Developing Expected Forwarded Counter-top (EFW)


Wireless mesh systems have emerged as flexible and low cost networks. Expected forwarded Counter-top (EFW) is a combination layer metric presented to cope with the challenge of selfish behavior to be able to provide reliable routing. This paper proposes an enlargement to the EFW, by considering congestion incurred scheduled to selecting only high quality pathways. The performance of suggested metric is examined through simulation. Simulation results show that overall routing performance is increased in conditions of throughput and packet delivery ratio.


Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is a promising technology for another generation wireless systems. The Mesh Systems are self-organized, self-configured and easily flexible to different traffic requirements and network changes. Routing is a challenge in Cordless Mesh Network (WMN) due to unpredictable modifications of the wireless environment.

Initially, to choose a way with highest delivery rate in wireless mesh network, metrics that record web page link quality have been presented. But, almost all of these metrics are designed by let's assume that each wireless mesh router participates frankly in forwarding process. While this assumption may not be valid in occurrence of selfish routers which might get benefit from not forwarding all traffic. Selfish users make use of the network resources because of its own advantage but unwilling to invest for others. Such selfish behavior reduces network delivery stability.

Metrics have been launched to identify and exclude selfish nodes in a path to vacation spot. These metrics do not consider quality of links, hence cannot choose best route from source to destination.

Cross coating metrics were used to consider both web page link quality and selfish behavior of node [2] to be able to select a higher performance path. This kind of solutions may cause only high quality to get used and other links will get unused. This can make links to be congested significantly and subsequently cause performance degradation.

In this newspaper we propose metric that combines web page link quality and congestion information from Mac pc layer and in advance trustworthiness of node from routing covering.

The rest of this paper is organized the following. Section II discusses related work. Section III illustrates proposed work. Section IV presents results obtained through simulating suggested metric in comparison to ETX and EFW.

Related work:

Several works presented in the recent research books concentrate on reliable data transmitting in wireless multi hop sites with selfish individuals.

In recent years, several routing metrics have been proposed to select the road with the highest delivery rate in wireless mesh systems. The essence of all these metrics is based on selecting reliable network paths, avoiding lossy cordless links susceptible to transmission errors. A few of these are discussed below.

ETX (Expected Transmitting Counter):

Routing metrics for cellular mesh systems like ETX choose a probabilistic model to stand for the transmission dependability of a wireless hyperlink. Specifically, ETX measures the

expected amount of transmissions, including retransmissions, needed to properly send a unicast packet over a wireless link. In order to compute ETX, it is necessary to estimate the

packet loss probability in both guidelines since, in cellular networks predicated on the IEEE 802. 11 process, the destination must recognize each received data frame

Let (i, j)be considered a wireless link founded between node i and j;Pij and pji denote the packet reduction possibility of the wireless link(i, j) in frontward and reverse guidelines separately.

The probability of a successful transmission on the wireless link(i, j)can therefore be computed as

Ps, ij= (1pij)(1pji).

Then, the expected amount of transmissions necessary to deliver the info packet, considering both its transmitting and the successive acknowledgment as required by the IEEE 802. 11 process, can be examined matching to expression

Despite the purpose of selecting the most dependable paths, ETX will not model effectively the delivery rate of a network link, since it generally does not consider the forwarding tendencies of the nodes which have established that hyperlink. In particular, ETX and its produced metrics do not remember that a selfish node might dispose of the packet after its accurate reception, if it benefits from not forwarding it


To address the condition triggered by the dropping behavior of selfish individuals, we combine the hyperlink quality assessed by the ETX routing metric with the forwarding trustworthiness of the relaying node j by bettering the probabilistic model which ETX is situated. Let pd, ij be the falling probability of a network node j((1pd, ij)signifies its forwarding likelihood). Since a network node can drop selectively the traffic dispatched by its neighbours, the shedding possibility of any node j is discovered both by the sending node i and the relaying node j. The likelihood a packet sent through a node j will be efficiently forwarded can be computed as pfwd, ij=ps, ij(1pd, ij). Then, the expected amount of transmissions essential to have packet effectively forwarded (Expected Forwarding Counter-top, EFW) can be assessed based on the following formula.

The first part of formula, which coincides with the ETX metric, considers the grade of the physical and Macintosh personal computer tiers, whereas our contribution considers the network part dependability. Therefore, EFW symbolizes a cross-layer metric that models both the physical conditions of the cordless medium and the selfishness of the node with which the link is established.

In addition to detecting the misbehaving nodes, the representation of the link trustworthiness provided by the EFW metric permits to utilize the network pathways with the highest delivery performance, without pruning the alternative routes which contain selfish nodes.

Proposed work:

The disadvantages of this solution are that nodes attempting to transfer packets will attempt to use the same high quality hyperlink and cause it congested very seriously. And at the same time other links will get unused.

MAC covering metric:

Our suggested metric is dependant on the retransmission system in Macintosh personal computer.

The first part of the method is the success rate of transmitting frames based on the common range of retransmissions which we call Shape Transmission Efficiency (FTE) [13].

Fig. 1: Illustration of the retransmission device at the Macintosh Layer

The variety of retransmissions of RTS and Data frames for each

Successful transmission in MAC layer is meant to represent the grade of that website link and congestion example. The success rate of sending frames is therefore a good estimation of both the quality and congestion of a web link. From it the very best quality links may be determined.

The success rate of each hyperlink (FTE) is kept up to date when a node forwards a Data packet to its neighbour and passes it up to the routing process.

ACK Failure Count number denotes the number of Data retransmission and RTS Failure Count denotes the amount of RTS retransmission.

The kth packet will send from Node S to Node D.

The quantity of retransmission is assumed as Failing (k) and denotes below:

Failure (k) = ACK Failure Count (k) + RTS Failure Count number (k) (j)

Thus FTE (k) between Node S and Node D is formulized as equation (4).

It reflects the hyperlink quality and congestion situation of links.

FTE (k) =

We are using this frame transmission efficiency to signify link quality and congestion. It is MAC part information. From routing layer we consider forwards likelihood estimation. In combination coating fashion we incorporate information from both Macintosh personal computer and Routing coating to obtain congestion aware EFW.

It is computed as follows

Enhanced EFW or congestion aware EFW=


Simulation scenario

We performed simulations with NCTUns6. 0 simulator that evaluates performance of the metric in comparison with EFW using OSPF (Open up Shortest Journey First) routing process.

Performance Evaluation:

To evaluate the performance of suggested metric in comparison with existing metrics ETX and EFW, the following variables are analysed

  1. Throughput
  2. Packet Delivery Rate
  3. Drop Rate

From fig1. We can observe that the suggested metric has more throughput than the other routing metrics in cellular mesh networks. By this we can understand that the proposed metric chooses better path in existence of selfish nodes in comparison with other metrics.

From fig2. It appears that congestion aware EFW has more packet delivery rate in comparison to other metrics.


In this paper we presented an enhancement to existing cross covering metric called Expected forward counter (EFW). In such a metric we changed website link quality metric from ETX metric with Shape Copy Efficiency (FTE) metric which considers not only link quality but also congestion of website link. As the suggested metric in cross coating fashion combines Mac pc layer observations of link quality and congestion with routing coating observations of forwards probability estimation, it gives better performance in comparison with ETX and EFW metrics.

Simulations results show that routing performance of OSPF in terms of throughput, packet delivery rate and drop rate has been advanced in proposed metric.


  1. S. Paris, C. Nita-Rotaru, F. Martignon, and A. Capone, "Cross-Layer Metrics for Reliable Routing in Cellular Mesh Sites ", in proc. IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 21, NO. 3, JUNE 2013.
  2. N. Nandiraju, D. Nandiraju, L. Santhanam, B. He, J. Wang, and D. P. Agrawal, "Wi-fi mesh sites: Current problems and future guidelines of web-in-the-sky, " IEEE Wireless Commun. , vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 79-89, Aug. 2007.
  3. S. Paris, C. Nita-Rotaru, F. Martignon, and A. Capone, "EFW: A mix level metric for reliable routing in wireless mesh systems with selfish participants, " in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2011, pp. 576-580
  4. D. S. J De Couto, D. Aguayo, J. Bicket, and R. Morris. A High-Throughput Course Metric for Multi-Hop Wireless network Routing. Wireless Systems, 2005.
  5. D. Johnson and G. Hancke, "Assessment of two routing metrics in OLSR on grid based mesh network, " Ad Hoc Netw. , vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 374-387, 2009.
  6. Da Guo, Jun Li, Mei Song, Junde Songs, "A Book Cross-Layer Routing Algorithm in Wi-fi Mesh Network" in the proc. of IEEE International Conference 2007, pp 1-3, vol-07.
  7. Golnaz Karbaschi, "A Link-Quality and Congestion aware Mix covering Metric for Multi-Hop Wireless Routing". 2nd IEEE International Seminar on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems Washington, DC USA - November 2005.
  8. M. E. M. Campista, P. M. Esposito, I. M. Moraes, L. H. M. Costa, O. C. M. Duarte, D. G. Passos, C. V. N. de Albuquerque, D. C. M. Saade, and M. G. Rubinstein, "Routing metrics and protocols for cordless mesh sites, " IEEE Netw. , vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 6-12, Jan. -Feb. 2008.
  1. OSPF
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