Keywords: urie brofenbrenner ecological systems theory
The ecological systems theory of human development is suggested by Urie Brofenbrenner, a Russian North american psychologist. In this theory, he mentioned that everything in a kid and also the surrounding environment can affect the kid development (Oswalt, 2008). He also developed this theory to grasp the relationship between the child, the family, professors, and the culture (Expansion and Development Theory, 2013). This ecological systems theory is split into few different levels which are micro system, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem. The first level is micro system which is the tiny immediate environment that is straight connected to the child (Sincero, 2012). As an example, a child has the closest relationship with his parents and family which can also impact the child's development mentally or physically. The relationship between your child and the educators, friends or also neighbours is also considered to be in the micro system.
Next, mesosystem includes the relationship between two microsystems such as the relation between your child's home and the institution (Development and Development Theory, 2013). Exosystem is the level which includes other people and also places which may have no immediate interaction with the kid but still impacts the child's development like his parents' office, the neighbourhood or even the extended family members (Oswalt, 2008). Macrosystem is a more substantial level consists of the ethnic contexts like ethnicity or other affects such as financial influences and ethnic affects (Sincero, 2012). Every environmental event and transitions take place within an individual's life is roofed in the chronosystem (Sincero, 2012). The happenings such as relationship, divorce or others that can affect someone's life are the examples of this technique.
1. 2 How exactly does Urie Brofenbrenner's ecological systems theory affect the kid development?
As I have already explained before relating to this ecological systems theory by Brofenbrenner in the last page, this theory can in fact affect the child development. Corresponding to Doll-Yogerst (2011), this model of the ecological systems identifies a child's development is damaged by the settings and also affects the surrounding where he spends his time every day. The partnership of the child and the microsystem can also give impact in both guidelines which is being called as bi-directional affects (Doll-Yogerst, 2011). For example, a child's parents may affect his behaviour or perception but he is able to also affect his parents' behavior or belief. Especially, his family is the most essential setting because he spends his time mainly with the family and it gets the most affect on him especially the feeling (Doll-Yogerst, 2011). This example demonstrates a child's development is affected the most by his family, if one of his parents is working as a health care provider and he understands it as doctors are good people given that they help others, it may gives him the idea to be exactly like his parent in the future.
There are also other important options that may affect the child's development such as his extended family, teachers, peers, child treatment centre, school, and preschool or kindergarten (Doll-Yogerst, 2011). These options are directly getting together with the kid because he'll encounter his educators when he's at the school, or using his peers in the neighbourhood. The child's development is situated on how he experience while hanging out in every these configurations (Doll-Yogerst, 2011). It is can be seen in the problem where the child may have stumbled upon a poor experience while participating in at the playground that will probably make him to avoid playing at the playground anymore or even good experience he has that will impact his development.
Other than that, a child requires in many microsystems (Bronfenbrenner's Microsystems, n. d. ). Each one of the microsystem interacts with each other which also can be called as mesosystem. The amount of quality connections between settings also has important implications for a child's development (Doll-Yogerst, 2011). For example, the parents and the instructors at college are both regarded as microsystem from the child's perspective. These two microsystems will connect to the other person in such situation like parents-teachers meeting that usually being presented in school. The child probably acts differently in college than at home since he's ornamented by his peers. If the kid is having any problems or problems at institution, the teacher will tell the issues to his parents so that they will acknowledge how the youngster is doing at university. This discussion between both get-togethers is important that will reflect on the child's development.
The other exterior environments which may have indirect connection with the child but still give huge effects on him are included in the exosystem level (Doll-Yogerst, 2011). This exosystem level is when the options that may be unknown to the child including the parents' work place or co-workers will affect his growth. It can be exemplified in the situation when the parents returning home with the stress that they get at their workplaces that will affect the child's thoughts (Doll-Yogerst, 2011). Besides that, the federal government, the economical factors, the mass media can also have an impact on the child's development. For example, the child is affected by the animation series on television that leads him to follow what the personas are doing. The greatest system in this theory is the macrosystem which involves the most remote of individuals and things to a kid nevertheless still has a great impact for the child (Oswalt, 2008). This consists of cultural values, customs and laws (Ecological Systems Theory, n. d. ). As an example, the kid has been lifted by following national laws that drugs are illegal or murder is a offense that will make him obey and recognize which is wrong and which is right. The happenings that happen during the transitions over an eternity are called chronosytem, this means everything happens in a child's life while he is growing up that could changes his belief.
1. 3 How does Urie Brofenbrenner's ecological systems theory apply children in preschool and early on major levels.
The ecological systems theory is somehow applied to the kids in preschool and early on primary levels. Horowitz-Degan claims that the child's behaviour can be analyzed utilizing the environmental influences, as well as the cognitive factors (as cited in Bronfenbrenner's Ecological, n. d. ). This situation can be seen in preschool or principal school, where in fact the class works as the microsystem that gives influences to the kid. As an example, if a teacher strolls into a class brightly, it'll automatically creates the mood of the class to be warm and friendly that will positively have an effect on the child's cognitive sphere of impact then next encourage the process of learning (Van-Petegem, Creemers, Rossel, and Aelterman, 2005). For example, a teacher demonstrates to the students excitedly and gladly in the classroom, the students will have more interest to hear the teacher because they are inspired by the positive vibes from their teacher. In addition, Van-Petegem identifies that the teacher's behavior can also impact the students and can be a model for the thought of the emotions of others and the worthiness of relationships (as cited in Bronfenbrenner's Ecological, n. d. ). This demonstrates this ecological systems theory provides influence on the child's interpersonal development in mircosystem which also can be increased through the encouragement given by the professor.
Furthermore, in the preschool centres or principal schools, you will see a playtime so long as will establish the motor skills development in the kids (Brofenbrenner's Ecological, n. d. ). Activities such as creating art, in house arts like pulling, colouring or painting can also help in the progress of the students' motor skills. While in the class room, the students will get the chance to speak up their ideas that can provide influence to the other students who are listening to the opinions and it will help them in the intellectual development. It is because the students begins taking into consideration the opinions and try to relate to the data that they curently have. If there is a disagreement happen in the school, the students will try to mention their thoughts to the teacher that will also give a huge impact to them intellectually since they use their imagination to counter the argument. Besides, the issues from the adults who get excited about the result of the child's microsystem despite of the child have no direct link with the exosystem (Brofenbrenner's Ecological, n. d. ). When the parents are experiencing problems at the workplace, it will impact the child at home. Parents may be spend more time on fixing their work conditions that probably make the kid feels that he's being dismissed which affects his emotional development. The development of children will also be affected in the macrosystem even though it is the most significant part of ecological systems theory (Brofenbrenner's Ecological, n. d. ). Within this level, the child is affected by the ethnical values that give impact on the cultural development.
1. 4 Conclusion of Urie Brofenbrenner's ecological systems theory.
To summarize, the ecological systems theory by Urie Brofenbrenner does apply to child development including the children in preschool and early primary levels. This theory helps the children in intellectual development, mental development and especially, the cultural development. Each of the levels in the ecological systems model, microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem, connect to each other to help the child's development. As men and women, we have to observe how the child is growing and we have to be aware that everything in a child's surrounding gets the probability to affect their progress. Parents should become more concern about their child's microsystem in university and spare additional time communication with them and not only focusing on work or profession.