Management is a function that must be exercised in any business (Maccoby, 2000, pp57-59) management is a process of planning, organising, commanding, coordinating, and managing which is a systematic way of doing things.
According to Mullins (2010, p429) 'Fayol explains these elements as:
Planning - analyzing the near future, deciding what needs to be performed and creating a plan of action.
Organising - providing the material and recruiting and building the structure to carry out the activities of the company.
Command - maintaining activity among personnel, getting the most effective return from all employees in the interest of the whole organisation.
Co-ordination - unifying and harmonising all activities and work of the organisation to help in its working and success.
Control - verifying that everything occurs relative to plans, instructions, proven principles and portrayed control'.
'Leadership can be an attempt to effect group or individuals' (Russell C, Richard J, 2002, p406) he further clarifies that authority gets organizations and folks to change. Authority is communicating to the people their worthy of and probable so clearly that they are inspired to view it in themselves.
Mullins demonstrated the dissimilarities of leadership and management.
'Managers have a tendency to adopt impersonal or passives behaviour towards goal. Leaders adopt a far more personal and productive frame of mind towards goals. To be able to get people to accept solutions, the managers needs continuously to co-ordinate and balance to be able to bargain conflicting prices. The leaders create excitement in work and develop options that give chemical to images that excite people. In their relationship with other folks, managers maintain a low level of psychological involvement. Leaders have empathy with other people and give focus on what occasions and actions suggest. ' (2010, p374)
Leadership differs from management in a sense that:
Management includes focus on function, authority romance and creates steadiness. However, for a business to excel leadership is vital, because leaders inspire, secure determination and inspire people.
Relationship between Management and Leadership
Leadership and management are the terms that tend to be considered synonymous. Authority is defined as the potential to effect and drive the group work towards the achievement of goals. This affect may result from formal sources, such as that provided by acquisition of managerial position in an organization.
According to Mullins (2010, p374) 'Despite an ongoing debate on distinctions between management and authority, there's a close romance between them and it is not easy to split up them as particular activities'.
He further describes management and management, 'they overlap and you will need both qualities. More and more, management and command are being seen as inextricably linked. It really is one thing for a innovator to propound a grand vision, but this is redundant unless the vision is managed so that it becomes real achievements'.
A manager must have traits of your leader. Leaders develop strategies that build and preserve competitive benefits. Organizations require strong authority and strong management for optimal organizational efficiency. Both professionals and leaders try to achieve goals, mobilize and utilize resource.
Section - 2
Managers have to execute many roles within an organization, that they handle various situations will depend on their design of management.
According to Mullins (2010, p381), 'there are extensive dimensions to spell it out authority style and he simplified three fold heading;
The authoritarian (autocratic) Style: The supervisor alone exercises decision making and authority for determining coverage, procedures for achieving goals, work responsibilities and romantic relationships, control of rewards or punishments.
The democratic Style: The control functions are distributed to people of the group and the director is more part of team. The group users have a greater say in decision making, persistence of policy, implementation of systems and procedures.
A laissez - faire (genuine) style: The director consciously makes a decision to go away the emphasis of capacity to members, to allow them independence of action 'to do as they think best', rather than to interfere; but is readily available if help needed. There is an often confusion over this form of leadership behavior. The term 'genuine' is emphasized because this is usually to be contrasted with the supervisor who cannot care, who deliberately keeps away from the trouble locations and does not need to get included'.
From my very own experience of employed in ABA - Beverages, management decided to execute HACCP using autocratic style of command style. This decision of quality control was taken to attract new customers and meet existing customers.
According to Wikipedia (ONLINE: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Hazard_analysis_and_critical_control_points) 'HACCP (Risk research and critical control factors), is a organized preventive approach to food safety and pharmaceutical safety that identifies physical, allergenic, chemical, and biological dangers in production techniques that can cause the completed product to be unsafe, and designs measurements to lessen these dangers to a safe level. In this manner, HACCP is known as the prevention of hazards rather than done product inspection'.
A key role of the product quality manager in the business is to maintain the food security. He has essential responsibilities and difficulties to achieve HACCP. To be able to achieve HACCP, he uses autocratic style of leadership.
This autocratic style was necessary since it is a matter of food safety. Employers view this safety main as a critical, therefore use autocratic style. Employees must adhere to instructions all the time.
The positive impacts food safe practices is met, purpose of customer satisfaction met. If indeed they do not use autocratic style, quality would be jeopardized and customers would not be satisfied.
Sri Lanka Red Combination Society
SLRCS (Sri Lanka Red Cross Population) (ONLINE: http://beta. redcross. lk/vision-mission. asp) 'has run since 1936. The SLRCS addresses all 25 administrative districts of the Sri Lanka and the total regular membership 100, 000. The full total number of energetic volunteers 6, 500'.
From my own experience of working in SLRCS, during the conflict in 2007 in Sri Lanka, it was engaged to help victims who affected by war. They have divide clubs and work under a coordinator. The coordinator provides independence to the team head to consider appropriate activities within agreed boundaries (within set time limit and security clearance). For example teams have to reach the camp and disperse all food stuffs to beneficiaries. In the event any problem comes up team market leaders have to consider. At this time Laissez - Faire style help achieve the range of the business. Here, team head is respected to make decision by the planner follows laissez - faire style. On the other hand, when the team is at dangerous war area, for the safe practices of team customers' team innovator employs an autocratic design of leadership. For example if the supply not distributed on the arranged time limit or if the situation becomes dangerous, team innovator take own decision either stay or leave for the camp and team members follow his autocratic design of leadership.
Tesco is a British multinational food and general merchandise retailer in United Kingdom. Among the business objectives of Tesco is client satisfaction.
'Tesco is a customer-orientated business. It aims to provide products offering affordability for its customers and to deliver high quality service. Tesco would like to attract new customers, but it addittionally needs to keep its existing customers happy'.
'To keep near the top of its game and maintain its number 1 spot on the market, the company needs skilled personnel in any way levels and in every roles'.
'The design of leadership may differ with regards to the task. Some professionals allow teams to use fee of their own decision-making for most tasks. Team leaders will arranged the aims but empower associates to choose how these goals are achieved. It has several advantages. It can help to motivate individuals in the team and it attracts on the experience of the members of the team'.
'Berian handles a team of 17 in a Tesco in-store bakery. One of the key obstacles of Berian's job is to ensure his team produces the right products to meet demand at key times. His regular management way is to allow the team for taking responsibility for attaining the desired effect. In this manner, the team not only will buy into the activity, but also builds up new skills. For example, when the bakery broadened its product range and Berian needed to ensure that all the merchandise would be on the racks by 8. 00 am, alternatively than enforce a solution, he turned to the team for ideas. The team fixed the challenge by agreeing to divide period of time times so that productivity could be managed. Berian's approach produced a confident outcome and increased team determination'. (ONLINE: http://businesscasestudies. co. uk/tesco/developing-appropriate-leadership-styles/management-and-leadership. html#axzz2DWoXdm7O)
Berian uses democratic design of leadership to achieve the goal. This style encourages ideas, feedback, advice and team sprit from all team members.
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