Posted at 10.31.2018
In this essay I am discussing and looking at the Tyler model and Knowles model for Adult Learners. This can be seen in section one where the comparison and contrasting of the two models will be set up to be able to get a better understanding. In section two I am going to choose one of the two models that are most appropriate for a learning context. The conclusion will consist of a summary of the key tips set up throughout this paper.
Tyler was very much linked with curriculum theory, development, educational diagnosis and evaluation. In education individuals respect Tyler as the "father" of behavioral aims. This form of procedure puts much more importance on the needs of the learner. You will find similarities between Tyler's and this of the andragogical model as they both associate specifically to the individuals self direction and their experience. Tyler regularly used this in understanding how to be considered a development where a person attains new patterns of behaviour. He had four basic questions regarding to learning:
What educational purposes if the school seek to achieve?
What educational encounters can be provided that will probably attain these purposes?
How can these educational experience be effectively prepared?
How can we determine whether these purposes are being accomplished? (Boone, pp. 26)
The prior questions are now well known in adult education. "Understanding of the psychology of learning helps placed bounds on what can be discovered within the given time and the current environment of the organization" (Boone. Pp. 26). Tyler thought that the make-up of a school's curriculum had to relate to three main factors that together form the components of an individuals education experience. To begin with would be the type of the average person learner, which may include the individuals developmental factors, their learner interests/needs and also their life activities. Second would involve the individuals ideals and seeks of society, which may include values and attitudes. The last being understanding of the subject matter. The actual learner feels to be valuable and useful knowledge. In responding to the four questions and in developing learning experience for students, curriculum builders had to establish judgments through the three factors. He thought that when "setting educational targets, programmers should take into consideration the learners, contemporary society, philosophical factors within the institution conducting the program, the intellectual environment of culture and experts in the subject" (Bye & Reich, pp. 181). The assumptions of this model are that learning can be measured in conditions of changing behaviours.
"One of the most frequently offered criticisms of programs of professional prep by graduates who consequently inhabit the 'real world' of practice is the fact that such programs are strong on theory but weak on request" (Brookfield, pp. 201). Knowles is regarded as a central shape in US adult education in the next 1 / 2 of the twentieth century. The development model is organised on his andragogical philosophy, where one assumes that parents move toward self-direction. Using this method use their experience as a learning tool, then will be ready to learn in accordance with socio-developmental tasks and desire immediate request of learning. Knowles feels that the adult learner brings life experiences to learning, incorporating and complementing the cognitive skills of Piaget's adolescent. As the average person matures:
his/her self-concept movements from dependency to self-direction
he/she accumulates a growing reservoir of experience that becomes a tool for learning
his/her learning readiness becomes progressively oriented to the responsibilities of various interpersonal roles
his/her time perspective changes in one of postponed knowledge application to immediate application
his/her orientation to learning shifts from subject-centered to problem-centered (http://honolulu. hawaii. edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/knowles. htm )
Knowles is convinced that adults should have developed mature understanding of themselves, in a position to understand their needs, motivations, pursuits and goals. Individuals should be able to take a look at themselves objectively and maturely. They need to recognize themselves and respect themselves for what they are, while striving to become better. Adult learners should develop an attitude of acceptance, love, and esteem toward others. This is the attitude on which all human relations depend. They need to learn to identify between people and ideas, also to concern ideas without threatening people. Ideally, this attitude will go beyond acceptance, love, and value, to empathy and the sincere desire to help others. "Knowles was persuaded that adults discovered in another way to children and that this provided the foundation for a unique field of enquiry. His early on work on informal adult education acquired highlighted some elements of process and setting" (http://www. infed. org/thinkers/et-knowl. htm ). By doing this Knowles cam to the conclusions about the shape and direction of adult education. Relating to Knowles andragogy model the key points are:
Adults move towards self-direction
Adults use experience as a learning resource
Adults are prepared to learn in accordance with socio developmental tasks
Adults devise immediate software of learning (Bye & Reich 2003, p182)
The two models are very different to each other when compared. Tyler's objective model requires no prior knowledge of this article being taught whilst Knowles institutional model requires some prior knowledge from the adult learner. This preceding knowledge helps motivates the training to get involved more in the learning process which leads to further /developments in understanding of the topic being shown. The learner is seen as an 'clear vessel' in Tyler's model. The average person is more reliant on the teacher in learning new things within the learning environment. That is entirely opposite to Knowles model, as the learner looks for growth in knowledge.
My goal in this section is to apply Tyler's model with TAFE's Business Management course. Central to Tyler's model is effectively organizing the learning activities. He is convinced in three criteria's that are essential in building structured learning experiences. These are continuity, collection and integration. Business Management mirrors Tyler's model by creating productive learning experience in a content area that is normally found boring. Having recognized a number of learning activities, the educator troubles students in lively learning with writing projects, group presentations, group quizzes, a written financial project, individual and group participation and a final exam. The procedure of assessment is critical to Tyler's model and starts with the goals of the educational program. The lecturer will be required to establish the idea of the analysis by responding to questions such as "what's the purpose of this examination, what do you want it for?" With a web based syllabus, students can prepare for the various ways of analysis. Mid semester evaluations provide valuable responses on learning activities. A final evaluation of 2009 present important reviews for course revision. Because of this, the following semester group learning activities were increased from 10% to 40% of the course content. Other responses discovered that students desire for more review time and that the instructions advanced too quickly. Because of time limitations, the lecturer included additional non-graded projects as group presentations. By doing this the curriculum and instructions diagnosis helped better achieve the identified outcomes of improving critical thinking, communication and analytical skills. A final exam also helps evaluate the learning targets and integration of knowledge. Tyler and TAFE's Business Management have similar strategies for building curriculum and training. Tyler claims, "Education is an activity of changing the behavior patterns of people". TAFE uses assessments to achieve the defined learning aims and promotes contribution from individuals through interesting activities. They both value the individual learner.
"Education either functions as an instrument which is utilized to accomplish the integration of decades into the reasoning of today's system and result in conformity to it, or it becomes 'the practice of freedom', the means where women and men package critically and creatively with reality and find out how to take part in the transformation of the world" (Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, 1970) By by using a combo of adult learner techniques and strategies, educators can create training encounters that will enhance the learning of individuals. When a person is put into positive learning experience that practices andragogy process that is offered above, they are more likely to maintain what they have discovered and apply it in their work place.