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Development Of A Cross Electric Vehicle Anatomist Essay

The term Cross VEHICLE identifies a vehicle which uses two or more distinct power sources of energy to move the vehicle. The term commonly identifies HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES (HEVs), which is a combination of an interior combustion engine motor and a number of Electric motors.

The intention of the presence of electric powertrain is intended for either increasing the fuel overall economy or better performance.

1. 1 History of Crossbreed Electric Cars

The seeds for the technology of Crossbreed Electric Vehicles were laid a hundred years back i. e. , in 1900. The first cross electric vehicle, Mixte originated in 1900 at Lohner Mentor Manufacturer by Ferdinand Porsche. That is a 4WD series-hybrid version, carries a pair of generators powered by 2. 5 hp Daimler IC machines to increase its operating range advertisement could travel nearly 40miles on power itself and was presented in Paris Auto Show in 1901. Mixte used gas engine motor powering a generator, therefore capabilities up electric hub engine, and come to a rate of 50 kmph and a ability of 5. 22 kW in 20 minutes.

Knight neftal produced a hybrid auto racing car in 1902. In 1905, H. Piper registered a patent for cross types vehicle in US. In 1915 Dual Power, Woods AUTOMOBILE electric car maker possessed a four cylinder IC engine unit and a power engine. This car ran up to swiftness of 24kmph on the electric electric motor alone, drawing the power from battery and now velocity, the IC engine motor took the car up to its 56kmph which was its top rate.

Later in 1915, a Canadian company produced the first car on the market. Woods AUTOMOBILE company in Chicago released the first gasoline-electric hybrid car in 1917. the cross was a failure commercially, proving to be too sluggish for its price, and its difficulty to service.

The working prototype that is being used in latest HEV was designed by Victor Wouk. His work on the HEVs in 1960s and 1970s received him the name as "The Godfather of the Hybrid". Wouk installed a hybrid drive train having 16 KW electric engine in to the, Buick Skylark provided by GM.

The Regenerative braking system, an important creation concept for almost all of the HEVs was created by David Arthurs in 1978 and used for the very first time on Opel GT. The vehicle exhibited a energy efficiency of 3. 1L/100km. Audi launched its first edition of Audi Duo, an experimental vehicle in 1989. It really is a plug-in parallel cross with 9. 4 KW, Siemens electric engine and a Ni-Cd battery pack to supply energy to the motor unit which drive the rear wheels.

Esparante GTR-Q9 was the first petrol engine unit to be a part of the contest at Le Mans. Later, the car completed second in course at Petit Le Mans same season, i. e. , in 1998.

Hybrid technology became familiar within the automobile industry in the late 1990s. All of the automobile companies emerged to know about the public awareness of the customer, and then your mass creation of the cross electric vehicles was started. The to begin that kind is Toyota Prius in Japan, Honda Perception launched in 1999 in USA and Japan.

Now, all the leading auto manufacturers like Jaguar, Ford, Lexus, and Peugeot were on to the development of the hybrid electric vehicles. This might lead to a revolution in the automobile industry in near future.

Briefing the Technology Being Found in HEVs

These times, many research laboratories and firms will work on the introduction of cross types electric vehicles. These systems are recruiting the people from all technical backgrounds such as mechanical, automotive, electrical, electronics. In order that, they can concentrate on each and every aspect of the automobile, that can result in the introduction of the vehicle irrespective of its technological aspects.

For e. g. , NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) is one of the type of researching bodies, positively researching on the many aspects of gasoline skin cells and vehicles that run using the power generated from the gas cells. Petrol cell vehicles are much likely as of hybrid vehicles with diesel or petrol machines.

Modern HEVs are using many technologies which can enhance the efficiency of the automobile like Regenerative braking. This converts kinetic energy of the automobile into electrical energy, instead of throwing away it in the form of warmth energy as like in typical braking systems. Some HEVs use IC motors to generate electricity as an power generator, either to recharge the batteries or to empower the electric drive motors straight. Many HEVs are reducing the emissions at idle by preventing the IC engine motor and restarting when it's needed, this is known as start-stop system. Exterior torque will be applied to the differentials when the electric powertrain is performing, which leads to the better performance of the HE vehicle.

Components of a Cross Electric vehicle

The structure of your Crossbreed Electric Vehicle is much likely as that of a typical gasoline driven vehicle. The distinguishing factor is that a cross car will have a number of electric motors alongside which can improve gas mileage.

Note: In the case of Toyota Prius, car goes exclusively by electricity when motivated under a quickness of 30 Mph.

Figure : Composition of a basic Cross Electric Vehicle

1. 3. 1 Gasoline Engine

The gasoline engine in a hybrid electric car is like as that of an ordinary internal combustion engine. However, the engine unit is smaller comparatively and uses advanced technologies which can result in reducing emission plus more efficiency.

1. 3. 2 Gasoline Tank

The fuel reservoir of the hybrid electric vehicle functions as the petrol storage area device for IC engine. Batteries can be called as a gas tank regarding hybrid electric vehicles, as it stores the electricity produced and products when had a need to the electric motor.

1. 3. 3 Electric Motor

The electric motor unit in a hybrid electric vehicle is really small and essential element of make it a cross types. Daily advance in electronics allows electric motor unit to act as a electric motor as well as a generator.

For e. g. it attracts energy from the electric battery to accelerate the automobile, when needed. But, while performing as a generator, it decreases the car and returns the vitality back into the batteries.

1. 3. 4 Batteries

The batteries in the cross electric vehicle are the devices designed to store the vitality which is necessary for the electric electric motor. Unlike, the fuel in the gas tank, only power the gasoline engine motor, the electric motor unit of a cross electric vehicle may charge the batteries as well as sketch energy from them.

1. 3. 5 Transmission

The transmitting in a hybrid electric vehicle performs the same basic function as a transmitting that of a conventional car.


The generator is much similar to electric engine, but it can only just produce energy. Generator is mainly found in the series cross electric cars.

1. 4Available electric power sources for Hybrid vehicle

The available sources of energy includes the following

Rechargeable Energy Source System, RESS

Petrol or Diesel


Compressed Air

Liquid Nitrogen


Solar Energy

Rechargeable energy tool system (RESS)

A Standard rechargeable energy tool system or RESS is something which stores energy to provide power and it is rechargeable. This is done by by using a battery. You will discover six types of batteries that are presently getting used as a source, for the production of energy in Cross electric vehicles. Those are lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride, nickel-cadmium, lithium ion, zinc-air and flywheels.

Petrol or Diesel

Petrol is being greatly used as gasoline in automotives, because of its high calorific value and more efficiency of the petrol cycle (Otto circuit) and low emission rate compared to most of the other alternative fuels and its abundance. The thermodynamic cycle mixed up in petrol engines is named, Otto cycle or four stroke pattern.

Diesel is one of the better choice fuels to petrol you can use in automotives. The efficiency of the diesel engine unit is also good and the emission rate is somewhat higher when compared to the petrol engine motor. The thermodynamic pattern that is used in the diesel engine motor is named Rankine's cycle


Hydrogen can be used alternatively gasoline, as an onboard fuel for motive power to the vehicle. This can be used as a gas in virtually any automotive which uses hydrogen in a similar fashion, as of in aircraft. The energy plant of the automobile converts the chemical energy of hydrogen into mechanical energy, this will be done either by burning the hydrogen in interior combustion engine unit, or by reacting hydrogen with air in a gas cell to perform electric motors.

1. 4. 4 Compressed air

Compressed air can be used as a fuel in engines which can be pneumatic actuators, which can create a useful work by widening compressed air. That is getting used from the past two centuries, which range from hand held turbines to several hundred horsepower. Some of them count on turbines, others on pistons and cylinders. The engine that works using compressed air as a petrol is also called as Air-Hybrid Engine motor.

Liquid Nitrogen

Liquid nitrogen can be used an alternative petrol to liquid hydrogen. The engine unit extracts temperature from the ambient air which is used for heating the liquid nitrogen in heat exchanger and using the causing pressurised gas to operate the rotary engine.

This can even be incorporated in cross vehicle systems, power tanks to recharge the batteries and the leading to power supply electric propulsion. This system is called Hybrid liquid nitrogen-electric propulsion. In addition, regenerative braking system can also found in conjunction with this technique.


Electricity is being used as a energy in cars since very long time back. These autos run by sketching electricity from the power supply to run the motor which in turn, runs the piston in the cylinder creating the mechanical energy which can move the automobile. The autos which run by only using the electric source are called plug-in electric cars. As these vehicles don't have any alternate way to obtain energy apart from battery, these must be charged time to time and hence called as plug-in electric vehicle. By adopting the electricity as an alternative source to the hybrid vehicle, the vehicle is called Cross Electric vehicle.

Solar Energy

Solar Energy is a form of fuel you can use as a substitute energy in plug-in electric cars. The automobile will be driven by solar electricity from the solar panels on the top. Photovoltaic cells convert the sun's energy into straight into the electrical energy. Even though it doesn't make any change by means of fuel that is being used, but the mileage of the immediate plug-in electric vehicle can be significantly increased by using these PV skin cells. But, really the only backdrop in adapting this technology in to the plug-in electric vehicle is that, these PV cells could work only in the places with numerous solar energy and can not be used during the dark.

1. 5 Classification of Cross types Electric Vehicles

Hybrid electric vehicles can be classified basing on some factors. Such as,

The path in which power comes to the energy train.

Degree of hybridization.

Path of Power supplied to the Powertrain

The classification of HEVs can be carried out basing on the way of power supplied to the powertrain. According to this, the vehicles can be categorised as,

Parallel hybrids

Series hybrids

Series-Parallel hybrids

Plug-in HEVs

Parallel Hybrids

In a Parallel HEV, the Internal Combustion engine and the electric electric motor are linked to the mechanical transmitting and can concurrently transmit the power to wheels through the conventional transmission. Usually, parallel hybrids use small and single electric motors and depend on a small battery power because the electric motor does not have the capacity to be the only way to obtain energy to run the vehicle. Parallel hybrids are also capable of, using Regenerative braking for some limited levels and IC engine motor will also act as a generator for supplementary recharging. Parallel hybrids are much useful in comparison to non-hybrid vehicles, especially in the urban traveling conditions and sometimes during highway businesses, when the electric motors contribution is allowed. Honda Understanding, Civic, Accord, and Chevrolet Malibu are some of the cases for the parallel hybrids in development.

Series Hybrids

In a string HEV, only electric electric motor drives the powertrain and Internal Combustion engine motor works as a generator to fee the batteries which enable the electric motor. In series hybrid vehicles, battery power will be recharged from the regenerative braking or the Internal Combustion engine unit. Series hybrids generally have small interior combustion engine but large battery pack set alongside the parallel cross vehicles. This is actually the factor which makes series hybrids more efficient when travelling in city conditions and more expensive than parallel cross vehicles. Chevrolet Volt is an example for a string hybrid in creation.

Series-Parallel Hybrids

These vehicles are flexible to use in parallel or series function. Because of this, these vehicles will be more reliable, because these will be handled as a string hybrid in low speeds and parallel in high speeds. But, these vehicles are costlier weighed against a genuine parallel. Hybrid powertrains are being used by Standard Motors, Ford, Nissan, Lexus, and Toyota. Vehicles discussing "Series-Parallel" can operate in both the parallel and series setting at the same time. Toyota Highlander is an example for Series-Parallel hybrids.

Plug-in Hybrids

Plug-in cross types is a kind of cross vehicle which works rechargeable batteries, that could be stored to full fee by plugging into an exterior source of electric power. This sort of vehicles shares the features of a conventional HEV, having an Internal Combustion engine and a power electric motor; and with all-electric vehicle, provided with a plug that needs to be connected to the external source. These vehicles have well-built all-electric range in comparison to conventional gas electric hybrids, and combustion engine provides with backup needed when batteries are depleted. Chinese language automobile maker BYD Vehicle released F3DM hatchback into Chinese market in December 2008 and Standard Motors needs to kick off Chevrolet Volt series plug-in by November 2010.

Classification by Amount of Hybridization

The cross electric vehicles can be categorised further basing on the factor, the scope to which the vehicle is hybridized. Regarding to this, the HEVs can be categorized into,

Full Hybrid

Mild Hybrid

Power assist Hybrids

Full Hybrids

This is a kind of Cross types vehicle which can run just only on the batteries, or maybe on the engine only, or the mixture of both. Ford's Cross System, Toyota's Cross Synergy Drive, General Motors's Two-Mode Crossbreed technology are a few of full cross types systems. A high-capacity battery pack will be needed for the electric battery only operation. These vehicles will have divided path for electricity, which allows with more versatility in the drivetrain by inter-converting mechanised and electrical power, although it is sophisticated. Ford Escape Cross, Toyota Prius, and Ford Fusion Crossbreed are some examples for full hybrid vehicles.

Mild Hybrids

This is a car, which cannot be driven by depending only on the power made by the electric engine itself. Since, the electric motor doesn't have enough power to propel the automobile alone. These vehicles are only incorporated with some features of hybrid technology, and achieve limited personal savings on fuel utilization.

A Mild cross is a car more of a conventional type with oversized starter motor which allows the engine to turn off whenever the vehicle is decelerating or quit. Yet, restart cleanly and quickly. Even though the gasoline engine unit was turned off, accessories will continue to operate on the electric power, and like the other hybrid designs, electric motor will be utilized for regenerative braking to recreate all the vitality. Mild hybrids have relatively small batteries and a weakened, small generator/ motor than those of a fully cross types vehicle which helps in lowering weight and cost of development. The BMW Idea 7 Series Working Hybrid is an exemplory case of a Mild Hybrid with a power motor made to increase performance and electric power.

Power Assist Hybrids

These vehicles use the IC engine unit for primary electric power source, and torque-boosting electric engine is also linked to a large conventional power coach. The electric engine is mounted between your transmitting system and engine unit should be a very large starter engine essentially. This electric motor not only manages when the engine motor needs to be fired up, but also when extra electric power is needed. The electric electric motor may also be used to restart the IC engine, Deriving benefits from shutting down the key engine at idle, while the battery system will be used to perform the other electric power accessories.

Advantages and Drawbacks of HEVs over Conventional Petrol or Diesel Vehicles

Fuel Consumption

The use of petroleum is comparatively less and efficiency is much better in HEVs than the traditional petrol or diesel machines. Since, using three mechanisms:

Reducing the wastage of energy during low/idle outcome, usually by turning off the IC engine motor.

Utilizing the misuse energy (i. e. by regenerative braking)

Reduction in ability and size of the IC engine unit, and hence inefficiencies from under-utilization, the extra power end result from the electric electric motor compensate losing in peak electric power output from the IC engine motor.

Any combinations of these three primary advantages of a hybrid technology can be utilized for different gas usage, emissions, power. The energy curve of an electric electric motor is suits to more changing speed levels, and will provide significantly high torque at low rates of speed compared to IC motors. Thus, greater energy efficiency of HEVs has inference for decrease in fuel utilization and emission of air pollutants.


The sound emitted from HEVs is relatively very low than that of a traditional gasoline or diesel engine vehicle, leads to positive noises health results. Though, the looks from the auto tires (road noises), the loudest noise at highway rates of speed from the automobile interiors can't be prevented by the hybrid design by itself.


The fuel used in HEVs is less of petroleum products which will give off carbon oxides in to the atmosphere and therefore pollution created will be less comparatively to the conventional gasoline or diesel engines. These vehicles will have a very positive impact onto the surroundings. But, the challenge is with decomposing the inactive batteries which are constructed of metals like Ni those can oxidise and produce metallic oxides which can cause pollution in the environment.

Weight of the vehicle

The mass of any HEV is relatively less than that of a conventional gasoline or diesel engine vehicles as the components found in the hybrid automobiles are less in weight than those of IC engine motor vehicles. This factor assists with reducing the intake of extra preliminary torque required to move the vehicle from snooze.

Disadvantages of HEVs over Conventional Petrol or Diesel Vehicles

As with all new technology, hybrids are relatively expensive.

Shortage in knowing of knowledge about hybrids with the technicians to deal effectively with these vehicles.

High maintenance

Low towing capacity

Batteries are expensive, heavy and have a short life span and are an environmental threat.

Decomposition of batteries is a large challenge for the manufacturers, as the batteries are worthless after they were dead and can be dangerous to the environment.

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