Does Music Enhance Athletic Potential Psychology Essay

This newspaper investigates the relationship between music and athletics. In many cases, music is utilized as an aid by runners and by people who take up a dynamic lifestyle. People seem to believe hearing music while completing physical activities increase their performance and therefore give them an edge on competition or boost the effectiveness of these workout. This boosts the question of from what extent does indeed music boost athletic functions.

There are numerous factors to consider. For just one, musical preference plays a big role in identifying the potency of music in improving athletic capacities. One also has to consider the specific results types of music is wearing people. Dr. Costas Karageorghis suggests that there are two factors that donate to the effectiveness of music as an athletic help (internal and external). Within the inner factors, he shows that the rhythm, melody, and tranquility have multiple results on belief such as dissociation, among other activities. External factors include one's culture and connection with the music, which again brings musical choice into consideration. Other results include results on skill learning, motor unit function, and recuperation (Karageorghis and Terry, 2011; Thaut, Kenyon, Schauer, and McIntosh, 1999; Szabo, Small, and Leigh, 1999). There's also occasions when a person should not pay attention to music as it might be more a distraction than an help. It really is conclusive however that music does in fact enhance one's athletic features.

1. Introduction

The overdue reggae artist Bob Marley once said "a fortunate note about music, when it strikes you, you feel no pain". It is no question that so many athletes use music in order to distract themselves from the tiredness felt from physical activity. As both a musician and an athlete, the topic of this paper has always intrigued me. Hardly ever do I ever before go to the health club or go jogging without the business of my iPod. In the instances when I do forget my ipod device, I find my workout routines to become more monotonous and exhausting than when I've my music with me. I really do, however, see obvious differences with the styles of music I pay attention to. Faster paced "house" music always seems to make my work out less tiring but I know of several people who simply cannot exercise with this type of music. Unlike many people, more jaunty and upbeat classical music is also in a position to enhance the success of my work out through making the work out seem less fatiguing. This is because I am a traditional pianist and completely enjoy classical music. These discrepancies in the effectiveness of music on the exercises of differing people led me to cause the question "from what extent does indeed music boost athletic capabilities".

Recent advancements in technology have given people who take up an active lifestyle the opportunity to listen to their favorite songs while working out. Visit a fitness center or watch a marathon which is not a uncommon sight to see people with headphones on. It really is commonly accepted that music is effective to a good work out and there is hardly any dispute amidst fitness fanatics that music makes physical exercise more enjoyable. What people may well not realize is the fact, in addition to making exercise more enjoyable, music is with the capacity of decreasing emotions of exhaustion, synchronizing one's electric motor functions to the precise tempo of the musical piece (Karageorghis and Terry, 2011), and cutting down molecular by-products of exercise, thus improving performance (Szmerdra and Bacharach, 1998). One of the more prevalent ramifications of music on athletic performance studied by psychologists is the recognized exertion of your physical activity. In a single study by Matesic and Cromartie (2002), 12 male students aged 18 to 23 (6 of who have been considered untrained as the other 6 were considered trained), participated in a 20 minute run. It had been conclusive that the individuals who listened to music while operating possessed significantly lower lap times than members who did not listen to music. The advantages of music aren't limited to the duration of a task. Music can be used to aid recuperation from physical activity and harm (Karageorghis and Terry, 2011).

Even with all the current advantages of music, there are instances when hearing music will either be detrimental or have no effect. There's also considerations to consider when determining what type of music would be the most beneficial to different people. Not everybody has the same musical personal preferences and although there are aspects of music that will favorably affect a good work out regardless of desire, one's fondness of music takes on a big element in determining the music's overall success in boosting a good work out. This newspaper will therefore research the different ramifications of music on athletic functionality and how these effects can vary greatly from individual to individual as well as the comparative importance of these effects.

2. The Perceived Ramifications of Music

All of the effects of music derive from the idea of two factors: inside and external (Karageorghis and Terry, 2011). Internal factors are the "rhythmic replies" to music as well as the components (such as tempo and instruments) of the music itself. It is the way that the music was constructed and set up that influences one's perceptions of an exercise. External factors will be the associations made with the music and the social background of the listener. These external factors determine how a listener will interpret the music. Karageorghis and Terry (2011) claim that internal factors are more important in determining how one perceives the strenuousness of a good work out. The blend of the two factors will lead to emotions of dissociation, upgraded mood, and arousal control.

2. a Dissociation and Mood

Dissociation identifies diverting an athlete's attention from exhaustion or other similar emotions (Karageorghis and Terry, 2011). While operating, doing sports, or weight lifting, hearing music allows someone to concentrate on an external stimulus and distract him/her from the stress of a workout. This alters the belief of how much energy is exerted and can therefore increase work result. With dissociation there will be an increase in mood. It is because the dissociative impact makes the workout seem more fun and relaxed. There have been multiple studies conducted to see the dissociation and disposition effect of music on sportsmen. In one such analysis (Thornby, Haas, and Axen, 1995), thirty six individuals with a minor case of serious obstructive pulmonary disease participated in four exercise consultations. The first treatment was to simply familiarize the individuals with the process. The other three periods were used to perform the study. The purpose of the study was to measure the recognized exertion rate of the members when they either paid attention to music, grey noises, or paid attention to almost nothing. The perceived exertion rate is subjective to every individual. It's the intensity, pressure, or fatigue that is felt when exercising, in accordance with an individual (Noble and Robertson, 1996). This is measured by the Borg ranking scale, known as the RPE range. The size is a self-evaluating range predicated on various sensations that an specific may feel such as heart rate, respiration/respiration rate, amount of sweating, and muscle fatigue (www. cdc. gov). Ratings are outlined from 6 to 20 with 6 being no exertion and 20 being maximal exertion. Results demonstrated that participants scored their recognized exertion significantly lower while working out when hearing music than when training alone or hearing grey noises. However, participants rated their recognized exertion to be lower while performing exercises when listening to grey noise than while training alone. This study supports the idea an external stimulus can distract an individual from a rather strenuous exercise. While using results of this study, you'll be able to argue that one can be able to increase the intensity of a workout as an exterior stimulus may be able to distract him/her from fatigue. This allows an individual to be more toned and increase his or her athletic functions. An athlete training for athletic endeavors such as marathons or rowing competitions may listen to music while training to gain an edge on their competitors as he/she may work out for longer periods of time or at higher intensities by using music as a distraction from his/her exhaustion. Another supporting study of this idea is these study of Matesic and Cromartie (2002). The participants, 12 male topics (6 "untrained" and 6 "trained) varying in ages 18 to 23, participated in a 20 minute run. Those that didn't exercise or partook in very minimal exercise were considered untrained while those who ran more than three times a week and were in the behavior of doing exercises were considered trained. This review was is similar to the Thornby et al (1995) study as Matesic and Cromartie (2002) also utilized the Borg perceived exertion scale. Individuals were instructed never to drink or eat (apart from water) 3 time before the test. The location was a standardized indoors track and individuals were requested to arrive individually. Upon entrance of an participant, the analysts requested him to extend and the participant was then advised that he was to perform 20 minutes at his own rate. The participant was then equipped with a lightweight music player and was told of the material of the participant. The very good music player included two techno-genre tracks and the keeping the tunes were set up so that, while operating, there would be 5 minutes of music, followed by five minutes without music, followed by another 5 minutes of music, and concluding with five minutes of no music. The participant was instructed to not adjust the volume through the run but he could preset the quantity before his run. Every 2. 5 minutes during the run, the participant were required to indicate a "perceived exertion scale". For both trained and untrained members, lap speed increased in the presence of music. Untrained members were damaged more by the existence of music as their lap paces averaged 4. 88 seconds higher with music than without music. Likewise, trained participants' lap paces averaged 3. 03 a few moments higher with music than without music. These results show that music can be beneficial to increasing athletic ability. Untrained participants were more influenced by the music because the music disrupted their pacing. Trained members have the ability to schedule themselves to the music while untrained participants simply increase their acceleration because of this of the music. It is a matter of debate whether or not music would be good for an untrained person in a run much longer than 20 minutes as he/she may become too fatigued consequently of sloppy pacing. Trained individuals didn't indicate a romantic relationship between identified exertion (RPE) and the occurrence of music. On the contrary, untrained individuals averaged a 13. 4 RPE with music compared to a 17. 5 RPE without. These results show that music impacts untrained individuals more than trained individuals, however, both groups of participants proved a reduction in their lap times, which may be considered as a rise in athletic capability.

2. b Arousal Control

Similar to feelings, levels of arousal are a person's physiological express. This shows that music also offers a biological influence on people. Arousal is affected by the organizations a person may have with certain bits of music. As mentioned before, this is known as an exterior factor. The theory that music can benefit sportsmen by controlling arousal was suggested by Dr. Karageorghis (Karageorghis and Terry, 2011). A modification in arousal levels can lead to an individual sense sleepy, encouraged, or somewhere in between. In a sense, music may be used as some kind of stimulant or sedative. A good example of arousal being affected would be a person listening to the "Rocky" theme. This musical tune may have associations with success, hard-work, and enthusiasm. These associations would lead an athlete to be more motivated in both training and in competition. Musical preference also plays a large role in impacting arousal as a person may not enjoy the "Rocky" videos. Musical associations are not unusual as music can bring back stories of certain happenings (Karageorghis and Terry, 2011).

3. Physiological Effects

Music not only has a recognized effect on players but a physiological effect as well. We are able to look out of this that music will not only affect the brain at a cognitive level but at a biological level as well. Like the perceived results, the physiological ramifications of music are managed by music's interior and exterior factors as mentioned before. Physiological effects also have an impact on how one perceives his / her workout. Due to the physiological results, the work out becomes more fun. A few of these physiological results include changes in heartrate, VO2 maximum level, increased electric motor coordination, and other changes in natural factors.

3. a Heart and soul and Respiration Rate

Among the studies conducted on the consequences of music, it appears that center and respiration rate is nearly always one factor that is measured. However, there have been some conflicting conclusions. In a report conducted by Ellis and Brighouse (1952), respiration was noted to be affected by the presence of jazz music. They concluded that respiration rate increased which meant that more air was being sent to the muscles in the presence of music. In lots of studies conducted, it seems that heart rate increases with the presence of music. Furthermore, the faster (tempo) the music was, the greater the heartrate increased (Smith, 1987; Uppal and Datta, 1990). The smith review was conducted on woman university students. These feminine students performed exercises on the home treadmill. The technique of data collection was to ask the students straight how they feel their heart rate was infected. They reported that their center rates were higher when they listened to fast music and lower when they paid attention to slow music or no music at all. Other studies such as Szmerdra and Bacharach's (1998), shows that there is a decrease in heart rate when music exists. Another research (Szabo et al, 1999), support the theory that heartrate was not influenced by music in any way. The study was conducted on students and their center rates were similar over the conditions of no music, fast music, and slow-moving music. These dissimilarities in results make it unclear whether or not heart rate is affected by the presence of music. A greater problem to the is if an alteration in heart rate would be good for an athlete. An argument can be made that an increase in heart rate will boost the level of air supplied to an athlete's muscles, thus boosting performance. On the other hand, a counter lay claim can be made that a lower heartrate will lead to feelings of relaxation and will make an athlete think that the exercise is less arduous than it actually may be. Whichever position is taken, it cannot be sensibly show how athleticism is increased as it continues to be unclear if music impacts the guts rate.

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