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Developing Regression Models Of Students Performance In High School Geometry

Given a quickly changing world, today's pupil success depends on the students' skills to organize and apply Mathematics in the perfect solution is of meaningful problems. Matching to Osborne (2002), making a valid projection involving an outcome for a particular individual may be accomplished by making prediction models through multiple regressions.

The need to increase the standard of surviving in Nigeria through the progress in knowledge and technology has made Government at all levels and stakeholders in education to be more concerned now than ever before about the indegent performance of students in Mathematics. A report on Some Pupil Personal Parameters as Predictors of Mathematics Success in Secondary Institutions in Central Cross River Status - Nigeria figured in tackling poor performance in Mathematics, variables within the learner need to be addressed, as they also contribute to clarify or predict learners' performance in Mathematics (Obo, 2007).

Internationally, the Philippines belongs to the underlying part five of poor achievers in Math and Science. According to the research by the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Research (TIMSS) in 2003, in the Math Accomplishment test, the Philippines rated 41st. According to Tinio (2002), public school students do badly in diagnostic and achievements exams. He also added that those students who required the exam were made by their teachers a few months before the actual exams, and their instructors had to go to a workshop in PNU (Philippine School of the Philippines) in preparation for the review, but nonetheless their performance is poor.

In the local situation, specifically in Davao Del Sur, Mathematics is one of the weakest themes having a low performance in the 2006 National Achievement Ensure that you Division Achievements Test (Angco, 2007). Subscribing to the belief that the grade of education is assessed by the performance of students, every educator seems the essential need to recognize variables that might be used as an instrument in predicting performance in Mathematics subject matter.

As of the present, no research has been conducted yet to predict students' performance in SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Geometry in Davao Del Sur. Thus, this study was undertaken to formulate regression models that will assist to project future performance in Geometry of the Secondary College Students.

Statement of the Problem

The review was conducted to develop regression models of students' performance in SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Geometry. Specifically, this research sought answers to the following questions:

1. What's the level of the following college student variables:

1. 1 Study Habits

1. 2 Perceived Professor Support

1. 3 Attitude towards Mathematics

1. 4 Parent or guardian Involvement

1. 5 Month to month Family Income?

2. What's the amount of Students' Performance in Geometry in terms of:

2. 1 Polygons and Space Figures

2. 2 Measurement of Polygons and Space Figures

2. 3 Relationships Involving Line Segments and Angles?

3. Is there a significant romance componentwise between learner parameters and performance of students in SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Geometry?

4. What regression models can be developed in predicting Students' Performance in High School Geometry?

Hypothesis

The null hypothesis tested in this review was that there surely is no significant marriage componentwise between pupil parameters and performance of students in SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Geometry.

Review of Related Literature

This section includes mixed resources of materials that are seen with regards to the inspection. The subject areas are hereby offered to provide an improved history and insights of today's investigation.

Student Variables as Predictors

Researchers in mindset and education have always been interested in

determining differences inter and intra-individuals to be able to investigate causes and/or ramifications of some variables (3rd party) on other factors (dependents), knowing that the average person is the one who decides the outcome of the procedure. It is his aspect and the type of the relationship among his personal variables on one side, and family, and college factors on the other hand, which makes a decision how he receives, assimilate, react to the procedure, and produce the behavioral changes (Fawziyah, 2001).

Study habits. Teachers and parents long have been suffering from the challenge of students' low achievement in university. Many experienced the frustrating experience of watching a kid undermine his or her chances for a good performance by just not trying. Students who performs badly because of not learning or not completing assignments is usually recognized by his educators as a hopeless circumstance (Camahalan, 2006). He further added that lots of students who encounter success problems in college frequently warrant the concerned scrutiny of educators and parents equally. They are victims of pre-judgment they can do no better.

Study habits are learning tendencies that permit students work privately. Azikiwe (1998) explained study habit as the adopted way and manner students packages his private readings, after classroom learning so as to attain mastery of the topic. According to her, good research habits are good property to learners because they (behaviors) assist students to achieve mastery in areas of expertise anal consequent excellent performance, as the opposing constitute constraints to learning and achievements leading to failure.

Ikegbunam (1998) directed that poor study habits among the major causes of poor academics shows among Nigerian university students. Efficient research habits can enhance writing. Professors in the developing countries, such as those in Nigerian colleges, should try to provide graduates with high level of analytical skills, the capability for critical reasoning, self-reflection and conceptual understanding and ability to learn autonomously and exercise versatility of head.

A research study on "Effects of self-regulated learning on Mathematics accomplishment of selected Southeast Asian Children" by Camahalan (2006) uncovered that students' low achievements in school is related to their poor study habits. Additionally it is suggested that training the students to be self-regulated learners through the Self-Regulated Learning Program (SRLP) will help them enhance their Mathematics success and study behaviors.

The said research was predicated on the conceptual framework that students' low mathematics achievements in school is related to their poor research behaviors. Thus, the intervention titled "Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning Program" directed to help determined children from Southeast Asia (the Philippines) improve their Mathematics achievements, Mathematics self-regulated learning, and Mathematics institution grade.

Good (1996) identified the term review patterns as the student's way of review whether systematic, efficient or inefficient etc. Good study habits are recognized to be the determinants of the academic performance. That is why efforts are created to develop and improve research behaviors in students. Supplementary school students in public colleges of Pakistan result from financially poor and average income family members. These young families face various problems causing emotional disruption among their children. They may have poor study practices hence they show poor educational performance. Significant amounts of evidence exists showing the positive relationship between study practices and academic accomplishment.

Ansari (1998) discovered that study patterns and study behaviour are both significant variables which determine the academic performance of the students. Russell and Petrie (1997) have cited a research study aimed to learn the partnership between study patterns and student attitude and academics performance (cumulative GPA) of college or university students. Findings of this study indicate a positive correlation between study attitude, study behavior and academic achievements.

National Analysis of Educational Improvement (NAEP) in 1994 conducted a study to discover the relationship between study patterns and academic success. Findings of the analysis revealed a confident correlation between review habit and academics achievements of primary and secondary institution students.

Onwuegbuzie (2001) also conducted a series of studies to learn relationship between review habits and educational success and reported positive romance between study patterns and academic success. The primary objective of the study was to look at the result of direction services on students analysis attitudes, study patterns and academic achievements.

Perceived Educator Support. The educator is the key person in the teaching learning situation. Hence, he must be considered a model to all or any his students in all aspects of life. Students are good imitators, especially the ones, and they usually make their teachers their role models (Calderon, 1998).

He further stressed that the educator is the manager of the teaching learning situation, the facilitator of learning and the evaluator of the college student achievement. Hence, he must have the mastery of the subject matter after the principle that a person cannot give what he doesn't have. The professor should master the techniques and tools of teaching. The teacher is similar to a carpenter. The carpenter who uses old, rusty, and unsharpened tools cannot produce fine furniture. In like manner, the tutor who uses haphazardly outmoded and inadequate methods and tools of instructing cannot create a good product. But the tutor who combines the best top features of techniques and who manipulates with utmost dexterity the tools at hand come out the most attractive.

Hudley (2002) cited that instructor support appears to be one of the very most influential factors that promote higher learner achievement. They focused more on students' ethnicity and proposal as factors of achievement, but students who reported sense more recognized by the institution community demonstrated more proposal in the learning and greater accomplishment.

Likewise, Yeung and McInerney (1999) discovered that perceived instructor support made better impact on students' GPAs and attendance than self-image and even insight from relatives and buddies. Surely teachers' ability to influence students' academic achievement translates to their capability to impact their success on high stakes checks.

Ewen (2002) emphasized that the question of how to motivate students in the class room has turned into a leading concern for teachers of all disciplines. Student drive and scholar management are especially relevant to mathematics education in light of repeating questions about how to obtain additional students interested and involved in learning.

If students were given day-to-day situations for exercising and learning the important uses of mathematics, they would develop such skills as "making inferences, analyzing the reasonableness of results and using references to look up what they need to know (Cawelti, 1999).

Swartz (2003) known that there surely is a great deal of qualitative and anecdotal research from institution classrooms that infusion lessons both improve learner thinking and enhance content learning. Educators report that scholar interest in their learning increases, their understanding of the content these are learning deepens, many students do better on content-area exams, and many students get started using the thinking strategies released in these lessons. When using infusion as an approach to teaching thinking and boosting learning, the learning students engender will prepare them to enter an increasingly sophisticated and technological world with skills that they will need to utilize information meaningfully, to make reasonable judgments, and develop assurance in themselves as thoughtful people.

Skemp (1996) cited that more recent studies with improved methodology that have provided evidences that educators who have a conceptual or logical understanding of Mathematics, can effect students' learning.

Given that coaching skill is associated with learner achievement, college districts and policymakers are interested in how teachers are prepared. While teaching skill is a goal of planning, usually a credential only requires an educational level and coursework. Practically all public school instructors in america have at least a bachelor's degree, and many own advanced certifications (Ashton, 1996).

Greenwald (1996) assessed a number of studies of the partnership between university inputs and scholar outcomes. Some institution resources, i. e. , educator ability, instructor education, and teacher experience were tightly related to to student accomplishment.

Attitude towards Mathematics. The conceptions, attitudes, and goals of the students regarding mathematics and mathematics teaching have been regarded as very significant factor underlying their university experience and success (Borasi, 2000).

The basic conceptions determine just how students approach mathematics tasks, in many cases leading them into nonproductive pathways. Students have been found to hold a strong procedural and rule-oriented view of mathematics also to assume that mathematical questions should be quickly solvable in simply a few steps, the target just being to get "right answers". For them, the role of the learner is to get mathematical knowledge and also to be able to illustrate so; the role of the teacher is to transfer this knowledge also to ascertain that students purchased it (Frank, 1998).

Based on the study on the "Roles of Behaviour, Perceptions and Family Backgrounds on Students Success in Mathematics", pupil engagement in mathematics refers to students' inspiration to learn mathematics, their self confidence in their ability to achieve mathematics and their emotional thoughts about mathematics. University student proposal in mathematics performs a key role in the acquisition of mathematics skills and knowledge - students who are employed in the training process will tend to learn more and be more receptive to help expand learning. Student proposal also has an impact after course selection, educational pathways and later career alternatives (Leder, 2003).

Reys (1999) asserted that the impact of attitudes, beliefs, and personality characteristics on accomplishment effects and later participation in the training of mathematics are essential factors for mathematics educators. Professors not only want students to learn mathematics but also desire to be in a position to enjoy and become confident about the subject. He strongly assumed that affective variables such as desire and self-esteem facilitate or prevent students' learning and accomplishment in mathematics. Furthermore, affective goals are contained in statements of educational aims for mathematics curricula.

Students' causal attributions are not only fundamental motivational factors but are also critical motivators of these persistence in learning. Optimism, pessimism, and success in mathematics were measured in an example of principal and lower extra students on two situations. Although achievement in mathematics was most tightly related to to prior accomplishment and grade level, optimism and pessimism were significant factors. Specifically, students with a more generally pessimistic outlook on life had less level of accomplishment in mathematics as time passes. Gender was not a significant factor in achievements (Kloosterman, 2001)

McLean (1997) looked into behaviour toward learning in regards to to their achievement and discovered that five attitudinal factors were significantly related to academics performance by distinguishing between the attitudes of high and low achievers. Students' attitudes might not only directly impact academic achievements,

but also indirectly affect the result of other factors, as well.

Abu-Hilal (2000) found that the result of attitudes passes through the amount of aspiration. McLean (1997) and Abu-Hilal's (2000) studies distributed consensus in regards to to the importance of attitudes in predicting achievement. They further complemented the results of early on studies, with the previous proving that the students' preliminary attitude towards institution was significantly related to academic performance, as the latter found that attitudes forecasted their deep method of learning.

Parent Participation. In her review of literature on mother or father involvement and university student accomplishment, Hendrickson (1997) figured for now the data is beyond dispute: parent or guardian involvement improves learner achievements. When parents are participating, children do better in school, and they go to raised schools. She also observed the next: the family provides the primary educational environment; relating parents in their children's formal education improves student achievement; parent or guardian involvement is most reliable when it is detailed, long-lasting, and well-planned; the huge benefits are not restricted to early child years or the primary level; there are strong results from involving parents continuously throughout senior high school; including parents in their own children's education at home is not enough; to ensure the quality of universities as institutions portion the city, parents must be involved at all levels in the school; children from low-income and minority people hold the most to gain when schools require parents. Parents don't need to be well-educated to help.

The research revealed that parents can play an important role in strengthening their children's education by participating in their learning and by reinforcing the attempts of educators and academic institutions.

It is observed that parents may take many positive steps to help their children, like the pursuing: they can encourage students to go after advanced course work, to get significant amounts of time in their homework, and to devote additional time to reading than to television set. A pastime in reading and learning can be fostered by reading aloud to children; keeping family conversations about reading materials, school work, and current situations; and encouraging recurrent trips to the library to gather more information about interesting matters. (Mullis, 1997).

According to Gianzero (1999), the premise that strong family-school linkages improve children's educational outcomes has acquired almost axiomatic position. Research studies abound documenting the connection between parents' engagement in their children's schooling and a bunch of benefits accruing not only to students themselves, but to their colleges and parents as well. Among the documented conclusions are strong positive correlations between parental engagement in children's schooling and increased student attitudes, success, and attendance.

Involved parents enjoy benefits as well, including increased confidence in their capabilities to mother or father, help their children learn at home, and communicate effectively with colleges. For some parents, participation in their children's education prompts those to follow further education themselves. Studies show that teachers not only keep engaged parents in higher respect than uninvolved parents, nonetheless they also have higher expectations for their children. (Henderson & Berla, 1997).

Monthly Family Income. Parental occupation may influence university student performance in various ways. For instance, occupation-related income may determine usage of learning opportunities and resources therefore play a role in learning results. The education and types of skills associated with different occupations and modeled by parents may inspire students to develop their own skills in particular ways. Parental occupation may also affect how students understand the value of mathematics learning, their beliefs about the effectiveness of mathematics and the learning environment at home (Gianzero, 1999).

In addition, he further consumed with stress that the longer a kid is poverty, the greater deleterious the result on his or her educational expansion. Furthermore, the concentration of poverty within a college can be shown to be harmful to all students in that school whether or not an individual university student comes from an unhealthy background. All scholar poverty is not equivalent. Students experiencing long-term poverty or who attend institutions with high poverty concentrations are more likely to get educational troubles than students from young families whose length in poverty is short or who go to colleges with low poverty rates. In addition, the findings suggest that lots of the same students who experience long-term poverty also enroll in colleges with high poverty concentrations.

Performance of Students in Geometry

Since the establishment of the mathematics criteria by the National Committee for Coaching Mathematics (NCTM), research workers have been assessing these standards on successful execution strategies and student achievements. One area within these benchmarks focuses on competencies students need to understand in basic geometry. The NCTM criteria describe geometry in an effort to provide students the capability to visualize and use spatial connections and estimation. The authors assessed these standards that relate with geometry and investigated the ability of students to estimate angles.

From an early start, humans have used graphical representations to communicate ideas. Technical engineers and other specialists related to research, mathematics and technology have long used geometry and descriptive geometry to find solutions to everyday problems. Actually, geometry can be explained as a science to utilize graphic representations to find solutions to spatial problems (Pare, 1997). These spatial problems require the capability to use spatial visualization to psychologically change and interpret visual information in problem solving situations (Wiley, 1995).

Although geometry and spatial visualization play an important role in each day activities, Perkins (1996) conducted studies that suggest humans are in essence poor geometers. The rationale for such a assertion came through a series of studies studying geometric factors like rectilinearity, symmetry, and extrusion (both linear and curved). Through these research studies, Perkins concluded that the individuals perceiver does become a geometer, but a "sloppy" one, plus more training is needed to connect geometry to real-world samples so that humans may use geometry accurately and in day-to-day situations.

Geometry and descriptive geometry aren't the only areas requiring university student skill development. Estimation performs an important role in everyday living as well. The Country wide Council for Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) identifies estimation as an activity involving comprehending problems, relating the info to data known, making judgments, and verifying reasonableness. Estimation sometimes appears as an activity to hook up mathematical suggestions to the physical world and talk these ideas through articulation. Harte and Glover (2000) mentioned that lots of situations require estimation somewhat than precision and that instructors need to help students develop good estimation skills.

Happs and Mansfield (2001) argued that learning to estimate can be difficult, but students with a previous or contemporaneous experiences in measurement (ie. geometry), find it less difficult to apply these estimation skills. Students use of mental imagery, as learned through geometry, will "reap the benefits of opportunities to construct an image in the same way that scientists and engineers create mental models to serve as useful representations of the phenomena to be comprehended. But, if students are to build up these skills in estimation, direct linkages to geometry and its own use in everyday routine must be taught in both primary and secondary academic institutions.

In 1992, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) conducted a series of statewide assessments in mathematics. The diagnosis focused on both fourth and eighth-grade students in public institutions. North Carolina participated in this voluntary state-by-state assessment with evaluation in areas of numbers, data evaluation, geometry, basic mathematics, algebra, and estimation. North Carolina students performed lower than the nationwide average in every six areas, particularly in geometry and estimation. Once this information was known, the NAEP asked professors about the quantity of time spent on each one of the six areas that were evaluated. Only twelve percent of NEW YORK teachers indicated they place an emphasis in Geometry at the fourth-grade level, and only fourteen percent achieve this at the eighth-grade level.

Regression Models. Regression models are being used to forecast one variable in one or even more other variables. These supply the scientist with a powerful tool, allowing predictions about history, present, or future situations to be made with information about past or present happenings. The scientist uses these models either because it is less expensive in terms of the time and/or money to gather the information to help make the predictions than to accumulate the information about the function itself, or, more likely, because the event to be predicted will occur in some future time (Stockburger, 2003).

Ding (2006) considered regression models may be one of the very most commonly used statistical examination techniques in educational research. Typically, regression evaluation is used to investigate the interactions between a centered varying (either categorical or constant) and a couple of independent variables predicated on a sample from a specific population. Usually the particular interest is placed on analysis of the effect of each self-employed variable on based mostly variable, and such an effect is recognized as the average effect value across all subjects in the sample.

Turner and Williams (2002) in "Predicting College student Proficiency on the Arkansas Standard Mathematics and Literacy Tests" used the data from five semesters from planting season level 1 to 3. The prediction model information was used to identify the SAT-9 scales which were best predictors of future academic performance in fourth class mathematics and literacy. The analysis was conducted purposively never to identify the best prediction model but rather to recognize the best predictors of future at-risk performance at each level level.

Kruck and Lending (2003) developed a model to predict academics performance in the first year school level Information System course to explain the performance within an introductory college level financial accounting course. Their research discovered that desire/effort and GPA do anticipate performance which prior related training do not forecast performance. Furthermore, their model remarked that the individual's gender afflicted the academic performance.

Asia's four dragons, Singapore, South Korea, Japan and China, attended Styles in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 had excellent success in mathematics, but you have the comment and diverseness to impact these countries' mathematics achievement. The analysis examination TIMSS 2003 data from class 8 students of Asia 's four dragons, to grasp the factors effected students' mathematics accomplishment in Asia's four dragons, and the difference one of the relative variables particularly: daddy' s educational level, mother's educational level, self-confident of college student, parents' educational conception, home work time, extra lessons, pupil consider math is important (Chang, 2006).

The consequence of the abovementioned review would be that the factors including parents' educational level, the amount of enjoy math, self-confident of student, parents' educational conception, research time, extra lessons, institution weather are predictors in the Mathematics success of Asia's four dragons.

The conclusions of the above mentioned studies are highly relevant to the present investigation inasmuch as all developed regression models predicting the performance of students in mathematics. As a whole, the related books presented herein provides the foundation of information gathering about the variables of the analysis. The foregoing studies help in establishing the proponents' theoretical basis that will make students to do better in Mathematics themes especially in Geometry and this study habits, perceived teachers support, behaviour toward Mathematics, parent involvement, and regular family income of students are considered significant predictors in their performance in SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Geometry.

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

This research was anchored on the idea of Osborne (2002) which mentioned that making a valid projection related to an result for a specific individual can be achieved by making prediction models through multiple regressions.

Reyes and Stanic (1996) theorized a style effected mathematics success factors. They thought that the contemporary society impact, mathematics curriculum in college, the experience in course, the attitude of students, and the action related to educational achievement, make a difference mathematics achievement and they uncovered that the evaluation between students, will have an impact on their expectation which succeeds in accomplishment, thus has an increased performance in mathematics success.

Ercikan (2002) expected that various unbiased variables which include both college student personal and environmental variables (students' behaviour toward mathematics, parents' highest level of education gained, self-expectations and the targets of parents, instructors, and friends, students' self-assurance in mathematics, home support for learning) can affect to the based mostly parameters (students' mathematics achievement and participation in advanced mathematics lessons).

Okebukola (1992) discovered factors like home environment (e. g. Socio-economic qualifications), university environment (e. g. class size, school resources) and quality and quantity of instruction as accountable for students' poor performance in mathematics. Most of these factors are exterior to the pupil.

The schematic diagram of the analysis is shown in Amount 1. The impartial variables include the following student variables: study patterns, which refer to the adopted way and manner students plans his private writings, after a classroom learning; identified teacher support, which refers the way students discover the advice and support of the professors; frame of mind toward mathematics, which refers to the sensation of the students about them Geometry; parent involvement, which identifies the way the parents of the students guide and support them; and every month family income, which refers to profits and takings of the students' complete family. The centered variable is the students' performance in SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Geometry which includes the next components: polygons and space figures, which identifies the geometry of sizes and shapes; dimension of polygons and space figures, which refers to the proportions of

Independent Adjustable Dependent Variable Output

Figure 1. The Conceptual Paradigm demonstrating the Variables

shapes and sizes; relationships involving line sections and perspectives, which refers to the measurement formulated with either attributes or sides. The expected outputs will be the regression models that will serve as predictors of future students' performance in High School Geometry.

Significance of the Study

The results of the exploration can be handy in predicting the performance of students in High School Geometry.

Specifically, the results will be beneficial to the following:

School Heads. Results of this analysis provides valuable information to university heads to allow them to reexamine and develop tactical plans that would enable them to enhance the performance of students in High School Geometry. Moreover, they may be in a position to identify the advantages and weaknesses in the part of the administration, faculty users and students for future improvements.

Master Educators. The end result of the study will provide the master teachers an possibility to strengthen those disadvantages of their teachers. Knowing the best predictors on the performance of students in SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Geometry, they may be able to formulate programs that will solve the needs of the students.

Subject Educators. Potential predictors of students' performance in SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL geometry can be handy to the customers of the teaching force especially how are they heading to improve and strengthen the potentials of these students when it comes to numerical problems. Results of this research will also disclose the talents and weaknesses of the teachers' coaching methods and techniques with a view to fitting those to the needs of the students. Finally, this research can offer the faculty insights on the proper determination of students to boost their academic performance in Geometry.

Students. The results of the research will provide students valuable insights that will encourage them to acquire the knowledge proficiency, numerical skills and program of Geometry in a reality-based situation. Furthermore, the students should come to realize they can achieve success in achieving high level in Geometry if they could be able to identify the top variables that could predict their performance in Geometry.

Definition of Terms

The following conditions relevant in this study, were defined operationally to aid better understanding:

Regression Models. Regression models are being used to anticipate one variable in one or even more other parameters. These provide the researcher with a robust tool, allowing predictions about history, present, or future occasions to be produced with information about past or present occasions. In this study, the regression models to be developed are on students' performance in SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Geometry.

Student Variables. As used in this analysis, these make reference to the variables that could forecast students' performance in SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Geometry and they are monthly family income, study habits, perceived professor support, attitude towards Mathematics, parent involvement and every month family income.

Performance of Students. In the study, it refers to the achievement of students in SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Geometry specifically in polygons and space numbers, measurements of polygons and space characters and relations affecting line segments and perspectives.

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