a socio-economic and political backwardness. At the same time, the two theories agree that the cooperation between traditional western countries and expanding countries is constantly growing and leads to their integration.
However, it is necessary to underline that Modernization theory views such assistance and integration as a conscious and voluntary function from the part of growing countries, for which modernization in the western style is the only path to overcome the existing backwardness, while followers of Dependency theory claim that such co-operation and integration is enforced to expanding countries by more complex european countries, which simply attempt to benefit from their co-operation with producing countries and their westernization becomes a means of the establishment of control over and growing dependence of developing countries on developed ones.
Regardless, the prevailing differences, both ideas still raise a very important problem of interactions between developed and growing countries and the dominance of american countries and western civilization in today's world.