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Discrimination WITHIN THE English Language

There exists national and racial discrimination in the English words. Such kind of discrimination can be mirrored by words, expressions and also proverbs. This linguistic trend has profound historical and cultural background, reflects national bias, conflicts and hatred, and thus provides us information about historical romantic relationships among countries. This paper analyses triggers and connotations of national and racial slurs, and shows the potential unwanted effects of the slurs on international associates. It also deals with the current talk about of linguistic discrimination in modern society and the attempts people make to get rid of the phenomenon.

Language primarily functions as the communication tool and information transmitter, and it is closely associated with ethnic. Every cultural group in this world has its own language which may be either somewhat or totally different from other communities. Dialect is the carrier of ethnic history and social culture, and evolves alongside the world where it can be used. As they say, the introduction of the ethnic is the essential cause and basic condition of the introduction of the terminology. Since terms and ethnic are so profoundly interrelated, it is not any wonder that vocabulary is inspired by ethnic emotions and the last mentioned are fully embodied in the former.

1. 2 National and racial discrimination in the British language

As a typical social phenomenon, countrywide and racial discrimination against other ethnic groups would inevitably exert effect on dialects. Thus, slurs come into being in almost every language on earth. Among these languages, English is a particularly impressive example which consists of many national and racial slurs.

It is obviously seen that in the English vocabulary, part of its large vocabulary is concerned with nations and races. Unpleasantly, this part often carries a connotation of nationwide and racial discrimination. We can easily find slurs with various forms such as vocabulary, term, address, proverb, etc. Take the "Dutch" idioms for example. If the person says to you, "you do conquer the Dutch (Liu, 2003:131)", he intends to mean that you are great.

When people use the "Dutch" idioms, they could speculate how those idioms originate. Actually, the slurs in the British language have deep historical history. Though causes of slurs are rather complicated˜yet we can still straighten out them. Among these sophisticated causes, ethnocentrism, wars and racial dissimilarities are the main ones.

1. 3 Goals of the study

The study focuses on the happening of national and racial discrimination in the

English vocabulary. We will look into the reason why the slurs enter into being and the connotations that they hold. After we get a much better notion of their connotations, we can know whether it is proper to utilize them in public areas. Hence, we can try to avoid misunderstandings in cross-cultural communication and improve our competence.

Since there are so many slurs in English, we must be careful about them.

We may question about the following questions. What outcome would they cause when used incorrectly? Are they still used frequently in daily life? Or are they heading to fade right out of the English terms?

2. Causes of countrywide and racial slurs in the English language

2. 1 Obsession of ethnocentrism in the United Kingdom and United States

In Oxford Advanced Learner's English-Chinese Dictionary, ethnocentrism is "predicated on the ideas and values of 1 particular culture and using these to guage other cultures". (Hornby & Wehmeier, 2004:580) Strong sense of countrywide take great pride in is one of the main causes of countrywide discrimination. A region with ethnocentrism is convinced in the superiority of its culture including principles, norms, languages, etc. , and considers other countries as inferior compared to it. Since National feelings are directly interlinked with national language, national discrimination finds appearance in the last mentioned.

The USA and the UK are considered to be very pleased nations. We can tell ethnocentrism from the two countries' brands. (Jiao, 2009:57) The USA is brief for america of America. Even though the word America means the whole continent including Canada and Mexico, the USA utilizes it as an element of its country name. When people say Us citizens today, they generally refer to the folks of the USA and exclude Canadian and Mexican. The British is believe it or not proud than the People in the usa. They used to promise their country to be "the empire which sunlight never places" and "the mistress of the seas" (Mao, 2003:141) The entire name of its region is the uk of THE UK and North Ireland. The British isles want to call their country THE UK. The UK is actually a small country but it is the only country surrounding the world using "great" in its country's name.

Some proverbs in English are the real portrayal of the excessively happy mind of the British. For instance, "the British are a land of shop-keepers; all countries stand looking for Britain, and Britain of none; one Englishman can conquer three Frenchmen. " (Mao, 2003:143) From these proverbs, we can see this island country is completely indulged in self-admiration. It assumes that whatever in its country is good and useful while those far away are odd. Generally, it despises other countries especially those once at warfare with it such as France and holland. Even two of the planet major capabilities, Russia and america cannot get away the fate to be derided. As the proverb says, "An American is going to hell for a tote of espresso. " "Scratch a Russian, and you will find a tarter. " (Jiao, 2009:59)

Ethnocentrism endows the English dialect with a predilection towards the UK and the united states, and a bias against other countries or races. An excessive amount of national pride glorifies a country while shows contempt for the virtues of other countries. In reality, it is good to state that any ethnic group on earth will probably show undue pride of nationalism of various levels, consciously or not. Nonetheless˜ethnocentrism negatively affects international relationships and moves against peaceful coexistence.

2. 2 National resentment induced by wars

Historical happenings have undoubtedly made their contribution to the development of British lexicology. New expressions often emerge from times of warfare when national feelings is operating high. In most cases, they continue to stay static in the language along the way of communal development even if more than 100 years have passed. The "French" and "Dutch" expressions and proverbs will be the classic samples.

From a geographical perspective, France encounters the uk across the English Channel. From 1377 to 1453, France and England were involved in wars over place and economic gain. (Dai, 2003) The hundred-year conflict concluded in a success for France. This certainly provided rise to resentment from Englishmen toward France. English people found appearance because of their hatred in the British vocabulary. They considered the term "French" as a derogatory one and created many terms containing the word. Even today, we can still start to see the "French" expressions usually used as pejorative in the English language. For instance, the proverb "one Englishman can conquer three Frenchmen" means defeating adversary soldiers with a pressure inferior in number. Some "French" phrases are connected with gender and eroticism. A French postcard/novel (Hou, 2009:64) is a pornographic image/book. French gout (Hou, 2009:64) is syphilis.

Not only the word "French" but also "Dutch" fall into this category. Dated back again to 16th century, Britain have been friendly with the Netherlands. It was not before 17th century that holland became one of the most significant colonial empires in the world and a solid competitor of England for maritime trade. (Dai, 2003) It was unavoidable that growing commercial rivalry between Britain and the United Netherlands resulted in the outbreak of wars. There have been three Anglo-Dutch Wars fought in the 17th century. After the wars, the uk of Great Britain achieved maritime supremacy. Due to the wars, hostility persisted for a long time between your two countries. Many "Dutch" expressions and proverbs symbolize English thoughts toward the Dutch. For instance, Dutch comfort/consolation (Liu, 2003:131) means no comfort/consolation by any means. If something is dual Dutch (Liu, 2003:131) to a person, they can hardly understand it.

2. 3 Racial differences

The majority of Native English audio speakers are white people. White racists consider their ancestry is sacred and of top quality than others. They believe their contest possesses definite and remarkable superiority in comparison with others'. As a result, they disparage other races on the globe. This sort of feelings can be called racial discrimination which is sufficiently mirrored in the English terms. People can name racial slurs, a lot of which are related to African Americans, Local Americans and Asians. Expressions and proverbs filled with such words as Negro, nigger and Indian often bring a connotation of contempt.

Particularly in the North american English, we can identify the serious racial discrimination phenomenon. AMERICA is referred to to be "a big melting pot", into which immigrants from all around the world attended together and blended their cultures and traditions. People of different nationalities, races, colors and faiths inhabit in the same community, getting in touch with, influencing and integrating mutually. Altogether, they create a active, multi-ethnic, and multi-cultural world, and make their specific contribution to the American background. Yet˜this mainly white country has been faced with racial contradictions and issues throughout its background. Strong hostility and prejudice between different racial categories, mainly the white and the colored, has resulted in racism in the English language and led to a rapid increase of discriminatory vocabulary.

2. 4 Country wide traits

From the micro point of view, this can be a common practice among visitors to remark on others' physiological features, and make fun of these about their looks, figures, and dressing. In a broad perspective, one ethnic group may tease another about its distinctive physiological feature which is apparently strange. It really is conceivable that countrywide qualities (physiological features and personas) can even be a source of slurs in the English language.

It is unsurprising that Japanese, smaller in stature than the westerner˜get the nickname "little-yellow-man" (Liu, 2003:129) from the Us citizens. The Russians are nicknamed "polar bears" (Liu, 2003:129) because on one side part of Russia is located in the frigid Arctic Circle, where polar bears often haunt, and on the other the Russians got a reputation for being strong and competitive.

Although these seem sensible, making fun of others about their distinctive characteristics is inappropriate˜inconsiderate and even cruel in the end. From the perspective of region, every ethnic group is exclusive in its features due to the interactions of heredity, environment and other factors. A country is willing to discriminate others on condition that it assumes its characteristics are much better than another nation's. It really is unfair and wrong to evaluate other nations by the standard of your respective own land.

2. 5 Spatiotemporal differences

Owing to spatiotemporal distinctions, countries face different surroundings which have an effect on their understanding of others. Therefore, having less knowledge of other areas would bring about incorrect interpretations and misunderstandings of individuals in those areas.

Sometimes a country's physical backgrounds may become a popular topic and laughingstock to other countries. We might have heard the saying, "Finland is the devil's country" (Mao, 2003:143) and thought about about its source. As is known, Finland is situated at high latitudes of northern hemisphere with frigid climatic conditions. The special physical location leaves the feeling on the English-speaking individuals who Finland is uninhabitable in support of devils dare live there.

In the English language, Chinese language puzzle (Mao, 2003:142) identifies a complicated thing or problem. The saying stems from the annals when America and China had little contact. The People in america felt mixed up about China and acquired a poor understanding of the country. Hence, it is imaginable that they fastened a feeling of intricacy to the word Chinese.

3. Words˜expressions and proverbs mirroring ethical prejudice

In what way can words, expressions and proverbs represent countrywide and racial discrimination? From the point of modern British lexicology, there are four common tendencies of semantic change in words: restriction of so this means (expertise), expansion of meaning (generalization), degeneration of so this means (pejoration), and elevation of so this means (amelioration). (Zhang, 1987:269) Among these four, degeneration of meaning refers to the condition that "words once respectable or natural may change to a less respectable or even derogatory so this means. " (Zhang, 1987:277) That is the most common method used in linguistic discrimination. For instance, the "Dutch" idioms in Section 3. 1. 1 have derogatory meanings because the word "Dutch" is degraded into negative sense.

In English, there are so many idioms concerned about ethical prejudice that it might be difficult to cover most of them. Why don't we have a look at some of them from two extensive categories.

3. 1 Representation of countrywide discrimination

Before shifting, I would like to state that all the idioms in the following paragraphs come from On Country wide Prejudice in Language by Liu Baojun except people that have special interlinear records.

3. 1. 1 The "Dutch" idioms

There a wide range of "Dutch" expressions in English. We probably have read or said them in daily life. However, we may have little idea about when they were first used and exactly how they came into being. "Dutch" is described by the annoying associations of certain historical occasions, namely, the Anglo-Dutch wars and rivalry at sea in the seventeenth century. Lots of the "Dutch" expressions were first used in England at that time, during fierce naval competition between England and the Netherlands. United kingdom people used "Dutch" to refer to something bad. Now, of course, the English and the Dutch have an agreeable relation. But the word "Dutch" is still found in almost the same manner as it once was long time in the past.

The "Dutch" idioms can be grouped into several types.

First of all, a few of the "Dutch" expressions are related to wine beverages because the Dutch were regarded as bibber. The term "Dutch courage" is a slang term for courage gained after alcohol consumption. It really is synonymous with liquid courage. The word is purported to have its source in the battles of the seas. (Liu, 2003:131) It is stated that the Dutch navy feared all other navies especially the English navy. It had been rationalized that they must have drunk liquor before battle to alleviate their dread. A Dutch great deal or Dutch contract, which is made between men who have drunk too much alcoholic beverages, is an unequal, one-sided deal. If the host is the first to get drunk in the party, it can be called a Dutch feast.

Second, the English used to consider the Dutch very stingy about money. The Dutch always separated the expenses when whey went for dinner. Predicated on this conception, Dutch treat referred to a dinner of which the invited friends should pay for their own talk about of food and refreshments. A Dutch get together is a party to which each guest contributes some food and drink. Today, Dutch treat has a just a little different interpretation from that. When friends venture out to have a great time, each person gives his own show if they consent to Dutch treat or go Dutch.

Third, in the eye of the English, the Dutch were rude, irritable and strange. To get one's Dutch up is to flare up. To accomplish a Dutch take action methods to commit suicide. In case a person talks to you in an exceedingly severe way, he is talking such as a Dutch uncle. This expression emerges for the reason that the Dutch got a reputation for increasing their children in a firm way. (Li, 2009:52)

Not only expressions but also proverbs can convey nationwide slurs. The Dutch has considered Holland can be interpreted the following: a guy who may have seen little regards a lot of things as bizarre and comment excitedly on the commonplace thing out of inexperience.

However, people using these expressions might not be well aware that they are harming the Netherlands' national pride. Virtually all the "Dutch" phrases contain negative connotation. The problem makes holland feel uneasy and low nationwide respect. Thus, in 1934, Netherlands' government commanded that officers should avoid use the term "Dutch". (Hou, 2009:65) Regardless of your time and effort, today the derogatory sense of the term still exists and folks continue utilizing it to make reference to something negative.

3. 1. 2 The "French" idioms

In the present day history of the planet, France and the Great Britain rival each other in political, economic, cultural and military competition. Many English idioms have noted the country's discord with the French.

French leave is an abrupt and unannounced departure without saying farewell to the variety. The term can be followed back to 18th hundred years. (Wang, 1999:45) From view of figure, the French were amiable and easygoing by nature. It was their custom that guests invited to dinner would depart without providing thanks or stating farewell with their host. Towards the British, specifically the English, whose respected quality is reserved, departing without saying goodbye is ill-mannered, discourteous and shows no value for others.

There goes the proverb "when the Ethiopian is white, the France will like the British. " The truth is, The Ethiopians are dark-skinned and it is impossible that their pores and skin will flip white. By using this logic analysis, neither is it possible that the France will love the English. The proverb means that the condition of hostility between the two countries would not end.

Another proverb goes, "The Italians are sensible before the deed, the Germans in the deed, the French after the deed. " (Jiao, 2009:59) By contrasting France with another two countries, the idiom posesses communication that the People from france are wooden-headed and witless.

Historically, it was advised by the People in the usa that a few of the "French" expressions should be modified. Yet˜it was prematurily. to be cheerful for the French. Here will go the story. Inside the first 50 % of the year 2003, France compared the program "shock and awe" used by the American-led United Nations causes toward Iraq. This stirred up American disgust toward the French. A television variety of FOX information, one of the American press, called for a boycott of French goods. It was demanded that in the British language France toast and French fry should be became liberty toast and freedom fry while French leave should be reserved. (Du, 2005:23) Very oddly enough, it looked that the Us citizens wanted to keep the "French" expressions with derogatory sense and on the other hand discard others with natural meaning. In such circumstance, The French could do only sulk.

3. 1. 3 The "Chinaman/Chinese" idioms

In contemporary times, China cut off itself from the exterior world. As a result of a seclusion policy in foreign relationships, China lost a chance for development and dropped in back of. Thus, the western countries showed contempt to this poor and backward nation with weak detailed power. Chink and Chinaman have always been used as disparaging terms for the Chinese. Many results of talk in the British reflected a history of Chinese being insulted.

Chinaman's chance essentially means an exceptionally sleek chance or no chance whatsoever for you to definitely complete his goal or successfully do an action. In 1978, American publisher Scribner released the book Chinaman's chance by Ross Thomas. Whatever the content of the novel, people sought the foundation of the name Chinaman's chance. The historical framework of the term schedules from the goldrush days of California in the middle of the 19th hundred years when many Chinese came up here to are laborers. (Jiao, 2009:58) Their job was requiring and very dangerous but lower-paying. The Chinese faced higher fees, denial of citizenship and equal privileges to white man. Chinaman's chance truly depicts the hard life of Chinese for the reason that city. Another expression happened in the same period. That can be played someone for a Chinaman is to take care of him as a fool.

Many of the "Chinese" expressions been told in English are used as pejorative.

A Chinese duplicate is an exact duplicate of a genuine. Chinese slavery means virtual

slavery. Chinese go with is used to explain a man who speaks one way and thinks another. Chinese flames drill identifies confusional and chaotic condition, large but inadequate exercise, or the take action of several individuals achieving nothing at all. If someone has Chinese restaurant syndrome (Wang, 1999:43), he might feel headache, throwing up, swirl or sweating induced by eating Chinese food that contains monosodium glutamate. Research shows that there is no proof the so-called Chinese restaurant syndrome and it is only urban legend.

3. 1. 4 The "Irishman" and "Irish" idioms

The United Kingdom comprises of four nations - Britain, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Of these four nations, the English people account for the majority of the inhabitants and feel most United kingdom. They have a solid sense of nationwide pride and ridicule all of those other kingdom. They might verbally assault Scotland, Wales, and specifically Ireland. We can check out some of the "Irishman" and "Irish" phrases.

Irishman's dinner/feast actually means apastia. Irishman's promotion represents demotion.

Irish gemstone is not diamonds at all. It is just crystal or natural stone. Irish evidence sometimes appears as perjury. Irish compliment is backhanded go with. If someone makes an Irish bull, he provides a paradoxical declaration. To get one's Irish up (Hou, 2009:64) means to lose one's temper. A similar expression is to get one's Dutch up.

There are also "Irish" proverbs with offensive implications: England's difficulty is Ireland's opportunity; Put an Irishman on the spit, and you could always get another to baste him. (Mao, 2003:143)

3. 1. 5 The "Welsh" idioms

The expression "Welsh" shares the same destiny of "Irish".

To Welsh is to repudiate a arrears. According to English people, the expression hails from 19th hundred years when many Welsh people made a living by bets on horse racing. (Liu, 1999:79) These were thought to have been extremely cunning because they always tried to get out of paying money when they lost the bet. Thus, in the sight of British people, they truly became notorious for such a bad quality. Therefore, to Welsh on someone is to go back on one's expression. To Welsh on one's credit debt is to rat on one's debt

As we realize, England is a relatively rich nation in comparison to Wales. Phrases like Welsh comb and Welsh carpet are used by the English visitors to mock at Welsh poverty.

3. 1. 6 The "Greek" idioms

The expression "Greek" is associated with strategy, cattiness, and threat.

Greek gift can not be interpreted literally. If the person receives a Greek gift, he should be mindful because the surprise is given with the intention of tricking the recipient and causing injury to him. A proverb derives from this expression, "I fear the Greeks, even though they include the gifts".

Greek trust signifies unreliability.

When Greek meets Greek, and then comes the tug of conflict. It means that whenever enemies face one another, their sight blaze with hate. Fires are rekindled between the two edges and old wounds opened up again.

When people come across something incomprehensible, they would say it is all Greek to me to show that they don't really understand whatsoever.

3. 2 Reflection of racial discrimination

3. 2. 1 Discrimination against Native American

Before starting this part, I wish to make it clear that all the idioms below result from On English Terminology against Non-English Nationalities by Mao Fasheng except those with special records.

An Indian giver refers to someone who gives a present but require something in return later. This manifestation hails from around 1765 and the American colonial times. (Li, 2009:57) To the early American Indians, gifts were simply form of trade goods. A person provided a gift idea in anticipation of something of equal in exchange. However, to the European settlers, such kind of custom were insulting. In their minds, gift items were freely given rather than for trade methods. The original so this means of the manifestation was only the expectation of a gift in exchange. By the later 1800s, its sense shifted to spell it out someone who calls for return while supplying. Indian giving is a similar conditions used to satirize the giver. We should cope with an Indian gift idea with extreme caution as well as Greek product. The present is given by someone with expectation of obtaining another from us.

An Indian sign is a special spell ensemble on a person to regulate him or bring him misfortune. If a woman can put or have an Indian sign on a young man, then she fascinates him perhaps with her amazing loveliness.

Americans deemed the Indians as dumb, irritable and evil-minded. Terms like cigar-store Indian, dumb Indian, solid wood Indian portray a poor image for the Indians as boring and foolish. To get one's Indian up is to get mad or be swollen with trend. It stocks the same interpretation as two other characters of talk "get one's Dutch up" and "get one's Irish up". The proverb "The one good Indian is a inactive Indian" (Liu, 2003:131) characterizes the American romantic relationship with Indians.

3. 2. 2 Discrimination against African-American

In American background˜African-Americans were at the mercy of discrimination and their life were unfortunately crippled by the manacles of segregation. They were confronted with poor living conditions and severe working surroundings. Being despised, hated, disgraced and oppressed by racists, they resided in misery and hurting. Right now, in the modern culture of more complex civilization, the happening of racial discrimination still prevails. Racism is still a sensitive and serious concern that the earth seeks to resolve. From view of terminology, racial slurs should be found almost everywhere.

Nigger, niggra, niggruh and Negro (Jiao, 2009:57) are normal slavery-imposed epithets with apparent insult to the black. They remind people the bitter period of slavery when African-Americans battled for independence. To work like a negro/nigger refers to someone who works or is pressured to work very hard just like a slave.

Even in books, we can see racial slurs in world-famous works. For example, some African-Americans complained about the novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Symbol Twain. They claimed that the writer shouldn't have used the term "nigger" in the e book. The next dialogue, specifically, stirs up strong discontent among African-Americans.

"Good gracious. " Anybody hurt?

"No'm wiped out a nigger. "

"Well, it's blessed because sometimes people do get harm. "

We should try not to get involved in the issue of racial discrimination; otherwise we may place ourselves in criticism and trouble. In 1999, David Howard, the aide of Washington, DC mayor Anthony Williams resigned after being accused of using a racial slur. Mr. Howard, brain of the Office of Community Advocate, used the term "niggardly" when delivering the budget survey in another of the regular conferences by municipal federal. As a matter of fact, niggardly is defined as stingy or ungenerous and doesn't have any racial connotations. Yet, workers present that was consisting of two blacks and another white were offended by the term. Soon after the getting together with, the rumor began to propagate that Howard experienced used the racial slur "nigger". Howard said such rumor "has seriously compromised my effectiveness as the District's General public Advocate and in the best interest of my office, I resigned. " Howard was innocent in this matter. The true problem is that niggardly has an identical pronunciation with nigger. An important lessons we can learn out of the is that individuals especially government officers should avoid using not only racial slurs but also words sounding very much like them.

4. Negative effects of linguistic discrimination

4. 1 Verbal counterback in other languages against English slurs

Linguistic discrimination in British would surely lead to verbal episode from those countries that have been insulted by English-speaking countries. It really is normal to find ethnic slurs in other languages than English. For instance, in the People from france dialect, les sombikes (Liu, 1999:81), which has the same so this means as "son of your bitch" in the British language, can be used as a disparaging term for an American. The phrase schedules from the First World Conflict when American military liked to shout the expletive "son of an bitch".

As a matter of fact, almost any dialect contains cultural slurs. It might be just to say that any ethnic on the globe is likely to glorify its own group and meanwhile look down upon others. This sense of national superiority, more or less, is shown in the dialect.

4. 2 Negative impact on international relations

Based on numerous historical situations, linguistic discrimination against other countries and races mirrors obstacles, conflicts, and hatred between different ethnic groups. It is a public problem that can't be neglected. The consumption of slurs can be harmful to international relationships. It exerts negative effect on social equity, stability and harmony. Background teaches us that this has clearly inspired countrywide unity and integrity in such a country of great ethnic complexity as America.

As long as inter-ethnic inequality and contractions can be found in human society, they might find expression in the terms. Conversely˜linguistic discrimination would result in hostility and conflicts between ethnics. They collectively start a vicious cycle and folks get caught in it.

5. Point out of English linguistic discrimination in modern society

5. 1 Common life of English linguistic discrimination

It is undeniable that the phenomenon of English linguistic discrimination is still quite typical in society. People use those idioms in daily life, consciously or not. They may say a slur without spotting that it's offensive and may cause them trouble. What makes discriminatory vocabulary still used today even if hostilities finished more than 100 years previously? As is mentioned in chapter 1. 1, terms produces and evolves with culture. Once words receive derogatory meanings, it might be difficult to improve or eliminate them. "It often happens that dialect is more conventional than civilization, materials as well as moral. Items, institutions, ideas, methodical concepts change eventually; yet in many cases the name is maintained and thus really helps to ensure a sense of tradition and continuity. " (Ullmann 1977:198)

5. 2 Signal of advancements on the phenomenon

Fortunately, we have seen evidence of advancements on the happening of nationwide and racial discrimination in the English language.

For example, Within the September of 2001, the pile Chink's Top in the Pocatello Range in Idaho State got its new formal name Chinese Optimum from the United States Table of Geographic Names. The initial name Chink's Maximum was deemed offensive and racist. Some people especially Chinese People in america strongly wanted that it should be changed. "There is a heightened awareness and sensitivity as to how these types of names reflect negatively to your city's Chinese ancestry, " Pocatello Mayor Greg Anderson said, "We wished it to honor the Chinese language contribution to your culture and our history. " Although it will take a while for the new name to roll off the tongues, folks have faith that change is positive and then for the better.

Furthermore, the modern culture has already reached a consensus that national and racial slurs should be avoided. In public areas occasion, people now would consciously ponder every phrase so carefully concerning avoid sensitive dialect. For instance, they might alternatively use such a long-term as African-American than say Negro or nigger which is deemed racist.

5. 3 Future pattern of the phenomenon

In the international community, it has turned into a consensus that nations in the world should uphold the process of ethnic equality and not allow discrimination predicated on countries or races. Linguistic discrimination will go against this cultural equality concept. Thus, people are making attempts to remove it.

We think that, with the flourish of international communication and exchange against the background of globalization, the trend of discrimination in the British language would fade away, and countrywide and racial slurs would consequently die out too.

6. Conclusion

Indeed, Country wide and racial slurs are to be found anywhere in the English languages. Many country labels including Dutch, French, Chinese language, and Greek are attached negative connotations by English-speaking countries. Whenever we get right down to this linguistic trend, we will find out that ethnocentrism, wars, racial variations are the most significant triggers for discrimination. Tracing back again the foundation of English words is very important as it helps us to comprehend the actual meanings of words.

For a indigenous English speaker or a international learner of English, it's important to know that modern English phraseology is a wealthy way to obtain information not only about events in the uk or the united states itself but also about its interrelations with neighboring countries and other countries of the world. Affirmed, an analysis of the historical background and interpersonal condition under that your slurs happened will allow us to get a better concept of them. In that way˜we can apply British correctly and properly in cross-cultural communication.

In a wide sense, the world is becoming a worldwide village and its own civilization is abundant, colorful, and varied. Human society comprises of different ethnics, that have their own culture including traditions, traditions, values, values, etc. It really is natural that each ethnic has a strong sense of national pride, but it is inappropriate to belittle other groups. Linguistic slurs predicated on countries and races mirror the unpleasant record of international exchanges. We've faith that with the increase of international connections, nationwide and racial prejudice and discrimination would gradually diminish out from human being society. In the future, slurs would gradually be ignored, too.

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