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Drug Recovery Program: Analysis

Keywords: drug restoration pathways, drug craving help, drug addiction strategies

Substance abuse is when an individual "Overindulgences in an addictive product" (New Oxford North american Dictionary. Based on the Neurobiological Causes of Addiction, drug abuse is a "Maladaptive structure of medicine use leading to impairment or problems presenting as you or even more of the next in a 12 month time period (Erickson & Wilcox 2001):

  • Recurrent use leading to failure to fulfill major obligations
  • Recurrent use which is literally hazardous
  • Recurrent drug-related legal problems
  • Continued use despite interpersonal or interpersonal problems

and the person has never attained the criteria for product dependence" (Erickson & Wilcox 2001). A person that has a chemical dependence is when an individual uses a chemical despite the negative affects that might occur, such as: withdrawal, and compulsive habit. According to Erickson, "Dope dependence is a maladaptive pattern of medication use, leading to impairment or stress, showing as three or more of the next in a 12 month period (Erickson & Wilcox 2001):

  • Tolerance to the drug's actions
  • Withdrawal
  • Drug is utilized more then intended
  • Inability to control drug use
  • Effort is expended to get the drug
  • Important activities are replaced by drug use
  • Drug use continues in spite of negative consequences

When a person has a dependence to a compound the average person has a emotional and physical connection with the material. It really is this link between the drug and your body / brain that can have disastrous and lasting effects on the individual who has the dependence.

Some restoration/treatment programs stress total "abstinence" as a goal, while other advocate "harm decrease. " What exactly are the advantages/down sides of each approach?

Abstinence is similar to from what it sounds the individual is prohibited to partake in the chemical that they are addicted to, and these kind of programs are effective, but the specific needs to be willing to devote themselves to the program.

Some of the features of abstinence range from getting the average person healthy in physical form and mentally. The positive part of abstinence is the fact that the individual is no more destroying personal property and committing crimes to finance their habit. Therefore, abstinence will keep people from the legal system including portion time for criminal crimes and coping with the court system for loosing custody of the children. "12 step restoration organizations such as AA and NA advocate for abstinence to give people what they call, 'Recovery' and a change for an improved life that is clear of active dependency" (Personal communication, Wright. J, 2010) Abstinence offers a support group which allows the habit to be "normalized, " and allow the given individual to web page link up with others who are slaves to a dependency. The average person is able to offer an since of empowerment when you are bounded by others, who are able to keep the specific in check on their dependency and personal goals.

The cons of abstinences, "Are most troubling is just how abstinence can segregate emotionally ill persons from being able to engage in treatment. This is because many people have diagnoses that want Benzodiazepines, Amphetamines and even Methadone which treatment providers consider to be highly addictive. There is a theory that a person in treatment can take part in services if they're on top of prescriptions" (Personal communication Wright. J. 2010) The primary program for abstinence is AA or NA and they are based on spirituality, this could be a conflict for a few of the individuals who are in treatment, because there religious beliefs may contradict that of the programs. Additionally it is important to keep in mind that the average person has to want to change their life for this program to work. AA and NA also inform the individual that they have no electric power over their addiction, it does not allow the individual to truly have a feeling and since of empowerment. It seems to take the power away for the individual and places all the give attention to the cravings. Also AA and NA preaches the theory you need to go to the meetings every day and that you will continually be an addict and that you can never be minus the addiction and that you can never over come the addiction. Also they need to be willing to alter their lives and commit themselves to the program: fully.

Harm reduction is a good alturnative to abstinence for those who cannot stop their use because they are psychologically dependance to the compound. Harm reductions can include such ideas and ideas like, using the product less, using the medicine every Wed or even changing out their fine needles for clean ones. Some of the following are advantages and disadvantages based on the 2007 Journal of Medication Issues in English and American Drug Clients (K. Phillips, h. Rosenburg & A. Sanikop).

Interventions

Advantages

Disadvantages

Methadone

Reduces/eliminates/stabilizes illicit drug use facilities detox/relives withdrawal

More addictive and worse withdrawal then heroin, Substituting one dependency for another.

Substitute Amphetamines

Known strength, Content. Decrease need for road drugs. Crime reduction

Could encourage to make use of more at the top and OD Diversion to black markets.

Needle Exchange

Disease Prevention, Takes away temptation to talk about or reuse (fine needles)

Disease Prevention

Lower rates of AIDS and STI

Community injury/inappropriate disposal, Makes it easier to inject.

Encourages use

Drop in Centers

Safer environment NOS, OD reduction/ Prevents harm treatment facilitation

Encourages medicine use/Risk reimbursement.

Place where drugs can be sold.

Lofexidine

Eases pain of drawback non-opiate alternative

Encourages detox/eases withdrawal

Doesn't help enough with the drawback symptoms

Drug has specific area effects

Naltrexone

Temptation resistance

Relapse avoidance because use is waste of money

Relapse Protection/ helps individual quit, blocks the effects of Heroin

Can be utilized as a weapon, Clients wont take it

In the states, Harm Reduction remedy has a stigma attached to it that some specialized medical practices and pros have attached to it, detouring people with substance abuse issues to work with Harm Reduction. This type of therapy also does not help with co-occurring dependancies that the average person may have. It tends to concentrate on the substance that the average person is addicted to and not the cause of the dependancy. It does not allow for the given individual to isolate and get to the "root" of the challenge, however, it can spend less in the medical and jail systems. The needle exchange, was started after the away chance of HIV and AIDS and the number of people who were diagnosed with HIV and Assists has truly gone down since the needle exchange was influenced. Aswell as the amount of individuals who are in prison for substance abuse has truly gone down because there are treatment programs which include methadone that can help the average person come off their dependency with an opiate.

Alcoholism has been described as a "bio-psycho-social" disorder. In the event that you were executing an assessment of your defendant what factors can you look for in your client history?

Bio-psycho-social is divided into the pursuing:

  • Biological Craving: is addiction that goes in the individuals and there maybe hereditary mixed up in process of addictions, however, many of the individuals have a natural predisposition to addiction
  • Psychological Addiction: That craving is a learned behavior. This can include, domestic violence and learning how to use a medication. One becomes obsessed by the PLEASURE that the product can provide.
  • Social Aspect: Conditions that individuals develop up in and this environment may reinforce addictive habits.

It is these ideas that create the bio-psycho-social theory, it can be an proven fact that is steeped in the theory of person in environment. It takes in profile the individuals biology, emotional health and interpersonal wellbeing and support to fully understand the "root" of the folks addiction. According to the Handbook of Forensic Mental Health ( D. Springer & A. Roberts 2007 p. 350-352) the following are questions and information you need to gather in order to be able to fully complete an evaluation:

"Presenting Problems: Record current problems as reported by the young ones, family, referral source and any important others, Are the history and development of the problem, circumstances surrounding the condition and the prior attempts to resolve the condition. Development (delivery to current years): express prenatal care, birth, successes of developmental milestones, delays and birth defects.

Family Record: summarize the family constellation, family functioning and communication. Include socioeconomic, educational and occupational information. Describe family childrearing and parenting techniques.

Academic History: Describe previous diagnoses and the annals of mental problems and services. Include medication record and any history of self-injurious actions and or suicide efforts.

Psychological History: Describe previous diagnoses and the history of mental problems and services include medication record and any background of self-injurious manners and or suicide attempts.

Substance Abuse Record: Describe the youth's use and abuse of all substances; include the length, method, and location useful and the households history of element use.

Juvenile Justice or Legal History: Describe previous encounters with the juvenile justice system and the history of illegal behaviors and status offense. include timeline, type, and circumstances of criminal offense as well as the family history of legal problems.

Violence and Mistreatment History: Detail mental, verbal, physical, and erotic mistreatment of the youth and include a timeline. Identify perpetrators and express whether the misuse took place in or beyond the family. Describe any family or dating assault that the youth perpetrated. include other traumas that the youngsters was exposed to.

Medical Record: Describe the history of medical ailments diseases and medication of children Include the family history.

Cultural Background: Identify the ethnicity and rase of the youngsters and family include any issues noted regarding bicultural personality, immigration status, vocabulary barriers, acculturation and discrimination.

Lethality: Obviously identify any concerns with lethality of the children either towards him or herself or others and illustrate the plan for addressing this lethality. "

Bio-psycho-social is a alternative approach when coping with an individuals addictive behavior. It is based on a continuum methodology, that is recognized by a since of empowerment. It allows the given individual to understand why they many have began to be addicted to a product that is plaguing them, and gives them the tools that is required to understand their habit and how to prevent themselves from relapsing.

5 pts

Historically, lots of theories or types of alcoholism have advanced. What exactly are these models and what's their relevance for today?

These models give a guideline and help create an understanding in why people become dependent on specific chemicals. These models range between biological reasoning to environmental, nevertheless they are all connected in trying to discover why people become dependent on substances: each of them strive to create a public understanding of addiction. They do not make an effort to make excuses for those who are addicted, nevertheless they try to understand why dependency occurs.

Theoretical Models of Liquor/Drug Abuse

From the Principles of Chemical Dependency by: H. Doweiko

Moral Model

Temperance Model

Spiritual Model

Dispositional Disease Model

Core Element

The individual can be regarded as choosing to use alcoholic beverages in problematic manner

This model advocates the use of liquor in modest manner

Drunkenness is a sight that the individual has slipped from his or her intended path in life.

The one who becomes dependent on alcohol is somehow different from the nonalcoholic. The alcoholic might be said to sensitive to alcohol

Educational Model

Characterological Model

General Systems Model

Medical Model

Core Element

Alcohol problems are caused by a lack of enough knowledge about unsafe effects of this chemical

Problems with alcohol use are based on abnormalities in the personality structure of the individual

Personal action must be looked at within framework of communal system where they live

The specific use of alcoholic beverages is dependant on biological predispositions such as his / her genetic traditions brain physiology and so on.

(Harold Doweiko. 2009. pp. 30)

The models that contain the most relevance for today needs to be the medical model and the general systems model. Because by looking at the individual in a all natural way we can recognize that the average person is affect by dependency in three ways: biologically, psychologically, and socially and the ones two theories envelop those ideals. I think that when you realize the individuals natural and interpersonal characteristics, you will understand there addiction.

5 pts

In explaining the neurobiology of addiction, the word neuroplasticity is employed to spell it out what brain process?

Neuroplasticity is when the brain is altered due to chemicals, and it is forced to improve to be able to adapt to the chemical. When the chemical has been removed from the individual drawback starts that occurs, because the brain has a hard time functioning without the substance it's been forced to adjust to. As the brain is proficient at making adjustments your body is capable of adapting to the dangerous chemical, and the body learns how to function with the additive. Without the chemical the body has to modify itself to relearn how to function without the substance.

5 pts

Dr. Eugene Prochaska has developed a treatment methodology predicated on "Phases of Change. " What's the thinking behind this model and how it is utilized in treating compound abusers?

The reason for this model is to comprehend the way the cognitive and behavioral approaches affect the average person who is addicted to chemicals. Regarding to Porchaska the, "Purpose (of) the transtheoretical model (TTM) of health tendencies looks for to bridge the cognitive and the behaviorist solutions by positing some stages in changing behavior; in only some of these are cognitive functions pertinent" and "The model includes four main constructs: the sequential phases of change; functions which people typically use to help in change; decisional balance, which predicts whether change will take place; and home- efficacy, the person's assurance they can make changes" (Prochaska. 1985. pp. 1).

Stages of Change

Stages of Change and the Transtheoretical Model By: E. Prochaska

Stages

Description

Pre-contemplation

The person has no purpose in changing the behavior, usually within the next half a year. This maybe scheduled to insufficient information or self-assurance. The person is unmotivated and will resist discussing or considering making the change. They aren't ready for interventions.

Contemplation

The person expresses and purpose to take action within six months. They are aware of the benefits and cost of making the change which balance may keep them in the stage for a long time. They aren't ready for an involvement that expects immediate action.

Preparation

The person intends to do this in the immediate future. They typically have an idea of action plus they have taken some preparatory action. They are ready for traditional action interventions

Action

The person has specific changes with their lifestyle

Maintenance

The person works to prevent relapse; during this phase their assurance rises as they continue using their new lifestyle.

Termination

In concept the maintenance level will lead to a stage where the person is no longer tempted to revert to their former tendencies and the change is complete.

This model suggest that to be able to overcome an addiction you have to go though a linear model. I really do not think that the individual with the substance abuse has to go though all these steps in order to "break the addiction. " I also assume that this model places all the blame on the average person because it does not take into account the specific biology and or the environment that the individual is surrounded by. The thinking behind this model is that these are the stages that an individual who has a drug abuse dependency must go though in order to become "clean" and if they're in a position to follow this model they will finally have the ability to "break the addiction. "

5 pts

How is crystal meth not the same as other stimulants such as cocaine? What are a few of the long-term effects associated with meth use?

According to the Powerpoint provided by the Office of Health insurance and Individual Services (SHMHSA) the variations between methamphetamine and cocaine are:

Cocaine effects: one to two 2 time.

Methamphetamine results: 8 to 12 hours.

More strong "rush" or first pleasure (I'd add. )

Withdrawal from methamphetamine can cause more strong symptoms and last longer.

The Permanent psychological ramifications of using meth are:

Confusion

Damage of potential to focus and organize information

Damage of capacity to feel pleasure with no drug

Paranoia

Insomnia and fatigue

Feelings swings

Irritability and anger

Depression

Nervousness and worry disorder

Reckless, unprotected sexual behavior

The more sever subconscious effects can include:

Hallucinations

Severe despair that can result in suicidal thoughts or attempts

Episodes of abrupt, violent behavior

Severe memory damage that may be permanent

The chronic physical results are:

Tremor

Weakness

Dry mouth

Weight loss/malnutrition

Increased sweating

Oily skin

Sores

Headaches

Severe problems with pearly whites and gums Sever Physical:

Seizures

Damaged blood vessels in the brain/stroke

Damaged brain cells

Irregular heartbeat/quick death

Heart harm or chronic center problems

Kidney failure

Liver failure

"Tweaking"

Infected epidermis sores

Citations

Department of Health and Human being Services. SHMHSA. (Time unknown) Period 4: methamphetamine and cocaine, TCRIM 361 Summer time 2010. University of Washington Tacoma.

Doweiko, H. (2009). Principles of chemical dependency: psychological types of compound use disorders. Brooks/cole cengage learning. Belmont CA. ISB: 13-978-049550580-8

Erickson, Carlton K. and Wilcox, Richard E. (2001) 'Neurobiological factors behind habit', journal of communal work practice in the addictions, 1: 3, 7 - 22

DOI: 10. 1300/J160v01n03_02 Web address: http://dx. doi. org/10. 1300/

J160v01n03_02

Phillips, K. , Rosenberg, H. , & Sanikop, A. (2007). British and american medication clients' view of the acceptably, advantages and disadvantages of treatment and harm decrease interventions. Journal of Medicine issues, 37(2), 377-402. Retrieved from Academics Search Complete repository.

Prochaska, J. (1985). Levels of change and the transtheoretical model.

Springer W. , Roberts A. , (2007) Handbook of forensic mental health with subjects and offenders: examination, treatment, and research. Springer Series on Friendly Work. NY. ISBN: 0826115144

Wright. J. (2010, Aug. 8). Personal communication. School of Washington.

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