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Development of the Korean film industry


This dissertation involves six chapters. The first section gives a detailed record of the Korean Film Industry, its source and development and exactly how it has resulted in the so-called 'Korean influx' or 'Korean fever". In addition, it explains this term to be able to give an improved understanding of the title. Another chapter consists of literature review, that will form the basis of the studies and the conclusion. The third chapter is a case study, I which the top movies of Korea will be talked about and weighed against some top Chinese language videos. The fourth chapter will go on to describe the methodology that'll be used in this dissertation to facilitate the findings and reach the conclusion. It will explain the methods used in the research and the research questions around which the dissertation revolves. The third and fourth chapters will form the crux of the dissertation. Another chapter supplies the findings and evaluation of the study based on mostly on the literature review and the research method used. This section will package with the examination and analysis of the Korean film industry with regards to the Chinese market and offer the answers to the study questions posed in the previous chapter. The very last chapter, that is section six, provides a bottom line, that is, due to the findings and you will be followed by recommendations to ensure that the Korean film industry is growing.

1. 1 Background

A country's film industry symbolizes the culture, and standards of living of individuals moving into that country. The "Korean fever" or "Korea wave" is normally thought to be the substantially increased popularity of Southern Korean culture all around the globe. Besides, it is undoubtedly Hallyu (Hangul:; Hanja RR: Hallyu), from the Korean pronunciation. In such a connection, this term was coined in China in the middle of 1999 by journalists in Beijing, China, shocked by the speedy increase in the level of popularity of contemporary South Korean culture as well as entertainment business in mainland China.

The Korean film industry presents the film companies of North Korea and South Korea. While both these countries have relatively strong film establishments, only the Southern Korean Industry has been able to attain international acclaim and identification. The North Korean film industry still revolves around matters like communism and innovative ideas.

As is the case with all other industries and facet of life in Korea, its film industry has also had to endure the heavy affect of political happenings. Whether it is the Joseon Dynasty or the Korean Conflict, the governmental affect is apparent in the Korean cinema. Since the starting, the Korean film industry revolved around such cases as politics, wars, and even the activities of the government. Several variables, including the impact of the strategies undertaken by the most successful Hollywood film companies, the availability of a large budget, and the quality of the films stated in Korea, itself got a profound impact on the film industry of Korea.

1. 2 Development of the Korean Film Industry

The first cinema of Korea was established in 1903. Before the existence of the cinema, the Western european and American motion pictures placed the Korean film screens occupied. Not only this, but in the period 1926-1930, it was the Japanese who owned or operated, and handled the Korean cinemas. It was during this time that a group of films were launched, that provided the start of quality movies in China. Even though the film industry of Korea was at its peak in the 1950's, yet in the 1970s and 1980s with the country's rapid economic progress, the Korean government was under great pressure to liberalize is import policies and financial marketplaces for all business. The film industry acquired depended upon the quota system to gain screen time because of its product and make sure a certain amount of revenue.

The creation of the Hollywood blockbuster movies, itself, was a continuous risk to the film industry of Korea, not only in terms of its decreasing market talk about, but also right down to the question of its survival. The market show was witnessing a downward style because the Korean films were produced with a minimal budget and poor in the face of the blockbuster movies produced by Hollywood. Because of this, the market show had dropped to only 15% in the past due 1980's. However, immediately after that, the change of Korean film industry acquired started out, and Korean movie theater earned identification as a commercial theatre outside the country following the success of the blockbusters, including the film "Shiri". The movie was stated in 1999, and captured an audience of approximately 5 million people, making it to the very best of the Southern Korean motion pictures. The film was so successful it broke the files for the all time favourite, "Titanic", and welcomed the entrance of the numerous film producers who had been keen to create internationally repudiated movies for Korea. Along the way, the market show of the Korean videos rose to 39. 7%.

A volume of Korean films used the little league of "Shiri", and the actual fact that the federal government had introduced a new legislation, allowing a two day weekend for the Koreans, provided rise to the success of the Korean cinemas. In the process, the film industry of Korea was reported to expand by around 18% every year, and corresponding to a number of sources, in a period of nine years only, the market show of the Korean films had cultivated from 15% to 45. 2%. This is taken as a good omen by many of the most successful moviemakers of Hollywood who immediately stepped in the film industry of Korea, in order to obtain licenses to be able to reproduce those Korean movies that had been the most successful on the container office.

In these contacts, the relationships between national movie theater and background is refraction, smooth rather than reflection, and what is intriguing about modern day Korean movie theater is the way the shared political history of the 1980s has become a commercial lure for the audience.

Recently, the popularity of the Korean films, Korean music, and even Korean dramas has been increasing in Asia, with the Chinese being the major audiences of such Korean television set programs. With such enormous success and level of popularity of the Korean TV programs in countries such as Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, and also other elements of Asia, it isn't unusual to find the affect of the Korean culture and practices, as portrayed on the Korean screens, on the Asians. For this reason rapid pass on of the Korean lifestyle, and culture in the majority of the Parts of asia especially china, the China used the term "Hallyu" to make reference to the affect of Korean culture in other countries mainly through the media. This had been initiated by the broadcasting of "Daejanggeum", a Korean drama, which made China the best sufferer of the Korean effect in 2005.

Immediately after, a number of articles on the new Korean influx began to be included in journals, newspapers, news documents, etc. It had been even presumed that the major reason for the Korean influence lies in the actual fact that the Korean authorities took good thing about the Korean monitors to come out of the financial meltdown, thus taking major steps to promote their film industry, and export their videos. The actual fact that China and Korea share some similarities, not only in terms with their culture, but also right down to civilizations and philosophies, points out such a deep impact of the Korean movies on the Chinese.

Today, both North Korea and South Korea have extremely flourished film market sectors. However, when it comes to global acclaim, it is undoubtedly film industry of South Korea which seems to catch the international market. The films of North Korea concentrate more on rebellious, radical and insurgent styles.

1. 2 Structure

The goal of this research is to evaluate and evaluate the comparative success of the Korean film industry, and the impact of the Korean cultures in lots of the Parts of asia, especially China. The concentrate of the thesis is attempting to summarize and review whether and exactly how this "Korean wave" is formed in China mainland market and exactly how they have impacted to Chinese language people by critically commenting the latest top five Korean films weighed against the latest top five Chinese movies, reviewing the previous research studies and performing box-office performance examination in the captured period. This will give information as to the way the Korean film industry has impacted the population of China.

It also aims to investigate the factors that have led to the Korean fever, also to what extent have Chinese been inspired as the Korean traditions become widespread in China, and other areas of Asia.

The section of the research will mainly give attention to the Korean film industry, as well as the film industry of China, because the top movies produced by both the countries will be compared. The area of the research will also include the other Parts of asia, and the Korean cinema influence on their activities.

The research objectives involve examining the performance of the Korean movies and the impact they have acquired on Asian marketplaces, in particular, China.

The research methodology

The data in this thesis is examined utilizing a variety of sources. To begin with, the box office performance is examined within the recent period, the data from the Korean Film Council. The data captured out of this source helped assess the market performance of the Korean movies. The info is further divided into sub-periods to be able to evaluate the dynamics of the Korean films' market performance. Finally, appropriate statistical techniques are used to aid our research.


2. 1 The Korean Wave

The "Korean Wave" or hallyu ( Ѕ»˜) refers to the period of time of 1990's, when Korean culture was internationally apparent, not only in East Asia but even countries like USA saw a rapid surge of Korean principles. Tv serials, pop music, feature motion pictures and other musical varieties are all part of the wave sensation. As the Korean influx is associated with the pass on of Korean culture, it is known as both countrywide and a trans-national occurrence.

A large number of researched have been conducted to judge why and exactly how pop culture of Korea was famous far away. These two about the success of Korean influx are distinct however, not so related to each other. When government use sales figures of other countries to measure the success of Korean influx, overseas consumers are considered the arbiters of Korean culture. This implies the ironic impact of the success of Korean culture; not only people in Korea but non Korean individuals are also being entertained by the Korean mass media. Infact, it was a Chinese journalist who coined the word 'Korean wave' or (hanliu № ¶) to describe the surprising effect of the rapid increase in popularity of contemporary South Korean culture as well as entertainment business in mainland China.

Researchers believe that Korean wave is the relationship of many areas. The variable of pop culture existing in trend of Korean influx has allowed it to be analyzed in ethnic study's field (Chua and Iwabuchi 2008; Howard 2006). It is also studied across the sizes of marketing and business, as authorities, promoters and commercial agents were selling the Korean culture as a product in the international arena. (Cho and Kang 2005; Han and Lee 2008; Kim while others 2008; Lee, Scott, and Kim 2008). It was also evaluated to be an important strategy in the political world. The Korean administration undertook options like subsidizing the price tag on reediting for the international market. Such plans and legislation by government made certain that the Korean film industry widened successfully in other countries. (Chua and Iwabuchi 2008, 28). All of a sudden, Korean government started using pop star figures to get travelers. (Yu-Shan Lin and Hwang 2008).

2. 2 Expansion of The Korean Culture

In 2003, whenever a Korean episode serial ' Winter Sonata' was broadcasted by Japaneses channels, it quickly became popular. Abruptly, yhe Korean mass culture gained attractiveness in Asian countries ( HAN, 2004:124-125) along with the word Hallyu. The term Hallyu was then associated not only with the rapid get spread around of Korean culture but also with the economc increase in Korea.

According to G, a researcher at SAMSUNG Economic Research Institutute, Korean influx or Hallyu originated through four levels. Within the first level, Korean culture became popular with the increased production of films, and dramas. Second level signified the increasing demand of products from the famous pop idols. In the 3rd stage, people shifted to buy Korean goods and services like electronic products that have been not directly related to pop superstars. People perceived an appealing impression of Korea in the fourth level of Hallyus developmental; pattern.

2. 3 Changes in Korean Home Market

Okon Hwang and Hillary Finchum-Sung are two analysts who were concerned with the

the ramifications of Korean Wave on the local market. Essay written by Okon Hwang title 'No 'Korean Wave' Here: Western Classical Music and the Changing Value System in South Korea' efforts to evaluate and analyze the positive impact of changing the flow of information on the successful extension of your country's culture.

According to reports, there's been a rapid upsurge in the Korean Television programs exported since 1988. This growth rate of export was more visible during the pass on of Korean influx and with a sudden reduction in the foreign Tv set program in Korea. Since the introduction of broadcasting industry in Koreas, most the shows broadcasted were American programs. Factors like insufficient specialized skills, experience and scientific equipments hindered the creation and the broadcast of local TV shows. The national broadcasting stop of Korea was founded in 1961, and since then it was reliant on foreign Television set programs to fulfill the entertainment needs of the population. It was America that presented TV packages, radio, transmitters and coloured became possible when international companies gained a consensus to stop the processing of monochrome Television collections. (JOUNG AND JANG, 2000:142)

An audience rating study in 1996 shown that American programs were most popular among the Korean population. The time allotted to the broadcast of these shows increased till middle 1970's, and more local Television programs were broadcasted. Although American TV shows like wonder women, six million dollar man, bionic woman were very popular during 1970's, but at the same time local shows increased in quality and the audience rating for these people surged rapidly. A land in the transfer of American Tv set programs was not only because of the improvement in development and broadcasting technology, but federal regulations contributed significantly to reduce imports. An order of military government to broadcast limited quantity of shows led to a competitive race between the broadcasting channels where each and every station was trying hard to boost the ratings of domestic shows. The audience rating thus, compelled broadcasting channels to increase the quality of local shows, develop a better infrastructure and find superior equipments. Furthermore, Asian video games and Olympics placed in Seoul contributed a great deal in increasing the audience ranking of the local programs.

While Korean TV shows gained acceptance in 1980's, the marketplace talk about of Korean motion pictures did not increase till 1990's. From 200 movies that were produced during 1970's, just a few of them could actually break the details. Contrasting to the broadcasting industry, film industry produced videos since 1960's and was exposed to the stringent control and restrictions by government. The federal government not only controlled the development and syndication facilities of motion pictures, but the censor office limited the liberty expression by managing this content of movies. The establishment of the 'law of theatre' reduced the number of production organizations from 70 to less than 20 and import restriction made it difficult to acquire imports without the permission of authorities. The year 1984 proved to be a turning point for the Korean film industry. It was during this 12 months that censorship criteria and import regulations were modified. Moviemakers could actually release videos simply after filling a agreement form and foreign videos gained an accessibility in the Korean market escalating your competition level.

CHANGES IN BROADCASTING Laws AND Insurance policies:

The pursuing section has classified the growth of Korean broadcasting industry into five stages and points out the guidelines of government during those levels.

In the pre-takeoff level, it broadcasting had not been considered very important. A small amount of studios been around and number of TV audiences was also limited. Authoritarian regimes existed in Korea in this pre-takeoff stage and throughout this time around local advertising was used relating to government goals and mission. Only those dramas and films were broadcasted which were I n set with the goals of the government. The interests of talk about were respected more than the pursuits of public( KWAK 2009). The government controlled the entrance, this content and the distribution channels as well. The laws and regulations such as 'practice put together', 'administrative advice' and 'purification of the broadcast' ensured that authorities controlled every single stage of broadcasting from development to syndication of films and dramas. In 1945, japan films, music and dramas were forbidden in Korea which compelled local broadcasting stations to enhance the local dramas.

During the move from pre-take off to remove 1 stage, the broadcasting stations expanded swiftly, and government started out imposing rules and regulations. The federal government control was also supported by the military services control of the federal government. Inside the takeoff level 2, all channels were unified into two networks. In the maturity level, the democratization of politics greatly influenced the ethnic industry. Commercial broadcaster came into the industry and authorities seen this industry as a potential one in terms of encouraging the economy. There is a move in paradigm and federal undertook several regulations in 1990 to support the industry.

Ownership for commercial broadcasting

Outsourcing production programs was allowed

Human source of information training of broadcasting professional

Participation in trade fairs was encouraged

A broadcast video industry campaign plan was launched

All these insurance policies backed the broadcasting industry to move from the maturity to the expansion stage.


The control of international flow of information and the helping policies contributed greatly to the expansion of the cultural industry. Allowing the outsourcing of creation programs recommended that there a rise in the 3rd party creation companies which created a competitive environment triggering different station to find ways to boost the quality and standard of services if they were to remain in the industry. The infrastructure facilities backed the development of small organizations which handled procedure for the unbiased companies. The ban of Japanese programs proved as a motivation for the neighborhood producers.

However, various other government guidelines like increasing the involvement in trade fairs had not been effective as much discussions were done beyond your fair. The immediate financial supported didn't have any significant effect on the export of home programs as large proportion of it was given to the documentary programs.


This section has grouped the introduction of film industry in four stages. The film industry existed for many years unlike the broadcasting industry. Growing the local market size of film industry proved to be difficult due to different financial environment of the film industry. The advertising were the most crucial source of income for the broadcasting industry, in so doing it was related to economical development of country. However, the souce of revnue for the film industry was sales in pack office as well as for that it was neccsary to produce some block buster movies.

In the pre- takeoff level, government introduce ' legislations of cinema' to aid the industry. It assumed that it was important to increase the size of creation companies and then for that it limited the accessibility in film industry. It became essential for companies to truly have a certaing amount of creation facilities and accessories before they could get into. Moreover the plans related to censorship managed to get difficult to export film in foreign countries.

In the remove stage, theatre entry fees was increased, which contributed to the expansion of market size. However the strict plans of censor been around and also other governments handles, still the marketplace was seen to develop with just the upsurge in entry fees. In 1984, when constraints were removed, the film industry moved to the maturity level with range of film companies increasing, talented people were enticed and it appealed the electronic companies as well. International distribution companies entered the local market, increasing the standard of competition. In the expansion stage, the quality of Korean movies increased significantly and various Korean movies won international accolades.


The benefits of screen quota system guaranteed a certain budget and screening process time was allocated to videos. The educational support by Korean Academy of Film Arts supprted the industry by providing talented stars. Indirect economic climate such as lending options became an incetive for moviemakers. The foreign distribution policies such as promoting filmmakers to take part in international celebrations helped in making global systems.

2. 4 RESULTS of the Korean Wave

As mentioned previously, Korean government added a lot towards the development of the Korean influx. The federal government aided the media industries, broadcasting channels and sites to broaden and promote the Korean pop culture internationally. The main aim behind this action was to boost in the Korean economy and create a positive nationwide image. The federal government was successful in attaining both of the seeks.

Korean pop actors seduced attention of visitors all around the globe. Korean government required advantage of their increasing popularity and used them to get attention for other commercial sectors like the tourism sector of Korea. The success of Tv set drams like "Winter Sonata" attracted tourist from about the world who visited Korea especially to see places where this play was filmed. Businesses like travel agents were also taking benefit of the problem by customizing the topics of group tours based on the themes or templates of different dramas for e. g. a tour was entitled "Best of Korean crisis trailer deluxe tour".

Pop idols or theatre stars revolutionized the buyer culture of Korea. Food and fashion movements (including make-up, clothing) were changing and consumers all over Korea were all of the sudden following a common drama actors. Theses consumers called themselves the people of 'Korean tribe'. Consumers not only imitated the style design of their idols but proceeded to go ahead to look like their idols with the aid of cosmetic surgery. The posters and pictures of Korean celebrities were seen all over, from backpacks to notebooks and the wall membrane.

For example, Inlingua institution in Singapore reported a 60% increase in the number of students prepared to learn Korean in 2003 when compared with 2001 as a result of attention generated by Korean videos and dramas.

Almost every corporation in the Korean current economic climate benefitted from Korean influx. Pop celebrities were used to sell different goods and service. Super star endorsements were used thoroughly to market superior brand image. Pop idols got good thing about their gathering popularity through several means. According to news, Professional Kwon Sang Woo billed $200 for a few seating at a fan assembly in Tokyo. Tickets were also auctioned online for around $500. Moreover, matching to a match making service, the role of pop personalities as being loving lovers led to the belief Korean men were generally like this in real life as well. It had been for this reason simple fact that more than 6400 woman required match making services to find ideal Korean lover for the coffee lover.

The impact of the Korean influx had not been only limited to the Korean economy, but it affected the lives of pop idols themselves. After Korean wave, Korean male celebrities like, Bae Yong Joon were one of the best paid celebrities in the worldwide film industry.

There are some positive effects from the consideration of Korean influx as a transnational happening. Apart from gaining forex for the local overall economy, it helped in enhancing the foreign relationships of Korea. Korea acquired a long history of diplomatic frictions with the neighboring countries. Korean military fought against the Liberation Army of Vietnam and it set up ties with Beijing in 1992 at the expense of its relationships with Taipei.

2. 5 Negative Effects of the Korean Wave

Korean influx has been criticized scheduled to several reasons. It isbelieved that it was launch of foreign videos in Korean cinemas that threatened the Korean culture. Corresponding to a Chinese news magazine, authorities of South Korea was representing its culture as the substance of Asian culture. Prior to the Korean wave, classical music is a part of ethnic accomplishments and was a source of satisfaction for the Korean human population. But after the Korean wave, classical music and culture was all of the sudden substituted by the pop culture. Increasing Demand for the pop culture was no more considered a difficulty and administration exported it to overseas countries. There was a standard change in the conceptual platform as the Ministry of Athletics and tourism promoted venues and advertising campaigns by incorporating traditional and pop culture. Finchum-Sung explained the way the dynamics of the new measures led to the forming of new form of ethnical production.

The neighbouring countries of Korea undertook several options to safeguard their own entertainment industry. Chinese media limited the quantity of time for the broadcast of Korean dramas. The government of Vietnam also threatened to ban Korean shows if the number of Vietnamese shows on Korean television had not been increased. Taiwan also considered restricting the foreign shows played out on national tv. All these samples demonstrate that countries were retaliating against the success of Korean influx.

2. 6 The Korean Wave in China and Japan

The development of the Korean influx occurrence was most noticeable in China and Japan because of several reasons. The culture of Korea, China and Japan are very similar to each other. the Korean influx initially began in China, which is the most attractive and profitable market for the Korean products. Japan also happens to be the largest consumer market of Asia.

According to Jung, Japanese Tv set dramas were creatively changed for the development of Korean dramas which added hugely to the increasing recognition of Korean dramas among young people all over Asia, including Japan and China (Iwabuchi 2008, 153). In fact the concept of Korean influx has generated a new dimension in the main one way move of globalization and experts have been pressured to revise it (Kim Sujeong 2009; Jeon and Yoon 2005).

Korean wave can be an appropriate exemplory case of mutual blood circulation of cultural prices between your non-western countries. It questions the existing theories relating to the fact that information moves from western to non-western countries. Based on the imperialism theory, capitalist societies of western world have threatened the progress of non-western cultures and have homogenized them. (Schiller, 1976, 1991; Hamelink, 1983; Mattelart, 1984). Even during 1970's the unilateral framework of information circulation was predicated on dependency theory suggesting that information was directed by First World countries and received by Third World countries. In 1980's, some new methods developed with the expansion of advertising in Korea. These new approaches extended the use of imperialism domination to the field of communication technology.

However, this was also criticized by research workers, (Tomlinson, 1989 ; Friedman, Pieterse

Hall) relating to whom the info was not exchanged unilaterally. The imperialism theory was then substituted by globalization, which marketed a greater understanding of diverse ethnicities. (Friedman, 267. Pieterse also argues that the impact of non-western culture on western shouldn't be overlooked (Pieterse, 307~9). The progress of global tv in 1990's added significantly to move of information from Asian economies to european economies. (Barker, 1999). As the marketing in Asian marketplaces grew, western Television programs were imported to these countries while at the same time TV programs of the countries were exported to american countries. Therefore Chan (2000) addressed that China is actually a centre of this unique mass cultural growth in Asian areas.

2. 7 Factors Aiding the Korean Influx in China

There a wide range of contextual and textual factors that are believed by researchers to get facilitated the rapid growth of the Korean wave in China. Contextual factors are those which contain the wider aspect of Sino-Korean marriage as well as the many changes in China which helped in the diffusion of Korean culture in China. These factors include the romance between China and Korea, the ethnical exchange in Asia, the reforms in the Chinese culture "industry" and the Chinese language audience. Alternatively, the textual aspect has more regarding the effectiveness of the Korean drama and includes factors like the similarity between the cultures of both countries (resulting in an emotional involvement) and the actual fact that the Chinese audience start to see the Korean theatre as an assortment of traditional ideals with modern style, which adds to its charm.


Contextual factors consist of wide aspect of Sino-Korean romantic relationship as well as varied changes in China, which supported the diffusion of Korean culture in china.

Sino-Korean relationships and cultural exchange within Asia

There have been historical and geographical connections between China and

Korea. The reltions between both countries have been strained sice the communist regime. However in 1992, diplomatic relations improved leading to superior financial and social ties. Due to its open coverage, china has always permitted the extension of foreign culture in its region. Many civilizations like Japanese, and Taiwan were imported to China. by 1990's, Korean culture also began spreading swiftly in China. China has been a hub of Confucianism for quite some time.

Socialist culture was not a way to obtain satisfaction for Chinese people.

American culture was also not well-liked by Chinese language people. They didn't allow Japanese culture as well, and the root base of these sentiments were embedded in historical Japanese invasion of china. It really is believed that Chinese language individuals were looking for their identities when Korean culture was launched in China. Chinese people got anti-japan and anti-wat sentiments but no anti- Korea sentiments existed. In fact Korean culture was regarded as a favorable culture, with a whole lot of accomplished people.

Chinese ethnical industry

The social market of china will always be highlighted due to its open plans. These type of policies and reforms could another factor of Hallyu. The objective the cultural regulations have been communal and political, as opposed to the economic. Chinese cultural industry was controlled by the federal government for a number of years. Broadcasting channels operated corresponding to states decisions. When wide open policy was announced, advertising companies increased, stations expanded rapidly and so performed the demand of details. The politics control over broadcasting activities is significant, but Chineseaudiences look for more pleasurable and empathy from it programs (Hu, 2001). People wished to see different types of TV programs. Recently, programs were brought in from socialist countries however now imports are from Asian countries as well.


Although Chinese cultural industry existed for many years, however the quality and content of

channels was not of satisfactory level. Mass culture of china got lower sound and quality image as well. Therefore Chinese language young audience was not contented with the indegent ethnical dramas and videos. That they had no desire for socialist or the european culture. In addition to the aspiration of young audience to acquire their own strong mass culture, the family structure in china played out an important role in making young people the primary consumer of mass culture. Since 1970, there has been a one child policy. This meant that the only real child was the key focal point and was called 'little emperor'(Ministry of Culture, 2002). This technology have diverse knowledge about the world credited to increased mass media influence. They require comfortable satisfaction (Kim, 2002: 45). They look for modrn mass culture and follow the multimedia stars, in doing so their identities are a great deal different from traditional and the classical culture. So this technology found Korean press ad culture to provide what they required. Too little entertainment which been around previously was noticed no more. Young people of China now expressed their identities by associated with Korean dramas and videos. A 'Hanryu streets' was developed by Chinese audience in Beijing, which was a reflection of the active involvement rather than passive reception ( Kim, 2002: 51~52).


Cultural similarities and people' mental involvement

The broadcasting of TV programs is also damaged by the ethnical and economical factors. In Asia, people like to view local programs (Richard 1998), and the ethnic factors determine which programs will be most viewed in Asia. Korean dramas became a way to obtain entertainment for most young people in Asia because of their cultural factors. Matching to Iwabuchi, the ethnic exports of Japanese have been restricted to products which were not a reflection of the country's origin. (Iwabuchi 1998). He points out that standards of living and social human relationships are the a main area of the textual appeal of Japanese dramas. The celebrities in Japanese dramas are linked with Japanese modernity and this attracted the Asian visitors (Iwabuchi 2000)

Understanding and closeness can make clear cultural similarities between Parts of asia. It binds the Asian cultures alongside one another and distinguishes them from the, the burkha. These ethnic similarities can be based on similar modernity experienced through development in market and democratization.

Thomas in his research on, dissemination of East Asian cultural products in Vietnam, clarifies that people of Vietnam have been longing and desiring the modernity shown in Asian products. This resulted in increasing attractiveness of Asian products in Vietnam(Thomas, 2000). In the same way, a report conducted on ethnic similarity shown in TV dramas of Korea, Hong Kong and China (Yu and Lee 2001), proved that because of the ethnic similarities audience was able relate to those dramas more than to traditional western dramas. The dramas broadcasted in those three countries exhibited similar lifestyles, customs, patriarchal associations etc. so it can be said that the textual features mentioned above also contribute to make the Korean drams more desirable to Chinese audience.

* Textual appeals: the mixture of traditional worth with modern styles

As already talked about, Korean dramas charm to Cinese audience as a result of ethnical similarities between both countries. Although style of Korean serial and movies is copied from Traditional western videos and dramas, but those ideas are changed in a very 'Asian way'. Korean directors and makers have the ability to present those ideas in a far more practical and practical way, rendering it easier for their audience in other Asian countries to relate to them.

A analysis by Huh, exhibited that Korean dramas like 'What is love?' attracts middle age group folks of China, due to the strong representation of Confucian patriarchy in those type of dramas(Huh 2001). Since the communist regime, federal of China has attempted to liquidate the remains of Confucian traditions and therefore Chinese audience seems to be nostalgic when Confucian ideals were exhibited in Korean dramas. While the aged audience is seduced by the representation of traditional ideals of China, the younger audience find the pop personalities, their style, the sense of fashion and the consumer goods in Korean shows more desirable. Due to the rapid process of modernization in China, Chinese language young audience appear to be easily involved in Korean dramas. The attractive feature of Koran shows such as advanced star appearances, fashions, higher living criteria all charm to Chinese language young audience who wished to move towards capitalism. Chinese audience is influenced the wealth, elegance in Korean dramas and it stimulates their longing and desire to have a modern population. Techie feature such as aesthetic images, music, fast improvement of stories etc also attracts Chinese audience to Korean dramas.

To summarize our above talk, some of the factors appealing to Chinese audience to Korean dramas are:

  • The modern lifestyle and values stimulates their desire and longing for consumer capitalism.
  • The styles and fashion of TV pop stars get more youthful audience.
  • The beliefs and sentiment in Korean dramas act like that of Chinese culture which make it easier for Chinese audience to relate with them.
  • Technical factors like music, images and experiences also add in attracting Chinese audience.


4. 1 Introduction

Research methodology identifies the approach that has been used in doing a specific research. It identifies the way the data for a particular research is to be accumulated and the organized study of all the methods which may have been employed to arrive at a valid final result. The research strategy covers from the research questions, the methods of collecting data and analysing it as well as the limits of the study.

4. 2 Goals and Objectives

The aim of this dissertation is to study the Korean film industry to be able to determine whether such a thought as "Korean Wave" is present and if it can, then to study how they have impacted the Parts of asia, particularly China. The analysis will also help understand if this Korean fever is sustainable or whether it was only a bubble created by a few hit motion pictures.

4. 3 Research Gap

In recent years, there's been a whole lot of speak about the success of the Korean film industry and exactly how it has already reached a spot where it now has the ability to become the major film industry after Hollywood. This success has led to the coining of the term "Korean wave", which is the main concept under study. Thus, the explanation behind this study is to discover all the factors that have contributed to this success of the Korean cinema, specifically in the Parts of asia. This analysis will also help identify the reasons for the success of the Korean motion pictures, especially in China. More importantly it can help determine whether this wave, which has triggered such uproar, is sustainable and will continue to grow or is it just a short-term boom caused by a few super visits. Predicated on this rationale the research questions that require to be replied are given within the next section.

4. 4 Research Questions

The research questions for this dissertation are:

  1. The factors adding to the creation and expansion of the 'Korean wave'
  2. The impact of the Korean film industry on the Chinese language population and Chinese cinema?
  3. Reasons for the deep impact of the Korean film on the Chinese population and Chinese language cinema
  4. Sustainability of the Korean wave

4. 5 Research Method

Research method refers to a means of conducting and putting into action research. There are various research methods that are used by researchers to perform studies, with regards to the requirements and type of research being conducted. Included in these are methods like questionnaire studies, interviews, observations, experimentation, circumstance studies etc. In such a research, principal data collection methods like questionnaire surveys, interviews, observation and experimentation cannot be utilized because the industry under research is a large number of miles away. Thus, the case studies and books review shaped the secondary research and both these were used to deduce the studies.

4. 6 Research Constraints

There were a number of limitations which were faced during doing this research. The fact that the research was conducted on the film industry of your country a whole continent away supposed that key research could not be conducted. As the utmost reliable method of collected first-hand data was eliminated, the info collection was structured mainly on supplementary research and research study. There are lots of limits to data collected in this manner. Firstly, secondary data has been accumulated by other experts for other purposes which meant that the majority of the data that was gathered did not easily fit into to the context of the research as well as most important data would have. Much of the info was irrelevant to this research and needed to be sifted through. Second, some of the data collected had not been up-to-date therefore, could not be employed to this research. Moreover, extra data is much less reliable in the framework of authenticity as principal data. to be able to obtain a closer view of the impact of Korean films on Chinese language people, some of them were approached and interviewed online, but this may not be as effective as field research or face-to-face interviews. Thus, the physical distance was a real limitation, which resulted in all the above mentioned problems.

4. 7 Identity of Research

This refers to the research way that has been found in this dissertation. Mainly, 'interpretivism' or the qualitative procedure is adopted in this thesis. The interpretive way is a way to gain insight which involves discovering ways to gain in-depth understanding of the entire topic under research. This type of research explores the depth, richness and difficulty of a certain phenomena, attempts to simplify it as much as possible and then draw conclusions as to why and what sort of certain thing is happening. Like here, the qualitative strategy is being used to interpret why and the way the Korean wave has impacted China the way in which that it has. Thus, qualitative research identifies a kind of research that produces conclusions that aren't predicated on some statistical data or statistical steps. Qualitative or Interpretive data is based on qualitative data, that is data that's not quantifiable. This process is very helpful in this review because it offers an in-depth view of the Korean film industry and the Korean influx, which in turn makes it simpler to carry out the goals of the dissertation and reach appropriate answers to the research questions.

In this thesis, the Asian culture is under analysis because it is a major factor for the success of the Korean videos for the reason that region. A strategy that is often used to study a culture or a group of people is named ethnography. Basically, ethnography means 'portrait of a people'. It is a written explanation of a culture, its customs, traditions, beliefs, prices and the resulting behaviour. (Marvin Harris and Orna Johnson, 2000). In most cases, ethnography involves a detailed, personal interaction between your researcher and the people who are under study. This involves the researcher to maintain close contact with people, usually to reside with them in order to see and understand them. This helps supply the researcher a local perspective which may be very useful in a research such as this. people's behaviour is seen in the every day framework, not in a handled experimental environment. In addition, data is collected from various options but mainly informal conversations are being used as the foundation for the finding. It is fieldwork based, meaning it usually consists of the researcher spending yearly or more for the reason that contemporary society and living among the list of people. Ethnographers are, thus, participant observers.

However, in this case, ethnography could not be practised in the real sense of the word. That is since it was impossible for me to go to Asia and stay among the list of Chinese people for the intended purpose of the analysis. However, keeping in mind the true substance of the strategy in mind, which is to deduce behaviour patterns through informal conversations, an attempt was made at ethnography. This included using various sociable networking sites and the internet, many Asians (around 25 Chinese language people) were contacted and several befriended before their viewpoints were observed down. Many folks from China were approached through facebook, and over an interval of many weeks their views on Korean motion pictures were asked and their thoughts noted down. Many of them were questioned casually although some were questioned in detail. one of the Chinese friends made a webpage on facebook, on which individuals were asked about their views on the Korean wave. This also proved to be an extremely useful activity.

Though this was not fieldwork, it helped gain an perception about the tastes and frame of mind of the Chinese language people about the Korean film industry a lot more useful than a great deal of the secondary data gathered.

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