Posted at 11.15.2018
Natural Disasters like Cyclone, Flood and Tsunami have been impacting on the coastal areas for a long time. The prime cause of this impact is the lack of last mile communications. In a tragedy situation, well-timed warnings allow people to take activities that save lives, reduce damage to property and minimize human fighting. To facilitate an effective warning system, there's a major dependence on better coordination among the first warning providers as well as those managing logistics and raising awareness about catastrophe preparedness, security and management. There are several new communication solutions that allow warning providers not only to reach folks vulnerable but also to customize their warning meaning to a specific situation. Opportunities are available right now to significantly reduce lack of life and properties if devastation warning systems can be improved upon. In this review, the researcher analyzes how various types of Radio performs an important role in disseminating information among the people during emergencies using review and interviews. This newspaper also checks the effective role of ICT in communicating security planning, preparedness and risk management ways of coastal neighborhoods in the Tamil Nadu status of India.
Keywords: natural disasters, communication, technology, radio, town information centres
India is one of the very most disaster susceptible countries of the world. It has had some of the world's most severe droughts, famines, cyclones, earthquakes, substance disasters, rail accidents, and road damages. The growing countries are becoming increasingly subjected to greater numbers of natural and man-made disasters, resulting in larger numbers of people becoming victims. It is estimated that between 1980 and 1984, about 800 disasters afflicted the lives of about 400 million people in the world. The high thickness of populace in the producing countries, especially in the high risk coastal areas, results in several millions of men and women getting damaged by natural disasters, especially in recurring disasters like floods, cyclones, surprise surges, etc.
Tamilnadu being one of the 28 claims of India lies on the eastern shoreline of the southern Indian peninsula bordered by Puducherry (Pondicherry), Kerela, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Since Tamilnadu and Puducherry were positioned in the coastal regions of Bay of Bengal, the natural disasters such as Tsunami, Floods, Cyclone eliminates the lives of many people such as damage to the properties.
Over 1000 wiped out as Tsunami hits Eastern and South coastal areas in India. Over a thousand folks have been killed in tidal waves in Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Andhra Pradesh and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tamil Nadu and Puducherry was the "worst type of damaged" with possibly over 800 people killed. At least 350 folks have been confirmed dead in Tamil Nadu with over 100 people useless in Chennai together. As much as 239 folks have been killed in Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu, while in Nagapatnam; the amount of useless has been validated as 273.
The information needs of catastrophe management deals with collection of two categories of disaster-related data:
Pre-disaster baseline data about the country and dangers; and
Post-disaster real-time data about the impact of a tragedy and the resources open to fight it.
Similarly, the disaster management functioning technique is handled two types of activities:
Pre-disaster activities: examination and research (to enhance the existing knowledge basic), risk analysis, prevention, mitigation and preparedness; and
Post-disaster activities: response, rehabilitation and reconstruction.
The capability of market leaders and administrators to make sound disaster management decisions - to investigate risks and determine after appropriate counter-measures - can be greatly improved by the cross-sectoral integration of information.
Communication is a significant bottleneck in case there is any major devastation particularly when the traditional network system already in force brakes down. In order to strengthen communications, it's been decided that law enforcement officials network (POLNET) will also be used for catastrophe management. For this function POLNET communication center was extended to Area Magistrates, Sub Divisional Magistrates as well as the Control Rooms.
For emergency communication, mobile satellite based units which can be transported to the website of the catastrophe are being procured. A group was constituted to get a thorough communication plan for catastrophe management nd the record has since been received. This gives for a dedicated communication system for disaster management with built-in redundancies.
Communication and education can play a proactive role in mitigation through recognition about the types of catastrophe and concerning how prevention procedures can be studied up.
There is also a Dish structured communication system called the Cyclone Warning Dissemination Systems (CWDS) for transmitting of warnings. You will find 250 cyclone-warning sets installed in the cyclone prone regions of east and western world coast. Everyone, the coastal residents and anglers, are also warned through the federal government machinery and broadcast of warnings through AIR and Television.
The use of satellite tv, computers, electronics, better communication facilities are make factor in catastrophe management. The data processing and pcs are providing a useful tool in decision making in disaster.
To study the many communication technologies applied for the inter-organizational communication for catastrophe management in Cuddalore, a seaside condition of TamilNadu.
To investigate the potency of VHF Radio System based mostly EWS in disseminating early warning to seaside areas in Cuddalore.
The role of Authorities in catastrophe management is to give a central, coordinated course of action to handle the damage the effect of a catastrophe as well as the needs of the individuals affected. They also address the degree of risk present within an crisis situation. They repair the dangerous conditions such as polluted normal water supplies, damaged power lines, and limited enclosure. When needed, civil protection units including the National Guard is named to keep order within a tragedy situation. Disaster management also includes providing the support essential to prepare and rebuild a community aftermath a disaster.
Government agencies provide the lines of communication had a need to keep responders touching government and general population officials. Mobile communications systems are also devote location to provide airlifted systems of communication within a particular region.
A survey on "Disaster Management Centre", printed by Federal of Sri Lanka (2005) provides details about the functioning of devastation management centre in Sri Lanka. Risk Mapping and Risk Examination, information and data collection are the major functions of this centre. The gathered information is disseminated to the areas through cell phones, loudspeakers, tv set, radio etc.
The article also stresses on the difficulties in communication within an emergency situation. Repeated breakdown in mobile phone systems, jamming of telephones systems, non-availability of telecommunication facilities in remote villages creates major hindrance in communication during a crisis situation.
"Kerala State Disaster Management Coverage", a report published by Government of Kerala (2009) shows the system and technique of working of Emergency Procedure Centre (EOC). The system of EOC is designed so that the information can be immediately assessed and relayed to worried people. Super fast dissemination contributes to quick response and effective decision making during emergencies. EOC functions at any hour and maintains immediate linkage with area control rooms through mobile, fax, cellular and internet. Report also mentions the occurrence command word system.
The Incidence Command word System can be an structured system of government departments and other agencies that are to be worked well under a structured structure for response and recovery.
"Disaster Management Insurance policy and Communication Systems", a report published by Authorities of Japan (2007) brings about the functioning technique of Disaster Management Communication Systems in Japan. Data gathering and communication sending to neighborhoods will be the major functions of this system. The information collected is disseminated to neighborhoods through loudspeakers and sirens. Article also shows the organizational communication between various departments like flame and disaster management centre, telecommunication and broadcast ministry, municipality etc.
The article on "Disaster Management", released by Federal of India (2004) discusses the activities completed by the central government at the changing times of a tragedy. The basic responsibility of the government is to attempt rescue, pain relief and rehabilitation actions, and provision of logistical and financial support to convey governments throughout a catastrophe. The logistical support includes deployment of aircrafts and offers, specialist groups of Armed Forces, Central Para Military Forces, plans for relief materials & essential commodities including medical stores, recovery of critical infrastructure facilities including communication network and such other assistance as may be required by the affected stats to meet the situation effectively.
An article on "Disaster Management in India", shared by Administration of India (2005), discloses the functioning treatment of National Emergency Management Authority. Critiquing the status of warning system, mitigation measure and devastation preparedness are its major functions. It advises the state governments to restructure/re-group the officers/staff within the Department of Disaster Management with distinct functions to pursuer the alternative method of disaster management. The four practical communities to be allocated with specific duties within departments are, threat mitigation, preparedness and capacity building, pain relief and response, administration and financing.
"Development of National Disaster Communication Plan", an article published by Administration of India (2006) advises a countrywide network between the state government authorities with triple redundancy and full dependability during emergencies to connect the national, condition and district Crisis Procedure Centres. In Phase - I of the report, it is suggested to establish an Emergency Communication System to provide mobile communication linkages through satellite television between on-site catastrophe response clubs to be deployed in distant locations and national and state Crisis Operation Centres. In Stage- II, the plan insists the connectivity using lines with various satellite tv again ups from the existing networks such as BSNL, Police Network, SPACENET to determine a network among all Emergency Operation Centres and mobile Disaster Procedure Centres at catastrophe sites.
A survey "Devastation Management in Tamil Nadu", posted by Federal of Tamil Nadu (2005) identifies the activities carried out by the government in every three stages of catastrophe management.
In Phase - I (pre-disaster stage), all district collectors would put together detailed action plans at local body level and at district level. The public and private areas, voluntary agencies and community would be positively involved in the formulation of such plans. Formulation of appropriate guidelines and suggestions for devastation management, risk examination and mapping of disaster prone areas, establishment of communication network, setting up early caution systems would be carried out in pre-disaster stage.
In stage - II (devastation phase) alert and evacuation, immediate search and recovery operations, providing health care, adequate health insurance and sanitation care, provision of safe normal water, mobilizing money for relief, treatment, relief deals are completed in disaster period.
In period - III (post-disaster stage) reconstruction of homes, relocation of afflicted people, disbursement of cash, redressal of grievances, modification and updation of disaster plans are completed.
"Disaster Management Action Arrange for Floods & Cyclones", a written report published by Federal government of Puducherry (2009) identifies the details regarding various organizations like revenue department, open fire and rescue section, health section etc. involved with devastation management within Puducherry and their functions.
Report also mentions the actions carried out by these departments during a disaster, like revenue department disseminates early warnings before a disaster strikes, flames and rescue section helps in search and rescue process while all the medical needs and disturbances are dealt with by health division.
A report on "Standard Operating Treatment (SOP) for disasters", shared by Authorities of Puducherry (2009) describes the steps ready in concise form as a response to any type of disaster. It advises the collection of actions to be taken by different departments in central/point out/district level.
The SOP will react to all disaster phone calls, mobilizing personnel and fire systems, effective management of resources by communication and mobilization of additional resources. It'll be altered based on the scene of event and an instant area decision will be made by the operational in control in appointment with the controlling officers.
J. P. Saulina Arnold (2006) discusses "National Catastrophe Response Device", which reviews the existing arrangements for preparedness and mitigation of natural/man-made disasters, recommend options for strengthening organizational structures and recommends a thorough model arrange for management of the disasters at National, State and Area level.
National Disaster Response Power (NDRF) has been founded with employees from the Para armed service forces for strengthening the preparedness and crisis response in the united states. Eight battalions of the NDRF have been set up and deployed in strategic locations in the united states and the NDRF staff are being trained and outfitted with state-of-the-art life conserving tools, search and rescue equipments, inflatable vessels, etc. The NDRF employees are also being trained for setting up and responding to Chemical substance, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) emergencies.
Vinod Chandra Menon (2009) discusses the role of "Country wide Disaster Management Power (NDMA)". NDMA is chaired by the Best Minister is the apex body for disaster management in country, which sets up State Region Management Authorities for the effective coordination among the central and state to minimize the impact of the catastrophe.
The Country wide Institute for Catastrophe Management (NIDM) has been established as the apex training institute for devastation management in India. NIDM coordinates the capability building efforts of devastation management faculty in Status Training Institutes and also offers a few distance education programs in disaster management in collaboration with the entire world Loan provider Institute. The NIDM also hosts the SAARC Centre for Disaster Management.
Vinod K. Sharma (2006) describes the role of "National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC)", gives direction to the Problems Management Group as deemed necessary. The Secretary, Ministry of Home Affairs is in charge of making certain all innovations are brought to the notice of the NCMC immediately. The NCMC can give guidelines to any Ministry/Section/Organization for specific action necessary for meeting the crisis situation.
The article also identifies the role of "National Emergency Management Specialist at the National level (NEMA)". When a disaster attacks, the Authority will coordinate disaster management activities. The Expert will lead to:-
· Coordinating/mandating Government's insurance policies for disaster reduction/mitigation.
· Ensuring enough preparedness in any way levels in order to meet disasters.
· Coordinating respond to a tragedy when it hits.
· Coordination of post catastrophe relief and rehabilitation.
The survey "Disaster Management in Tamil Nadu", published by Federal of Tamil Nadu (2006) identifies the role of Point out Disaster Management Planning Committee (SEMPC). Status Emergency Management Plan is prepared for each and every kind of disaster and the facts of the organizational structure for disaster management activities are known. Responsibility of worried agencies for the execution of rescue, relief and recovery procedures and Standard Operating Method for each is available. A State Emergency Management Planning Committee (SEMPC) should be constituted with all the current stakeholders as people.
The report also analyzes the role of Talk about Crisis Group (SCG). State Problems Group (SCG) enables quick decision making, operational course and coordination of the issue of alert and execution of recovery, relief and recovery operations. The duties of the SCG would include:
On spot decision making
Control and coordination of response and restoration activities
Resource mobilization and replenishment
Monitoring of overall response & recovery activities.
Preparation of records for submission to convey Government
State Emergency Control Room (SECR) ensures all alert and communication systems, musical instruments are in working condition and collect information on a tedious basis from their state departments on the vulnerability of areas to disasters.
The report shared by Federal of Tamil Nadu (2006) reviews the performing procedure of disaster management organizations at district level. It is the District Collector who's the focal point at the Area level for directing, supervising and monitoring alleviation measures for catastrophe and for preparation of Region level ideas. The relief options are analyzed by the region level pain relief committee consisting of public and non-official users including the local legislators and the participants of parliament. The Collector keeps close coordination with the Central Government authorities in the districts, particularly, the Military, Air Pressure and Navy, Ministry of Drinking water Resources, etc. , who supplement your time and effort of the district administration in the save and relief procedure.
Duke H. Jeong (2006) analyzes the "Inter-Organizational Information Management and Communication Breakdowns in Primary Disaster Response System". During disaster relief businesses, collaborative critical decisions tend to be made by decision-makers from various organizations and from a variety of professional fields. Communication breakdowns often hamper the effective coordination of a disaster response, particularly when a multiplicity of Federal government, state, local and volunteer organizations participates your time and effort. A communication break down is thought as the failing to talk information due to the inability to obtain critical and needed information and the shortcoming to acquire sufficient information quality to support decision-making.
Gauruav Vivek Bhatnagar (2009) discusses the "New Network for Devastation Management". Terrestrial Trunked Radio (Tetra) Communication would help set up the country's first exclusive Government Radio Network (GRN) in Delhi.
Tetra network looks for to assist in swift and secure communication among various federal government agencies like Law enforcement officials, Fire services, hospitals, Public Works Department and Transport Firm, the machine would of be of great help in any catastrophe management exercise. Johnson and Zawawi (2002) illustrate the improvements in inter-organizational catastrophe Management. Inter-organizational disaster response requires collaboration among geographically sent out public and private organizations to permit a rapid and effective reaction to an unexpected event. To be able to ensure coherent coordination among the responding organizations, relevant information needs need to be accumulated from multiple sources, verified for accuracy and reliability and distributed to appropriate organizations, all within a short time frame.
Humphrey (2009) shows that disaster management should get proactive by using RPM method. RPM means Recognize, Prioritize, and Mobilize to predict potential disasters. This approach involves spotting potential hazards, prioritizing them corresponding to their seriousness and mobilizing resources to prevent them from developing or at least reducing their impact.
Most organizations fail to anticipate threats due to the fact of following reasons:
Lack of recognition: Leaders remain oblivious to approaching dangers and pay no head to indicators.
Lack of prioritizations: Leaders detect a menace but do not contemplate it serious enough and therefore do not give the attention it deserves.
Lack of Mobilization: They acknowledge a threat and know about its seriousness but neglect to take proper action in time.
Lawal Billa, Mansor Shattri, Ahmad Rodzi Mahmud and Abdul Halim Ghazali (2006) have mentioned about the "Comprehensive Planning and the Role of Spatial Decision Support System". Through research study, they have examined that the strength of Spatial Decision Support System in the collection and processing of information to speed-up communication between the proponents of the catastrophe management program. Moreover, Spatial Decision Support System takes on an important role in decision-making.
Louise K. Comfort (2006) represents the Inter-Organizational Design for Devastation Management". Cognition - understanding; communication, coordination and control are the key factors to be concentrated between your organizations of disaster management.
Marijn Janssen and Nitesh Bharosa (2005) discuss the Advances in Multi-agency Disaster Management". When a disaster strikes, the complex task environment requires multiple organizations to change from autonomous actors to interdependent decision-making teams. To be able to ensure coherent coordination among the list of responding organizations, relevant information needs to be collected form multiple resources, verified for precision and distributed to appropriate responding organizations all within a short time frame.
Naim Kapucu (2006) details the "Interagency Communication Sites during Emergencies". He focuses on pre-incident and technological areas of communication. Pre-incident marketing communications bargains among key local disaster response organizations such as law enforcement agencies, flames departments, local emergency management organizations and organizations in medical and welfare sectors. The tool used for communication between organizations throughout a disaster is mobile communication and computer established networking. Techie problems also inhibit the information exchange. Flooding, hurricanes, earthquakes are all capable of toppling antennas and interrupting normal electrical energy.
Nigel Martin (2007) has examined how regional governments in Asia and other countrywide governments about the world gather, manage and show critical geo-technical information. Through research study, it was figured early alert information were not handled by the government in an useful way prior to the tsunami wave stroke. No proper technical answers to provide earthquake and tsunami caution information.
N. K. Chhibber (2007) represents the "Catastrophe Communication Network" in Maharashtra. VSAT network and VHF radio network has been preserved for the dissemination of crisis information within their state.
Ryan, Matheson (2009) examine the "Significance of Communication in Emergency Management". The analysis attempts to quantity the importance of communication activities to emergency management. Through content examination, it was founded that there is a rapid superior communication between the organizations.
Sir car, Scalem (2004) has detailed about the "Networking of Organizations" in four zones of working such as normal level, pre-disaster stage, disaster stage and post-disaster level. The role of Revenue team in pre-disaster stage is to acquire the warning news from higher representatives and pass the information to areas through mobile technology or radio technology. The role of Open fire and Rescue Team is to provide recovery and rehabilitation procedure.
Soundarya Viswanathan (2009) explains the awareness level among the federal government officials, reps of local body and public of disaster. Lack of awareness included in this, lead to a serious disruption of the working of your community or society, causing widespread people, material, monetary or environmental deficits.
In order to meet the disaster risk posed by varieties of disasters, something of enormous job must be performed such as hazard evaluation and dissemination to the city, id of vulnerabilities to various dangers, eliminating or building up the vulnerabilities, capacitating the community for readiness and resilent to all or any types of threat.
S. Suri (2000) analyzes the reason why behind the Orissa devastation which had taken away many lives of folks because of the inability of Cyclone Warning Dissemination System (CWDS). Because of the system failure, warnings were not given to create understanding to the people, which has lead to a major destruction. Only tv and radio warnings were given, but not of correct information.
Vinod K. Sharma (2002) explains the overall view of the disaster administration mechanism in the country at the central, the state of hawaii and the region level also highlighting the role enjoyed by the secondary institutions. The Section of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC) in the agriculture ministry is the nodal team for all matters regarding natural disasters alleviation at the centre. It transmits all crisis information to all or any concerned state government authorities for effective disaster management.
The report posted by Government of Puducherry (2006) represents the implementation of various communication technologies in Puducherry after tsunami. It describes the activation go emergency operation centre and dissemination of early warming through VHF models.
For this research the researcher has used survey method which really is a quantitative kind of research. The tool used for data collection is Questionnaire. Cluster sampling technique was used for data collection from seaside neighborhoods in Cuddalore. The test size is 300.
The Study was conducted to find the mostly applied communication technology for security planning during disasters and the potency of VHF based Early on Warning Systems included in this.
The pursuing is the visual presentation of data accumulated from the questionnaires.
When asked whether they know about various disasters, the response was the next:
Coastal areas are majorly alert to following communication technologies:
Communication technologies they may have in their homes, which can be majorly employed in disaster management are:
When asked the foundation of getting devastation news, the response was the next:
When asked, whether they are educated regularly the modifications in weather conditions, the response was the following:
They get weather information from,
When asked about the consumption of mobile phones in catastrophe management, the response was following:
When asked whether they are aware of VHF Radio based Early Alert System, the response was pursuing:
The Efficiency of VHF Radio based Early Alert System before 2009 is:
The Efficiency of VHF Radio based Early Alert System after 2009 is 76% as shown below:
The Efficiency of Community Information Centre's (VIC) Consumer Address System (PAS) centered Early Caution System before 2009 is:
The Efficiency of Town Information Centre's (VIC) Open public Address System (PAS) centered Early Alert System after 2009 is just 19%:
Type of information they get from VHF system is,
87% of the respondents advised they are alert to various disasters that could bring great disruption to their livelihood. 13% of the respondents very unable to separate the natural disasters from man-made disasters.
Majority of the respondents replied that, CELL PHONES and TV are the major communication systems, which knew that mainly provide information regarding disasters.
There are majorly two settings of communication dedicated for disaster management in seaside areas. One is from the federal government area and the other is from the non-governmental organizations (NGO). The government of Tamil Nadu has create VHF Radio based early warning system in all the panchayat office buildings of seaside villages that can be found in the High Tide Lines (HTL). HTL is thought as the area within 500 mts from the sea level. The warning is given through PAS (Open public Address System) present together with the panchayat office buildings which may have a reach of just one 1 to 2 2 kms. NGOs established Town Information Centres (VIC) in most of the seaside areas that are susceptible to seaside disasters. These VICs also have PAS for disaster information dissemination.
98% of the respondents said that they are alert to VHF Radio based Early Warning System and VICs run by the neighborhood NGOs, while 2% of the respondents don't realize it. Most the respondents advised that VHF Radio based Early Warning System is effective in disseminating in devastation news to seaside community before 2009. It really is to be known that the Indian Sea Tsunami striked the Tamil Nadu seacoast during December 2004 and after that immediately, VIC and VHF established early warning systems were established. It was functioning perfectly for more than 24 months as said by the respondents. But there exists deterioration in the quality and rate of recurrence of devastation information being disseminated through both systems after 2009 especially with respect to the VICs run by NGOs because of their issues with financial sustainability. The information and percentages are plainly given in the graph above.
64% of the respondents replied that they gain early warning notifications from VHF system, 32. 8% respondents acquire preparedness alerts from VHF system, while 27% respondents acquire evacuation techniques from them and 35%respondents do not depend on VHF system.
98% of the respondents rely upon cell phones, while 81% of respondents hinge upon Television to gain knowledge regarding catastrophe information.
From the review, it was known that majority of the seaside community have gained knowledge regarding various disasters, only after tsunami. Majority of the people depend upon television set and mobile phones to access / pass on disaster information. Most the individuals were alert to and imagine the VHF radio based Early Warning Systems and also have said that it is employed for providing preparedness, evacuation alerts to the people.
When compared with the other types of communication facilities like web connection, organizations involved in catastrophe management majorly make use of, mobile communication. It is because, it is easy to get at by all and also the information can be disseminated in a faster rate. Majority of the coastal communities of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry are aware of various disasters dazzling them and the way to handle those disasters. They gain knowledge regarding disasters through television medium and mobile communication. Majority of them know about VHF Radio based Early Alert System and its functioning procedure and its use as a communication technology that provides early warning notifications, evacuation methods through sirens, POLNET etc.
Government of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry should take effort measures to popularize VHF Radio based Early Alert Systems and also to ensure its sustainability in seaside regions of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry. Precisely the same does apply for VICs run by NGOs as well. VHF Radio has been set up with specific consistency line and provides direct interaction between your seaside community and higher power level. People also need to take interest in getting together with the authorities in times of a tragedy.
Hence, increasingly more interactive programmes for the city people, training programs for the staffs working in all line departments would only make the VHF Radio based Early Warning System more effective and useful among coastal regions of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry.