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Do parenting styles across ethnicities affect how exactly we are?


This research is aiming to inspect how parenting styles can produce an influence the personality of an individual in relation to different ethnicities and inter-cultures. The participant used for this interview is an 18 time old men, whom is a student at the University or college of Lincoln studying Laws. The participant was of Somali origins, created in Finland and raised in Finland and America, then changed to Britain. This is being achieved through interviewing the individual retrospectively, questioning how he was brought up by his parents, how he would tackle parenting, and whether or not he desired his parents to change their parenting style.


Parenting is imperative society, in order with an ordered society, there has to be an appropriate form of socialisation at an early on stage. If an infant isn't socialised correctly but rather socialised to deviate, then this individual in the future will (theoretically) deviate more from modern culture and will, as a consequence, need to be dealt with properly through the justice system. This research inspects a teenager who may have given a retrospective accounts of how he was brought up by his parents and the implications that his parents, as a result, made on his character. Regarding to Bowlby's Internal Working Model (Bowlby, 1965), If a child is securely attached to parents, they have a positive perspective of life and their nature also maintain positivity - theoretically. However, if the child is neglected and it is insecurely attached, they will subsequently have low self-esteem, and also have a negative personal view of contemporary society. An explanation because of this might be the Cycle of Maltreatment. The cycle of abuse state governments that if a child is being cared for negatively by their parent(s), they are really being treated this way because their parent(s) might have been mistreated when they were younger.

In days gone by there were studies which witnessed the effectiveness of the parenting styles (see Ainsworth, 1978; Grossman, 1981), and many have yielded results which identify the importance of parenting styles. The conclusions of The Bizarre Situation (Ainsworth, 1978. ) show three different kinds of parts, and each of these attachments are because of the parenting style exerted by the parents. Bowlby's theory of Attachment - which is mentioned in his Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis (1969), states a strong attachment between the caregiver (relating to Bowlby - the mother) and the child is created by interaction. That is encoded within our genetic blueprint and is activated when stress is amid a predicament. When the infant is feeling the consequences of anxiousness, he/she starts to give gestures with their mom (i. e. crying) obviously, and in the same way, the mom (by nature) will respond to the cry of her child by making he/she feel reassured and feel safe. This early on process which starts bonding both together is only influenced specifically by genetics and its own evolutionary links (Bowlby, 1969). During adolescence, the individual builds up their own schema where they begin to undertake environmental influences. As a result, their character will be influenced. If a child does not have a secured connection with their mother, they could be maternally deprived, which could possibly lead to as an affectionless psychopath (Bowlby, 1969).

This research seeks to look the parenting style affecting the temperament of the Muslim, multinational from African source. Interviewing the participant together can be seen as a cross cultural investigation as he is linked to conflicting civilizations (tight Islamic culture, and even more liberal western cultures). The reason for asking the "child" and not the parent is because even though I could have interviewed the parents, I would have been given a bias view. Asking the "child" how he has been influenced by their parenting style seems more objective and ecologically valid.



The participant I used was a student from the University or college of Lincoln who was simply a first season student studying Legislation. The participant was of Somali origin, but he was born and raised in Europe and America. This participant was even more interesting to interview as his parents' parenting style was quite definitely conservative rather than as "loose" as United kingdom, American and Finnish Parents (some, not all). In the "Personal Reflection" section, there will be ideas and possible explanations as to why this individuals' parents' parenting style is more conservative and less liberal.

Interview placing:

The interview occurred on university or college campus in a cafe to make the atmosphere feel everyday plus more "natural" than a typical interview which is a lot more formal.

Interview agenda:

The questions asked in the interview are in appendix one. These questions try to go through the individuals' views on parenting, how he was brought up, and how he'd have liked to be brought up. This research inspects a teenager who have given a retrospective profile of how he was brought up by his parents and the implications that his parents, as a result, made on his character.


I organised over the phone to meet for the interview with the respondent. At the start of the interview I advised the respondent that I was grateful for him being able to being interviewed for my statement. I provided the respondent a mini-statement at the beginning of the interview in relation to ethical rules, a pseudonym given in order to keep confidentiality. The interview experienced a composition but it had not been a organised interview in the sense that the questions being asked weren't close-ended questions. This was beneficial as the participant was able to elaborate on what he explained, furthermore, it allows me to get a more comprehensive research of how exactly his temperament has been affected by his parents (see Appendix 2 for transcript). The interview lasted for about 5 minutes. At the end of the interview, I thanked the participant for being interviewed. In addition, I debriefed the participant after the interview on the purpose of this research and what earlier research on parenting styles and connection. (Ainsworth, 1978; Grossman, Grossman, Huber, Watner, 1981. ).


It's clear that from what the participant has mentioned that his parents used a variety of authoritarian and authoritative/democratic parenting styles. What this means is that his parents were strict, but they described right from incorrect. If his parents were just authoritarians, then he would experienced low self-esteem and low self-confidence - both of which don't seem to be recognisable from this person. So therefore it might be sensible to say that his parents were mind-minded - the parent(s) being on a single mental level as their child.

From considering what the participant has said, it's clear that there is a very strong interconnection between himself and his mom. And the basis of that connection is his parents' parenting style. Religion played a significant role in the individuals' upbringing; when you are educated on religion and his parents depicting the conventional parenting style in accordance with the teachings of the religious beliefs. Because they was born and partially raised in Finland, we should take a look at studies that contain been conducted in Finland. However, due to the lack of studies carried out in Finland, we must look at the closest country within the Scandinavian Peninsula region; Sweden. From meta-analysis of Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988), Sweden has a secured connection rate of 74%, which is high, adding it alongside the UK, in accordance with the sample used. Because it's difficult to go through the secured connection rate of one particular country, we would have to check out the results of America, UK, and Sweden. All results from all three different countries must be taken into consideration when looking to analyse the results of the participant.

Asked about spending or conserving 10 (see appendix one) pertains to seek instant gratification which correlates to a permissive parenting style. A permissive parenting style means that the parents are lenient on their children. But the members' parents weren't lenient. Another, perhaps better description is from a Sociological viewpoint. Sugarman (1970) explained that an person that is from a working class qualifications will seek instant gratification whereas someone from a middle class background will save in the money. This appears to be a better justification than a permissive parenting style in relation to this participant. For the reason that is usually that the permissive parenting style contradicts the other parenting styles which can be heavily used. This sociological reason of instant gratification can relate with a permissive parenting style. In United kingdom society, there seems to be a north-south divide, with a high amout of working course in the north and middle income in the south. Some of these working category parents may well not be perfect role models and could parent their children more leniently in accordance with the upper middle income whom are in the south. Needless to say this is not a universal application, simply a partial program.

Personal Representation:

According Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg, the physical whereabouts should play as one factor in the parenting style. However, interviewing my participant got led me to devise that it is not because of the fact that being raised with american values; he had been able to build up the conservative elements that track from his African, more importantly, Islamic origins.

In this specific case, I learned that spiritual teachings were predominant in his family. His family prioritised religious principles above culture, traditions and education - thus it's safe to say that faith is the foundation of his life in which pillars of education, environment influences were produced. This predominant religious value has been ingested, and which his values of everything must adhere to to become accepted.

Although I have used studies which have aimed to test the attachment between a child and their mother, they're not worthy of ruling out just because the participant getting used isn't an infant, somewhat an 18 calendar year old university learner. The actual fact that the participant's view on his relationship along with his mother has stayed steady throughout his life, it is highly plausible that the attachment an infant has using their mom can stay the same throughout their life as long as the mother's parenting style is first of all consistent, and secondly that the child is in contract with how they're cured. If this appears to be hard to comprehend, one should go through the opposite. If the newborn matures to be terribly behaved, this will likely be a result of bad parenting. When the parenting style used is unacceptable and harmful to the newborn (over time), when the infant grows up, they will respond badly. To put it simply, bad parenting equates to a terribly behaved child; good parenting equates to an appropriately behaved child.

Appendix 1:

Interview Questions:

What's your age?

What's your gender?

What is your social background?

What kind of parenting style do your parents use when you were a child?

Do you think the parenting style your parents used acquired influenced your nature?

How could you describe the attachment you have with your mom?

Would you have improved your parents' parenting style? In the event that you would, do you consider your nature would vary?

What kind of parenting style would you use as it pertains to parenting children?

What social school do you are based on?

If I gave you 10 today and I told you, you can either spend it now and I'll offer you another 10 in a few days, or you can save the 10 and you'll get another 10 then, and you will have 20 that week, what could you do?

Appendix 2:

I: Hi there, thank you for agreeing to being interviewed. I contacted you over the phone relating to this interview which is approximately parenting styles in a cultural context. By no means are you being forced to being interviewed or answering a few of the questions in case you see them to very sensitive and you don't desire to reply. You could withdraw your data at any time if you wish to do so, when I refer to your data in the article I will be referring to you as the participant, alternatively than making use of your name, scheduled to moral reasons. I'm recording this interview; do you have a concern with being registered?

P: No I don't mind.

I: First of all, How old are you?

R: 18.

I: What's your gender?

R: Men.

I: What's your cultural history?

P: I'm Somali, my parents are Somali. I was born in Finland, shifted to America for a while and then emerged here to Britain.

I: Which kind of parenting style did your parents use on you when you were a kid?

P: This will depend, my parents were demanding when it arrived to assignment work, but more lenient than other parents when it came to venturing out, hanging out with friends, stuff like that.

I: Do you consider your parents' parenting style affected your temperament?

P: Defiantly. My mum is very rigorous, there are certain things she cared about like me heading to mosque, me going to school, and with those ideas there was no compromise with them, but other activities she was fine with. I assume what's important to her is now important to me.

I: Might you have altered your parents' parenting style, if you'll, do you consider your temperament would be different?

P: No I wouldn't, I wouldn't have everything out of control.

I: How will you describe the attachment you have with your mum?

P: I love my mum.

I: Can you sophisticated on that please? Could you say it's a solid attachment, or your dependent on her or 3rd party?

P: Not so much determined by her ever again but it's similar to I wouldn't really know what to do if she instantly passed on, for example.

I: The type of parenting style would you utilize when it comes to parenting children?

P: I have no idea. If I is often as good as my mum, do as well as she does while i hopefully raise my own children, then I've done quite nicely.

I: Taken all of that into account, do you want to be as rigid as she was or even more lenient?

P: Hopefully I'd be as rigorous as she was but, I have no idea if I could. I'm only 18.

I: What public class does one are based on?

P: Working Class.

I: If I gave you 10 today and I said you can either spend it now and I'll offer you another 10 next week, or you can save the 10 and you will get another 10 then, departing you with 20 rather than 10, which option would you opt for?

P: I'd say give me the 10 now; give me the 10 in a few days.

I: Which means you wouldn't save it?

P: Well this will depend. If I needed the amount of money for something important then I'd save it, but if it was extra cash hanging out, I'll take it now.

I: Many thanks for allowing me to interview you, if you change your brain about me making use of this data then just contact me.

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