1. May be the differentiation between realism and naturalism worth preserving in talk of film and/or television set drama?
To argue that the differentiation between naturalism and realism is worth preserving the intent in cases like this is to explore typical and contemporary texts and try to explain that naturalism together is insufficient when talking about key designs and elements.
To first look at the task of la novelle hazy initially this film and cultural movement does not seem to be in keeping with the theory and methods to cinematic realism. Critics would perhaps claim that The French new wave is a stylistic activity blessed from a aggravation to the mainstream "Hollywood" conventions or "theatre du papa". Although on the top this might indeed be true, but it could be argued, that many of the texts appearing out of the French new wave motion were indeed the elevation of realism. To first examine jean luc Godard's typical film a bout de suffle or "breathless" this to some epitomises the stylistic new influx movements that was going on in France, and immediately after Britain. Split with superfluous stylistic techniques and dislocated continuity, viewing breathless is undeniably an issue. But breathless certainly fits the criteria of being a film entrenched in social realism. Godard uses real interior and exterior locations here, naturalistic performances, improvised dialogue (although cinematographer raul cautard refutes this), natural lighting and action is not really a regular motivator of the editing and enhancing. Perhaps from an initial viewing one would feel that breathless is film with all the codes of naturalism at the job. However, breathless handles many societal and cultural issues that happen to be generic conventions of a realist text
Firstly breathless' cinematic procedure is certainly stylised but Godard fuses genuine camera techniques with stylistic flair, although the spectator is often jostled and baffled at times with breathless as Godard subverts many traditional filmic conventions, but:
"It is usually a "revolt" against earlier conventions which characterises a rest towards realism in the arts". Raymond Williams.
For example, Michel drives to Marseilles, the cinematography is a combination between your car's passenger couch as it jostles with the bumps of the street and directly on top of the cars bonnet, delivering the spectator in the thick of the action, instead of at a distance from it, much just like a naturalist procedure. Michel sings and talks to himself in the car and shockingly looks straight into the camera and state governments "unless you like the ocean, if u don't like the mountains, if u do not like the big city, then get stuffed". This acknowledgement by Michel is important as it alludes to him performing in a job, breaking the hermetic barrier between film and viewer, and reminds the viewers that this is actually a film, and this is one of many direct address injections within the film. This is an escape of the "suspension of disbelief" and this is important because this can be an function of defiance, normally associated with current affairs, fact based programming and Godard fuses this into a work of fiction. This fusion further makes cases of realism. In addition, Godard here and somewhere else utilizes the idea of Bertolt Brecht, wherein this instant of direct address reminds the viewers that is a "representation of reality" and not reality alone, the viewer is not kept passively complacent, but challenged to engage through the very nature if it being unfamiliar and startling. An additional impact in this picture is Michel's imitation of an pistol firing, and the sound is disturbingly noisy compared to the soundtrack, and the spectator is given a visceral shock out of passivity.
Although relatively confusingly; overall the audience is never definately not the personas, their world and their lives. to reinforce this promise Godard is a an exponent of continuous action and deep focus, for illustration the scene in which Michel and Patricia walk over the champs Elsie Godard employs the few in a continuous tracking shot, this level of deep concentrate and how the audience keeps with the couple allows the audience information into the filmic world because of our own proximity to the personas. Furthermore in a continuous collection whereby Michel goes to retrieve the from his friend tolmatchoff, they meet and are implemented walking through the foyer, tolmatchoff is named out of the shot, going out of Michel on his own, yet still there is no cutaway until Michel leaves the agency and the police arrive, this may appear peculiar but it allows the audience choice on what or who to focus their attention on; each one of the men or the surroundings. This is in place an unmediated, neutral presentation, and a similar convention is again observed in Scorsese's Goodfellas. A notorious world within breathless is interesting specifically, as it persists for thirty minutes with out a cutaway or change of arena, Patricia and Michel stay in Patricia's bedroom, discussing very little, the dialogue provides no insight to further figure development nor storyline, but maybe it's deemed that this extraneous dialogue rather than being the usual enunciator of genre and / or narrative progress, that it is the enunciation of realism. By contrast inside a naturalism text message the cinematography would be handled subtly i. e, establishing and large shot, eyeline matches, and sequences of shot / opposite shots, this is important as this is a vintage continuity editing, with its purpose to be submissive to narrative action.
To compare the supermarket scene in the 1st bout of coronation road; to Michel reaching tolmatchoff in breathless. In each a character moves about the surroundings, in the first a slash is manufactured when dialogue alludes to something important to storyline, figure or narration, in breathless, no slashes are created but liquid camera work maintains the spectator engaged. In coronation street there is evident care taken towards mimicry of true to life. "Kitchens sink" theatre, and relatable content; on the surface should personify notions of naturalism. But the difference between naturalism and realism in Coronation Block become too interweaved and blurry to keep any distinction between your two. Cinematographically it is packed with naturalist techniques, but thematically Coronation Neighborhood is infused with ethnical and societal issues, the family, community, course frustrations and personal interactions. The transition of the would be nothing existent if naturalism is a single way. Both godard and the television soap: coronation avenue both employ realist conventions in several but interesting ways. Coronation Street is fuelled with notions of the "invisible observer", this is definitely mediated but allows the communication of real designs:
"The natural transference of attention of an imaginary observer. ". . . . "an observer ideally mobile in space and time. ". p9
In stark distinction to the brechtian encouraged Breathless, the unseen observer nevertheless an application that allows rules of realism to be sent. Rather than sneering at the unaggressive spectator utilizes the concept to communicate themes entrenched in realism.
In terms of cinematography breathless uses subversive techniques; from the very start of film we start in disequilibrium with having less a establishing shot, immediately after the 180' rule is also cracked, and throughout Godard uses constant close-ups, these halt narrative action. So these and other cinematographic techniques are not encouraged by narration, but style. Godard on the whole is disinterested in the quest for the overall narrative, however the romantic relationship between Michel and Patricia, this again is a defiance of classical forms of narration as typically cinematography are subservient to narrative. Editing and enhancing is invisible and unobtrusive. But because the cinematography and editing are timid. . . . . and editing and enhancing which must by default further the layers of realism at the job within breathless
The characterisation at the job inside a bout de suffle is obviously not one dimensional, although both Michel could be defined as a sexist or misogynist but he's an out-of-date stereotype, although he succeeds with his active sexism, stealing from a woman he seems to know etc, he's undoubtedly punished by the end, although probably this is not activism in breathless, but it can blaze the path for new thinking between your genders and more importantly these readings can be found within the written text which further solidify the need to maintain realism and
Furthermore Patricia's personality could be regarded progressive in terms of realism rather than transgressive, she has a clear knowledge of her own personal information unlike the romanticism of Michel. she comprehends she must enrol in Sorbonne to review to maintain her life in France, and when she meets her business friend vehicle doude, his lechery seems manipulated by her for her pursuit to further her journalism career, and critically she is indeed Michel's demise in the end, this is main representations of women that is not submissive to patriarchy, Michel constantly lusts after Patricia but she constantly thwarts him but has no problem using her own sexuality to further her own cause, Patricia is within complete control of her bundle of money. Furthermore she does not take a supporting role like perhaps a young woman would within an Ealing Melodrama, nor does Michel conform to a normal protagonist, for example his hero; bogart in Casablanca, appears in every one shot within the film, he drives the narrative, however, Michel looks in a small small percentage, these further the pursuit of realism within breathless, cinematically and ideologically as godard again further subverts cinematic convention, with representation and sporadic use of his protagonist. Also the transgressive persona types break the mould
The causality seems bizarre in breathless, Michel is shown going about mundane responsibilities, irrelevant action can be used by Godard instead of a classical mode of narration, i. e action motivates editing and narrative choices. Because Godard subverts this it again falls into a realism category, furthermore as Roland Barthes discusses:
"The narrative process; providing neither narrative information nor persona insight, it is, in place, their function to signify "reality", to furnish the "aftereffect of the real".
Although fraught with ideologies, breathless is not an explicitly political text message, the only politics allusion is the presidential motorcade. For me personally this is realist convention not located in naturalism, it gives especially Michel another dimension. It generates juxtaposition between your cultural young ones enterprising psyche in France at that time, and disillusionment experienced by many of the youth who didn't adapt to this dogma, but also conforms to the "new influx' trope of the anti- hero. This causes a concern of the individuals place within modern culture, the audience learns very little about Michel and the info we do glean is doubtful, he appears to have no real root base, but he and Patricia both seem to be socially alienated, and relatively disenfranchised with contemporary society, others may read these characters as fairly simple, that they respond to and are inspired by simply their adjoining etc, which would fit into a naturalist platform but i dispute, they are both amoral but and disillusioned stemming from a larger societal problem: that of the ethnical void still left by world war two. Michel is metonymic for the French junior during the 1950s. For me personally this can only be experienced by Michel's lust after Patricia, a American woman, and the continuous mimicry of his idol: Humphrey Bogart, also American. In other words, post WW2 France is a ethnic vacuum and American consumerism / capitalism has changed the "old" France. This reading into a bout de souffl is based on a realism approach, so the variation between naturalism and realism is a relevant someone to maintain, otherwise the "real life" drama behind cultural realism texts cannot be found. As opposed to this, coronation neighborhood alludes to nothing at all global, political or religious, in this way it is the height to be secular, but for that reason coronation avenue has "space" to concentrate on the universality of human being emotion and dilemma. Having less a traditional realism category in Coronation Avenue allows thematic space for "everyday" certainty to be conveyed.
To go back to breathless and Michels emulation of Humphrey Bogart is information that godard is critically alert to Hollywood iconography and conventions, breathless is peppered with noir / gangster genre tropes, Michel's trilby, and urban landscape, guns, the police exploration etc. Although this genre will not frame Godard's words, however it is interweaved with the custom of realism or rather the representation of the "real", most of all as Michel is punished and killed at the videos climax. Furthermore, Godard's use of the leap chop and other unsettling devices, these all disrupt the narrative and genre from doing their "conventional" assignments. So the culmination of the must be that Godard knows these Hollywood tropes but either subverts them or denies them working by any means for me personally this blazes a trail for sociable and socially expanded realism to show through. But even this is morphed, as the spectator is not thrown into the film world much like the effect of Boyles Trainspotting, but rather the spectator oscillates between consuming narrative action and objectively participating with it.
It would be easy to fault Coronation Avenue for sheer naturalism, or any television set soap as a naturalist text, for most reasons. But as talked about below the top there's a pool of depth that is in keeping with notions of realism. To contrast a assumed naturalist word in Coronation Street to a literal naturalist text message in Shakespeare's King Lear, the differences are stark, although a very old content material, the contrast continues to be interesting, the topic matter is top quality monarchy, the characters motivations are clear, money, electricity, love. And all characters are influenced by each other and their environment, there is certainly little ambiguity nor internal and philosophical depth. Contrasting Shakespeare's common use Coronation Road where human sentiment and conversation is explored this twinned with the ideological display of persona in Breathless. It becomes clear that naturalism provides very little in conditions of revealing any "truth" within an audio visual text message.
Continuing with naturalism, although with regards to theater Jean Jullien (1854-1919) says:
"A play is a cut of life put onstage with skill. "
This quotation perhaps personifies Shakespeare's work, in this case. It really is a slice of life, a snapshot of the "real", minus the any of the characteristics of either being real i. e. Coronation Street; Or representing fact, I. e. Godard's Breathless.
To explore naturalism I would like to discuss the television set episode: Coronation Block, specifically the very first show as it could very well be more suitable of that time period period when considering Godard's breathless, naturalism and its own conventions are in stark distinction with regard to the issues previously mentioned. Coronation Road is encouraged by aiming to recreate "real" life. Coronation block is not fraught with monetary, politics or ideological principles, its main concentrate is on specific romance and the interaction between them, and on there environment, and because of this there is a certain distance between viewer and there are apparent distinctions between both of these texts on the exterior coronation streets here employs indoor naturalist adjustments, furthermore the utilization of regionalised specifically north characters,
Coronation Street commences with an establishing shot of the road associated with extra digetic music, setting up the particular environment and the local place, i. e brass music, using its links to northern history. The audience gets into a tiny shop, all camera movement and editing is submissive to dialogue and action, although most prominently shown within the dining room table world with ken Barlow, swift cuts are utilized to focus on whichever character speaks, this is basic continuity editing and enhancing, this is an invisible unobtrusive technique so that as the performances are naturalistic it pushes the audience the concentrate of the "reality" at the job.
Although breathless handles subversive character types, coronation road deals with existing stereotypes, for connection in the audience, the working classes most prominently with "kitchen sink" subject material. This is a form of socially expanded realism. The materials in Coronation Streets is reasonable: Poverty, economy and category are intimated within the drama but it always kept within the boundaries of how these issues result the individual. Because of this it might be deemed Coronation Street is socially extended realism. For example Ken Barlow's parents feel he is rejecting his origins, a class issue; dealt with within the confines of the dynamics of family romantic relationships. So the most important focus of this television play is the mimesis between display screen and real life,