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Different Subassemblies Of Ac And Dc Generator Anatomist Essay

P1: Get diagram and jot down the various subassemblies of AC and DC generator?

A. C. generator has coil of cable moving around into a magnetic field. With this assemblage, a voltage is induced which create a current in a current

In a bicycle dynamo, a magnet transforms in the coil of cable when the trunk wheel of the bike is turning.

AC Generator:

DC Generator:

P2: Describe the of AC and DC generator and make clear the difference between AC and DC generator-

Electricity is generated when a coil of cable movements in a magnetic field. This is the basis of electricity generators.

Most electricity is manufactured in power channels by using fuels. Transformers are used in the Country wide Grid to reduce energy losses from the wiring during transmission.

DC and AC electricity

DC electricity:

Batteries produce immediate current, or DC, electricity. The current moves in the same course all of the time, as shown by this typical voltage-time graph.

AC electricity:

Alternating current

Generators produce alternating electric current, or AC, electricity. The existing reverses direction regularly, as shown by this typical voltage-time graph.

Mains electricity is AC. It has a regularity of 50Hz - 50 cycles per second.

When a wire is shifted in a magnetic field, the activity, magnetic field and current are all at right sides to each other. If the cable is shifted in the opposite course, the induced current also goes in the contrary direction.

One side of your coil in a generator goes up during one half-turn, and then down through the next half-turn. Which means that, as a coil is rotated in a magnetic field, the induced current reverses direction every half-turn.

P3: Explain photo-electric effect. Explain function of solar panels and identify their applications. Attract the diagram and define of different subassemblies of solar powered energy system and explain the operation of solar powered energy source.

Solar energy

Solar cells

Solar-powered ticket machine

Solar cells are devices that convert light energy straight into electrical energy. You might have seen small solar cells in calculators. Greater arrays of solar cells are being used to power street signs in remote control areas, and even bigger arrays are being used to power satellites in orbit around Globe.

Solar panels

Solar sections do not create electricity, but instead they warm up water. They are often located on the roofs of properties where they can receive temperature energy from sunlight. The diagram describes the way they work.

Cold water is pumped up to the solar panel, there it heats up and is transferred to a storage container.

A pump pushes cool water from the safe-keeping fish tank through pipes in the solar panel. This particular is heated by heating energy from sunlight and earnings to the fish tank. In some systems, a typical boiler enable you to increase the heat range of this inflatable water.

Advantages

Solar energy is a green energy source and there are no fuel prices. No unsafe polluting gases are produced.

Disadvantages

Solar cells are expensive and inefficient, so the price of their electricity is high.

Solar sections may only produce scorching drinking water in very sunny climates, and in cooler areas may need to be supplemented with a typical boiler.

Although hot water can be produced even on cloudy days and nights, neither solar cells nor solar panels work at evening.

P4: Describe different type's electro-mechanical way to obtain energy. Describe construction, request, characteristics and disposal of substance cell/batteries e. g. (alkaline, acid & material):

Types of substance cell/batteries:

Alkaline:

Long-life batteries giving up to six times the life of ordinary zinc carbon batteries.

Ideal for gadgets demanding a high current drain when being applied to an intermittent or continuous basis.

Rechargeable Alkaline:

Offers the advantages of standard Alkaline cells but with rechargeable functionality.

Also more beneficial than NiMH skin cells scheduled to; 1. 5v, primarily fully charged

Can be stored up to 7 years charged

Can be costed 50 times (although a 500 times may be possible)

N. B. These batteries can only be priced using an Alkaline Battery Charger.

Silver Oxide:

Silver oxide batteries contain the most stable voltage characteristics among all types of button-type batteries, as well as delivering the highest performance

Silver oxide batteries use gold oxide for the positive productive materials. The negative dynamic materials is zinc, and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide

Because of the use of the materials, the gold oxide batteries have an increased operating voltage and an exceptionally stable power supply. The nominal open-circuit voltage is 1. 55 volts

Silver oxide batteries are also far superior in heavy drain uses and suitable for the use in surveillance cameras and exposure meters.

Disposing:

These batteries should be recycled when disposing of them, reason being because of environmental issues. These batteries won't decompose so this could result the environment

P5: Define the following terminology with the mention of electrical properties conductor, insulator, semi conductor, resitivity, tensile power:

Conductor:

Conductor makes the electric current flow freely. It's mostly made out from copper, having high amount of resistance to the flow of fee through them. Conductor involves the exterior electrons of the atoms are loosely destined and absolve to move through the material. In a very conductor such as copper electrons are essentially free and highly repel each other. Simply stated, most metals are good electric conductors, most non-metals aren't. Metals are also generally good heat conductors while non-metals are not.

Insulator:

Insulator does not flow readily like conductor does, most non-metallic solids are good insulators. Most atoms retain their electrons firmly and are insulators. Insulators offer large amount of resistance to the move of electric energy.

Semi-conductor:

Is an factor which neither is an excellent conductor or a good insulator, but rather lies somewhere in between the two. Seen as a a valence shell made up of four electors. Silicon, germanium and carbon will be the semi-conductors most frequently used in electronics.

Resistivity:

Resistance control buttons the move of current and is determined in ohms. Electrical resistivity is a dimension of how robustly a materials resist the movement of current. A higher resistivity show a materials doesn't readily allows the motion of electro-mechanical whereas low resistivity shows a material that immediately allows the movement of electrical charge.

Tensile Power:

Is a strenuous property of the materials is the maximum amount of tensile stress that it could be subjected to before failure. . It is an intensive property of the materials, which not only depends upon the type of materials but also the prep of the specimen and the temperature of the test. This is of failure can vary according to materials type and design methodology

P6: Describe the insulating properties sound, liquid and gas with at least one of these of each materials considering to the following points;

Maximum voltage capability

Mechanical strength

Effect of temperature

P7: Describe in detail and use diagram to get your description.

Geothermal energy

You should be able to describe how electricity is produced from geothermal energy.

Volcanic areas

Several types of rock contain radioactive substances such as uranium. Radioactive decay of these substances releases heating energy, which warms up the stones. In volcanic areas, the rocks may heat normal water such that it rises to the surface naturally as hot water and steam. Here the steam may be used to drive turbines and electricity generators. This type of geothermal power stop is available in places such as Iceland, California and Italy.

Hot rocks

In some places, the stones are hot, but no warm water or steam increases to the surface. In this example, deep wells can be drilled down to the hot rocks and cold water pumped down. This works through fractures in the rocks and is warmed up. It returns to the surface as hot water and vapor, where its energy can be used to drive turbines and electricity generators. The diagram below shows how this works.

Step-up Transformer:

Step-Up Transformers are one of the really common and essential electrical tools found in power transmission and modification. They're usually the first major transformer in a transmitting system and are often found in various forms throughout the machine.

Step-down Transformer:

Step down transformers are made to reduce electric voltage. Their key voltage is higher than their extra voltage. This kind of transformer "steps down" the voltage put on it. For example, a step down transformer is needed to use a 110v product in a country with a 240v resource.

P8: Describe Applications of electric powered technology and, for each of them, explain how electricity is utilized to enable them to function.

Wind Power

Wind electric power generators are hardly ever seen in isolation because they are normally put together in groups building wind farms. This is actually the most effective way of producing electricity from the blowing wind and nourishing it in to the national electricity grid. Solitary generators are usually much smaller and applied to farms or in remote control areas where it isn't possible to cable television electricity from the countrywide grid. Wind farms tend to be situated in the countryside were they are simply away from towns and people. Many people believe these large structures spoil the appearance and little bit of the countryside. Wind generators create a lot of noise. It is stated that every one is as noisy as a car engine operating at 70 MPH.

Some technologists and experts believe that the answer is to site large wind turbines at sea. The noises they produce will never be heard in case sited kilometers way from the coast they will not even be observed. However, they are really a lot more costly to find and keep maintaining in the ocean. Also, the salt in sea normal water means that the materials used to make sure they are have to be specially treated in order that they are safeguarded. This boosts there overall cost of produce and set up significantly. However, this may be the near future for the large scale creation of electricity through blowing wind power turbines.

Wave Power

The power of the waves can be used to produce electricity. Most systems focus on creating electricity directly from the drive of drinking water. However, an 'Oscillating Water Column' works as the influx enters the low chamber, it pushes air into the upper chamber which triggers the turbines to rotate. The good thing about this type of system is that the propellers are from the sea water this means they aren't afflicted by the salty water.

The PENDULUM device is another electricity making device that utilises the energy of waves, as the wave hits the pendulum it is compelled backwards and then returns to its original position before next wave strikes. This movement pushes hydraulic ramps backwards and forwards which drive special turbines and produces electricity.

Hydroelectricity

Hydro power can be an alternative way of producing electricity from the power produced by drinking water under pressure. A typical setup requires the development of a dam. This might be situated at the head of the valley. Behind the dam, water is allowed to build up creating a large, deep lake. The deeper and greater the lake, the greater the potential of producing large amounts of electricity. An average dam might take years to create and cost millions of dollars / euros and therefore a dam must stay producing electricity for quite some time (maybe even ages) - in order to produce electricity profitably. The Hoover Dam in america was opened in 1936 and is an outstanding example of this type of dam.

The lake behind the dam has an incredible number of gallons of normal water and it is the pressure/weight from the 'mind' of normal water that is used to operate a vehicle turbines producing electricity. This particular is release through sluice gates well below the water line. The weight of water above forces water through the sluice gates at high speed. This quickness drives the turbines rounded producing huge amounts of electricity. The diagram below shows how electricity is produced.

Piezo-electric actuators

Piezo-electric actuators work in two ways; they either produce movement in response to a applied voltage or they produce a voltage in response to an applied pressure. Piezo-electric actuators are being used in greetings credit cards that play tunes when opened up. They create a sound from an electrical signal therefore of the greeting card being opened up.

When piezo-electric transducers are being used as detectors they can handle picking up small signs that can then be amplified and prepared. They are used in a multitude of applications including burglar alarms. The transducer produces a voltage in response to a noisy sound, like a breaking window, or to a movements such as treading over a mat or stair tread.

The transducers are made from minerals, ceramics or polymers. The piezo-electric film is bonded to basics material once covered with a metallic film and associates are then fastened. In some instances amplifier circuits are designed in to the whole transducer but in most examples they may be kept like the illustrations below.

The voltage generated because of this of the material being deformed is sufficient enough to light an LED as shown below

M1: Compare and contrast the features of three perfect energy resources that are in general use for the creation of electricity by mechanically traveling an electromagnetic generator. Explain in detail benefits and drawbacks of three electric way to obtain energy e. g. nuclear, thermal and heavy steam turbine?

Nuclear:

Advantages

There is approximately 0 emission, which means it produces electricity without pollution.

Doesn't take fossil fuels which is getting more & more expensive

They can be sited almost everywhere unlike petrol which is mainly imported

A lot of energy from an individual power plant

The advantage is a clean getting rid of fuel that can offer energy for hundreds of miles at the same time.

Disadvantages:

More expensive to build

Waste product is harmful and need to be carefully stored for long time

Produce radioactive waste material which must be comprised carefully

Nuclear power vegetation can be dangerous to its environment and employees. There's been a case in which a plant has truly gone via a meltdown and consequently left people deceased and its surroundings destroyed.

Thermal:

Advantages:

Thermal energy is the easiest to find and create.

Geothermal energy is a renewable energy resource and there are no fuel costs.

No hazardous polluting gases are produced

Disadvantages:

It is essential in a few situations (for example, chemical techniques where molecular motion is necessary

Most elements of the world do not have ideal areas where geothermal energy can be exploited.

Hydroelectricity:

Advantages:

Once a dam is designed, electricity can be produced at a frequent rate.

If electricity isn't needed, the sluice gates can be shut, preventing electricity generation. This inflatable water can be kept for use another time when electricity demand is high.

Dams are designed to last many ages and so can contribute to the era of electricity for quite some time / years.

The lake's water can be used for irrigation purposes.

The build-up of normal water in the lake means that energy can be stored until needed, when this is released to create electricity.

When used, electricity produced by dam systems will not produce green house gases. They do not pollute the atmosphere.

Disadvantages

Dams are really expensive to make and must be built to a very high standard.

The high cost of dam engineering means that they must operate for most decades to be profitable.

The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is damaged.

People surviving in villages and cities that are in the valley to be flooded, must move out. Which means that they lose their farms and businesses. In a few countries, people are forcibly removed so that hydro-power strategies can go ahead.

The building of large dams can cause serious geological harm. For instance, the building of the Hoover Dam in the USA triggered a number of globe quakes and has depressed the earth's surface at its location.

Dams built obstructing the progress of the river in one country results in that this particular supply from the same river in the next country is out with their control. This may lead to serious problems between neighbouring countries.

Differences:

There are numerous variations between nuclear, thermal and hydro-electricity. These three types of energy production have various ways of making energy (electricity). There is also the cost of making the generator in order to produce energy, hydro-electricity is much more expensive in comparison to nuclear. Addititionally there is the misuse that the generators produces e. g. Nuclear produces damaging substances that require to be dispose or stores whereas hydroelectricity does not product and throw away.

Similarities:

One of the key similarities between nuclear, thermal and hydro-electricity is that there are all sources of renewable energy. These kinds of energy sources have different ways of producing energy but produces green energy.

M2: Explain the reasons for the use of a range of voltages within an electricity resource system. In electricity resource systems from point of era to distributions there are various types of voltage are being used make clear what the value of these kinds of voltages is?

When generators supply electrical energy is uses step-up transformer that can rise to 25, 000V so electricity can be offered to very good distance to every homes and businesses. The energy place distributes electricity

D1: Justify the use of different energy resources, including fuels and renewable sources, to give a nation's electricity supply

In different areas across the world there are different environments to be considered when using different kinds of energy sources. In places such as South Africa, it is too expensive to supply fuel energy to places like the villages. Instead in these sorts of places, they use alternative sources of energy such as solar technology. This is a good advantage for the people who live in such an environment since it stays sunny the majority of the time, the is supplied constantly. Not just that, but after setting up the provide you with the energy is then free.

But in places like the UK it is different. Right now the primary supply of energy sources is from fuels. For the reason that is basically because it is a lot cheaper at this time. Another reason is using solar energy is not a sufficient enough because of lack of sun. But the UK use wind power which will be place into the sea. Constructing these big wind generators is expensive but it could provide enough energy for a city etc.

But using energy to create electricity harms the environment. Creating energy using fuels harms the environment such as causing openings in the o-zone part. A couple of advantages on using gasoline energy such as large amounts of electricity can be made in a single place using coal, quite cheaply. But there are usually more cons such as fuels causes pollution, losing any fossil gasoline produces carbon dioxide, which plays a part in the greenhouse impact, warming the planet earth and also fuels are non-renewable so once the fuel is burn up that could it be, there is no more.

With alternative energy the only fall back about any of it is the actual fact that it is most of enough time expensive to create. But when setted up, the power is absolutely free. The primary benefit of renewable energy is that it generally does not cause pollution which petrol does.

D2: Explain and justify how a practical application of electronic technology could be increased by making effective use of available solutions. (D2)

With the reference to manufacturing industry programmed techniques, robotics and control systems

With the mention of healthcare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, working theatre uninterruptible electricity items (UPS).

CNC:

There are extensive automated procedures such as CNC. A CNC (Computer Numeric Adjustments) milling machine uses CAD/CAM cutter pathways to lower away material blocks into the various parts of an injection mildew and then add the cavities and ejector pin openings. This produces anything from CPU's to motherboards. The great thing relating to this technology is that we now have many benefits such as

Rapid manufacturing

Can be run 24/7

Can be easy to design using software

MRI:

MRI is a particular radiology technique made to image internal constructions of your body using magnetism, radio waves, and your computer to create the images of body buildings. MRI creates better pictures when compared to a CT check out or X-ray, because it can show both healthy and diseased tissue. MRI is fantastic for:

Diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS)

Diagnosing tumors of the pituitary gland and brain

Diagnosing attacks in the brain, spine or joints

Visualizing torn ligaments in the wrist, knee and ankle

Visualizing shoulder injuries

Diagnosing tendonitis

Evaluating public in the smooth tissue of the body

Evaluating bone tumors, cysts and bulging or herniated discs in the spine

Diagnosing strokes in their first stages

UPS:

UPS is primarily used as a backup vitality source for personal computers and computer networks to make sure on-going operation in case of a power failing. Sophisticated units also have power fitness and electric power monitoring features.

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