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Different Types Of Diversification Strategies Marketing Essay

Expanding an enterprise could be very hard so companies and their groups have a tendency to use a diversification strategy to have the ability to increase their sales and be successful in their extension.

The business diversification strategy is what companies' do (increasing the sales level) in order to increase their earnings.

The increase in the quantity of sales can be carried out by developing services and focusing on new market. The diversification strategy can be utilized at the unit level of a small business as well as in their corporate and business level. In a company growth in unit degree of a company, the strategy can be considered a new segment proven fact that is related exactly to the existing business. For the organization level, the new business can be without relation to the prevailing business.

Different Types of Diversification Strategies

There are three basic types of diversification strategies that could made up of several programs that range from the designed and development of new products to the licensing of the new technologies. They could also be a combination of the plans with two or more from it included. They will be the concentric diversification where the technology continues the same while its marketing plan alters significantly. The technological knowledge can be an edge when it comes to this kind of strategy.

The next one is called horizontal diversification. In this kind, the technology used is somehow definately not the existing business. Although new products aren't related to the prevailing ones, the clients who are dedicated still patronized the products. This is quite effective whenever a business have many loyal customers. Last however, not the least is the lateral diversification. This strategy is almost like the horizontal diversification. The only thing that differentiates it from horizontal diversification is that lateral strategy targets new customers instead of concentrating on their existing loyal customers.

Diversification's Advantages and Disadvantages

When using the business diversification strategy, you must consider some things to succeed. Diversification can really help businesses achieve its full potential in the market. It helps the company increase their customers by getting new ones and retaining dedicated ones. Furthermore, it boosts the product stock portfolio of the business enterprise by releasing products which compliments their existing products in the market. Nevertheless, the company must retain the services of or have sufficient knowledge about diversification so that no issue can arise in the foreseeable future. The management team of the business must be well trained and educated about the procedures that must be followed. Lack of information and knowledge about the latest pattern on the market really can be upsetting in your business' goals. You need to ensure that all are taken care of and you have the ability and capability of handling those ideas. If not, employ the service of a person who is a professional in this kind of situation.

Types of Diversification

The different types of diversification strategies are the modernization and development of services, updating the market, new technology licensing, syndication of products by another company and even the alliance with the said company.

The three types of diversification strategies include the concentric, horizontal and conglomerate.

Diversification is a method of risk management which involves the change and execution of different opportunities stated in a particular portfolio. That is practices due to rationale that a portfolio containing a variety of investments can produce higher income and serve as a lower risk to the self-employed opportunities in the same collection. It is only through spending more safely that the benefits of diversification may be completely reaped. Investment through international securities may also reap benefits as a result of decreased correlation between local purchases.

The concentric diversifications identify that there is similarities between your industries in conditions of the technical standpoint. It is through this that the firm may compare and apply its scientific learn how to an advantage. That is by having a careful change or alteration in the online marketing strategy performed by the business enterprise. This strategy aims to improve the market value of a specific product and for that reason gain an increased profit.

The horizontal diversification tackles products or services that are in a way, not related technologically to certain products but still pique the eye of current customers. This strategy is more effective is the existing clientele is loyal to the prevailing products or services, and if the new enhancements are well priced and adequately promoted. The newest additions are marketed just as that the previous ones were which might cause instability. It is because the strategy increases the new products' dependence on an existing one. This integration normally occurs when a home based business is presented, however unrelated to the existing.

Conglomerate or lateral diversification is where the company or business promotes products with no connection commercially or technologically to the prevailing products or services, however still interest a number of customers. This sort of diversification is unique to the current business and could prove quite high-risk. However, it could also verify very successful since it individually aims to boost on the revenue the business accumulates with regards to the new service or product.

At times there are certain defensive actions that may promote to the chance of contraction within the marketplace, or that the current product market appears to have no more development opportunities. This must be considered before initiating a certain kind of diversification strategy. Another factor is the outcome of the chosen diversification strategy. The expected consequence is likely to generate a success expansion that will enhance the ongoing activities within the business.

Diversification strategies are used to expand companies' operations with the addition of market segments, products, services, or periods of production to the prevailing business. The purpose of diversification is to allow the company to get into lines of business that will vary from current functions. If the new project is strategically related to the existing lines of business, it is called concentric diversification. Conglomerate diversification occurs when there is no common thread of proper fit or marriage between the new and old lines of business; the new and old businesses are unrelated.

DIVERSIFICATION INSIDE THE CONTEXT OF Expansion STRATEGIES

Diversification is a kind of growth strategy. Progress strategies involve a substantial increase in performance aims (usually sales or market talk about) beyond previous degrees of performance. Many organizations go after one or more types of growth strategies. One of the most important reasons is the view presented by many shareholders and professionals that "bigger is way better. " Development in sales is often used as a measure of performance. Even though profits remain stable or decline, a rise in sales satisfies many people. The assumption is often made that if sales increase, gains will eventually follow.

Rewards for professionals are usually increased when a firm is pursuing a rise strategy. Managers are often paid a payment predicated on sales. The bigger the sales level, the larger the settlement received. Identification and ability also accrue to professionals of growing companies. They are really more frequently asked to speak to professional organizations and are more regularly interviewed and discussed by the press than are professionals of companies with increased rates of return but slower rates of development. Thus, progress companies also become better known and could be better able, to attract quality professionals.

Growth could also improve the success of the organization. Much larger companies have lots of advantages over smaller companies operating in more limited marketplaces.

Large size or large market share can lead to economies of size. Marketing or production synergies may derive from more efficient use of sales calls, reduced travel time, reduced changeover time, and longer development runs.

Learning and experience curve results may produce lower costs as the organization gains experience in producing and distributing its product or service. Experience and large size could also lead to improved layout, increases in labor efficiency, redesign of products or production processes, or greater and more experienced staff departments (e. g. , marketing research or research and development).

Lower average product costs may derive from a firm's potential to pass on administrative bills and other over head costs over a larger unit volume. The greater capital intensive a business is, the greater important its potential to spread costs across a sizable amount becomes.

Improved linkages with other periods of creation can also derive from large size. Better links with suppliers may be achieved through large orders, which might produce lower costs (volume discounts), much better delivery, or custom-made products that would be unaffordable for smaller functions. Links with distribution stations may lower costs by better location of warehouses, better advertising, and transport efficiencies. How big is the organization in accordance with its customers or suppliers influences its bargaining electricity and its potential to effect price and services provided.

Sharing of information between items of a large company allows knowledge gained in one business product to be employed to problems being experienced in another unit. Specifically for companies relying seriously on technology, the reduced amount of R&D costs and enough time needed to develop new technology may give larger firms an edge over smaller, more specialized firms. The more similar the activities are among systems, the easier the copy of information becomes.

Taking advantage of geographic differences is possible for large firms. Specifically for multinational firms, dissimilarities in wage rates, taxes, energy costs, transport and freight charges, and trade limitations influence the expenses of business. A large firm can sometimes lower its cost of business by putting multiple vegetation in locations providing the lowest cost. Smaller businesses with only 1 location must operate within the strengths and weaknesses of its sole location.

CONCENTRIC DIVERSIFICATION

Concentric diversification occurs when a firm adds related products or market segments. The purpose of such diversification is to accomplish strategic fit. Proper fit allows an organization to accomplish synergy. In essence, synergy is the power of two or more parts of an organization to achieve higher total effectiveness together than would be experienced if the work of the independent parts were summed. Synergy may be achieved by combining firms with complementary marketing, financial, functioning, or management attempts. Breweries have had the opportunity to attain marketing synergy through countrywide advertising and distribution. By combining lots of regional breweries into a countrywide network, beer producers have had the opportunity to create and sell more beverage than had independent local breweries.

Financial synergy may be obtained by combining a company with strong money but limited expansion opportunities with a business having great market probable but weak financial resources. For instance, debt-ridden companies may seek to obtain organizations that are relatively debt-free to boost the lever-aged firm's borrowing capacity. Similarly, firms sometimes attempt to stabilize profits by diversifying into businesses with different seasonal or cyclical sales patterns.

Strategic easily fit into operations could bring about synergy by the mixture of operating products to improve overall efficiency. Incorporating two devices so that duplicate equipment or research and development are eliminated would improve overall efficiency. Variety discounts through merged purchasing would be another possible way to attain operating synergy. Just one more way to improve efficiency is to diversify into an area that can use by-products from existing operations. For example, breweries have been able to convert grain, a by-product of the fermentation process, into give food to for livestock.

Management synergy can be achieved when management experience and competence is applied to different situations. Perhaps a manager's experience in working with unions in one company could be applied to labor management problems in another company. Caution must be exercised, however, in let's assume that management experience is universally transferable. Situations that show up similar may require significantly different management strategies. Personality clashes and other situational variations may make management synergy difficult to accomplish. Although managerial skills and experience can be moved, individual managers might not exactly be able to make the copy effectively.

CONGLOMERATE DIVERSIFICATION

Conglomerate diversification occurs whenever a company diversifies into areas that are unrelated to its current line of business. Synergy may direct result through the application of management skills or money, but the main reason for conglomerate diversification is improved upon profitability of the acquiring firm. Little, if any, matter is directed at obtaining marketing or development synergy with conglomerate diversification.

One of the most common reasons for seeking a conglomerate growth strategy is the fact that opportunities in a firm's current line of business are limited. Finding a nice-looking investment opportunity requires the firm to consider alternatives in other types of business. Philip Morris's acquisition of Miller Making was a conglomerate move. Products, marketplaces, and production technologies of the brewery were quite different from those required to produce cigarettes.

Firms may also follow a conglomerate diversification strategy as a way of increasing the firm's growth rate. As discussed earlier, expansion in sales could make the company more attractive to investors. Growth may also improve the vitality and prestige of the firm's executives. Conglomerate growth may succeed if the new area has growth opportunities greater than those available in the prevailing line of business.

Probably the largest disadvantage of a conglomerate diversification strategy is the upsurge in administrative problems associated with functioning unrelated businesses. Professionals from different divisions may have differing backgrounds and may struggle to interact effectively. Competition between strategic business units for resources may entail moving resources away from one division to another. Such a move may create rivalry and administrative problems between the units.

Caution must be exercised in getting into businesses with seemingly promising opportunities, especially if the management team lacks experience or skill in the new line of business. Without some understanding of the new industry, a company may struggle to accurately evaluate the industry's potential. Even if the home based business is initially successful, problems will eventually happen. Executives from the conglomerate must become involved in the businesses of the new business sooner or later. Without sufficient experience or skills (Management Synergy) the new business may become an unhealthy performer.

Without some type of strategic fit, the blended performance of the average person units will most likely not exceed the performance of the systems operating independently. In fact, mixed performance may deteriorate because of adjustments placed on the average person models by the father or mother conglomerate. Decision-making could become slower anticipated to longer review intervals and complicated confirming systems.

DIVERSIFICATION: GROW OR BUY?

Diversification initiatives may be either external or internal. Internal diversification occurs whenever a firm enters another type of, but usually related, occupation by producing the new occupation itself. Internal diversification frequently entails increasing a firm's product or market bottom. External diversification may achieve the same consequence; however, the business enters a new portion of business by purchasing another company or business device. Mergers and acquisitions are normal forms of exterior diversification.

INTERNAL DIVERSIFICATION.

One form of inner diversification is to market existing products in new marketplaces. A firm may choose to broaden its geographic foundation to include new customers, either within its home country or in international market segments. A business could also pursue an internal diversification strategy by finding new users for its current product. For instance, Arm & Hammer marketed its baking soda pop as a refrigerator deodorizer. Finally, companies may try to change markets by increasing or lessening the price tag on products to make sure they are charm to consumers of different income levels.

Another form of inner diversification is to advertise services in existing marketplaces. Generally this strategy will involve using existing programs of distribution to market new products. Sellers often change product lines to add new items which may actually have good market potential. Johnson & Johnson added a type of babies toys to its existing line of items for babies. Packaged-food firms have added salt-free or low-calorie options to existing products.

It is also possible to obtain conglomerate expansion through interior diversification. This strategy would entail marketing new and unrelated products to new markets. This plan is minimal used among the internal diversification strategies, as it's the most risky. It requires the company to enter a fresh market where it is not established. The company is also producing and introducing a fresh product. Research and development costs, as well as advertising costs, will likely be greater than if existing products were promoted. In place, the investment and the likelihood of inability are much greater when both product and market are new.

EXTERNAL DIVERSIFICATION.

External diversification occurs whenever a firm looks beyond its current operations and buys access to services or markets. Mergers are one common form of external diversification. Mergers appear when several firms combine functions to create one corporation, perhaps with a new name. These firms are usually of similar size. One goal of an merger is to accomplish management synergy by making a stronger management team. This is achieved in a merger by merging the management teams from the merged organizations.

Acquisitions, a second form of exterior growth, take place when the purchased corporation loses its personality. The acquiring company absorbs it. The received company and its belongings may be absorbed into a preexisting business device or remain intact as an unbiased subsidiary within the parent company. Acquisitions usually take place when a much larger firm purchases an inferior company. Acquisitions are called friendly if the firm being purchased is receptive to the acquisition. (Mergers are usually "friendly. ") Unfriendly mergers or hostile takeovers appear when the management of the organization targeted for acquisition resists being purchased.

DIVERSIFICATION: VERTICAL OR HORIZONTAL?

Diversification strategies can be categorised by the path of the diversification. Vertical integration occurs when firms undertake functions at different phases of production. Engagement in different stages of creation can be developed inside the company (inner diversification) or by acquiring another organization (exterior diversification). Horizontal integration or diversification will involve the firm moving into businesses at the same level of creation. Vertical integration is usually related to existing procedures and would be looked at concentric diversification. Horizontal integration can be either a concentric or a conglomerate form of diversification.

VERTICAL INTEGRATION.

The steps a product goes through in being altered from recycleables to a finished product in the ownership of the customer constitute the various stages of development. When a firm diversifies closer to the sources of recycleables in the levels of development, it is following a backward vertical integration strategy. Avon's principal occupation has been the advertising of cosmetic makeup products door-to-door. Avon pursued a backward form of vertical integration by entering into the production of some of its cosmetics. In advance diversification occurs when companies move closer to the buyer in conditions of the production phases. Levi Strauss & Co. , customarily a supplier of clothing, has varied forward by beginning retail stores to market its textile products alternatively than producing them and retailing them to another firm to retail.

Backward integration allows the diversifying organization to exercise more control over the grade of the supplies being purchased. Backward integration also may be carried out to give a more dependable source of needed raw materials. In advance integration allows a creation company to make sure itself associated with an outlet because of its products. Forward integration also allows a firm more control over how its products can be purchased and serviced. Furthermore, an organization may be better able to differentiate its products from those of its opponents by front integration. By beginning its own retail outlets, a firm is often better able to control and train the personnel selling and servicing its equipment.

Since servicing is an important part of several products, having an excellent service department might provide an integrated company a competitive advantages over companies that are firmly manufacturers.

Some firms utilize vertical integration strategies to get rid of the "revenue of the middleman. " Organizations are sometimes competent to efficiently execute the responsibilities being performed by the middleman (wholesalers, retailers) and obtain additional earnings. However, middlemen get their income when you are efficient at providing something. Unless a firm is equally successful in providing that service, the company will have an inferior profit margin than the middleman. If a company is too inefficient, customers may won't use the firm, leading to lost sales.

Vertical integration strategies have one major disadvantage. A vertically integrated organization places "all of its eggs in a single container. " If demand for the merchandise falls, essential resources are not available, or a substitute product displaces the merchandise in the marketplace, the wages of the whole organization may are affected.

HORIZONTAL DIVERSIFICATION.

Horizontal integration occurs whenever a firm enters a fresh business (either related or unrelated) at the same stage of development as its current procedures. For example, Avon's move to market earrings through its door-to-door sales force involved marketing services through existing programs of distribution. An alternative solution form of horizontal integration that Avon in addition has undertaken is reselling its products by email order (e. g. , clothing, cheap products) and through retail stores (e. g. , Tiffany's). In both instances, Avon is still at the retail stage of the production process.

DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGY AND MANAGEMENT TEAMS

As documented in a report by Marlin, Lamont, and Geiger, making sure a firm's diversification strategy is well matched to the advantages of its top management team members factored into the success of this strategy. For example, the success of a merger may rely not only about how integrated the getting started with organizations become, but also about how well suited top executives are to control that effort. The study also suggests that different diversification strategies (concentric vs. conglomerate) require different skills for a company's top professionals, and that the factors should be studied under consideration before organizations are signed up with.

There are multiple reasons for chasing a diversification strategy, but most pertain to management's desire for the business to expand. Companies must make a decision if they want to diversify by going into related or unrelated businesses. They must then decide whether they want to increase by developing the new business or by purchasing a continuing business. Finally, management must determine at what stage in the production process they would like to diversify.

FURTHER READING:

Amit, R. , and J. Livnat. "A THOUGHT of Conglomerate Diversification. " Academy of Management Journal 28 (1988): 59304.

Homburg, C. , H. Krohmer, and J. Workman. "Strategic Consensus and Performance: The Role of Strategy Type and Market-Related Dynamism. " Strategic Management Journal 20, 33958.

Luxenber, Stan. "Diversification Strategy Increases Doubts. " National Real Estate Buyer, February 2004.

Lyon, D. W. , and W. J. Ferrier. "Enhancing Performance With Product-Market Development: The Influence of the most notable Management Team. " Journal of Managerial Issues 14 (2002): 45269.

Marlin, Dan, Bruce T. Lamont, and Scott W. Geiger. "Diversification Strategy and Top Management Team Fit. " Journal of Managerial Issues, Semester 2004, 361.

Munk, N. "How Levi's Trashed an excellent American Brand. " Fortune, 12 April 1999, 830.

St. John, C. , and J. Harrison, "Manufacturing-Based Relatedness, Synergy, and Coordination. " Strategic Management Journal 20 (1999): 12945.

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