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Developing management after change in management


Explain at length what you think are the possible outcomes of Sir Terry Leary's Resignation from Tesco.

"Mr. Leahy stands out from other great CEOs in Europe because he has used a business that was stalling and managed to get consistently outperform the entire sector. He's done that while never being a superstar. He's always maintained his feet on the floor. "- George Cox, Past CEO and Chairman, Unisys Corporation (UK).

"The very first thing you notice is the fact that Terry has a totally different identity to anyone else you understand. That tells you that people who are successful don't have the same makeup as everyone else. In Terry's circumstance, his methodology is low key. He's sharp and much focused: he's very near his people and he doesn't distributed himself too slim. Above all else he's a very good leader. "- Allen Leighton, Chairman of the Royal Mail Group.



Sir Terry Leahy was created on the 28th of Feb 1956, in Liverpool. He was raised in the Belle Vale region in Liverpool where he examined at St. Edwards University and acquired a management knowledge degree (an Top Second Class honours in general management Sciences) at the University of Manchester's Institute of Knowledge and Technology in 1977. In his early on life, Leahy briefly did the trick stacking racks and washing flooring surfaces in the London branch of Tesco during his college holidays, which could have enjoyed an important part in his decision to join Tesco after his graduation. Having lost to some other applicant in his first software in Tesco, Leahy applied again and became a marketing executive in 1979.

From enough time when he joined Tesco, Leahy was identified as a capable and prospective employee who if developed could gain the company. He was marketed 1981 as a marketing administrator and from 1984 to 1986 presented the positioning of marketing director for Tesco Stores Small. He was later appointed as the commercial director of fresh foods in 1986; in 1992 Leahy was appointed to the table and lastly became leader (CEO) in 1997 on the retirement of his mentor Lord MacLaurin (then CEO) who popular appointing a successor to lead Tesco into the international market and increased its market share.

Tesco was a follower of Grades & Spencer and Sainsbury in conditions of proper market decisions but that changed when Leahy made a decision it is time to stop playing catch-up and start leading the UK grocery store market through market knowledge and devising effective proper plans. This change in target resulted in the beginning the Tesco Clubcard (loyalty program) and the Tesco Value lines - both which was a successful tactical plan and is a key to the success of Tesco in the UK.

During his era, Tesco has tightened its business lead as the UK's greatest retailer and has grown noticeably locally and internationally with starting of stores in USA and China. In April 2005, Tesco released a pre taxes profit of 2 billion with over 37 billion in revenue. This proved that Tesco under his supervision was "too successful" and growing too fast.

Following his visit to the Tesco panel, Leahy has been honored and recognized locally and internationally. In 2003, he was award Britain's "Business Innovator of the entire year" and the Bundle of money Western european Businessman of the entire year for 2004. In 2005, Management Today accepted him as Britain's most admired business innovator and was finally honoured with a 'Doctor of Science' from Cranfield University on the 7th June 2007.

Despite the actual fact that Tesco's financial performance under Leahy's supervision have been exceptional, he was criticised on numerous matters, especially for the business's Human resource insurance policies. The common wages paid by Tesco were among the lowest in comparison to others (Sainsbury and Grades & Spencer) in the retailing industry in the united kingdom. Furthermore, the wages were paid on an hourly basis and the time removed for tea breaks was not included while calculating the full total working hours. The business was also criticised because of its radical insurance plan on sick and tired leaves, for good examples, it refused sick pay to staff on the first three times absent from work. Regardless of the criticism, Tesco said that their staff member were in support of such program because most were sick and tired of covering for individuals who called ill. Furthermore, the business promises to "have already seen a decrease in the quantity of days removed ill in the stores using the schemes", which were first launched in Ireland.

Another radical program is to provide more holiday allowance to employees but reduce it each time a worker takes a day off tired. Tesco believes that such structure would discourage staff from taking more ill leaves, hence improve their performance and contribution to the company. However, many personnel union connection condemned these plans, claiming that it generally does not inspire or improve staff morale.

The company was also criticised for its planned movement into the organic food market. Many organic and natural food watchdogs question if the supermarkets' insurance plan of sourcing their organic and natural products from large industrial-style farms, who are only attracted to organics because of higher profit margins somewhat than ethics, as well as importing from poor countries in Africa who is able to barely supply themselves such as Zimbabwe, is absolutely true to the initial interpersonal and environmental aims of the organic and natural movement. Hardly any of Tesco's organic and natural products are locally sourced from local farmers.

Tesco's stance on competition in the UK retail industry is less favourable to its competitors; the company already has 32% of the retail market talk about and is gunning for more. A lot of its competitors have complained that the business will not play fair but instead is aiming to totally be rid of these. The admittance of Tesco in to the pharmacy and health products market segments has severely damaged stores like boots and other pharmacy outlets with analyst declaring that many of these stores would have to close down due to fierce competition and careers would be lost. The company was also accused of practising 'predatory costs', many off-licence and small grocery store shops said Tesco intentionally reduces some of its products below the creation cost and increase others to be able to lure more customers. Currently, Tesco has 2482 stores in the UK, around five times the quantity it had 13 years back. This has resulted in complaints by small suppliers about its impact on local retailers and the creation of "Tesco towns" where consumers have little choice in deciding where you can shop. Furthermore, there are also accusations that as the main grocery company, it has too much electricity over the source chain and influence prices by driving a car down charges for the likes of farmers.


After the leave of Sir Terry Leahy in March 2011 he will be only 55. Philip Clarke who presently is in-charge of Tesco's international procedures in Asia and Europe and oversees group information technology will be overtaking.

Shares, Market share and profits

The first effect of Leahy exit was felt couple of weeks after he announced his resignation with Tesco's shares slipping 9. 7p or 2. 4% to 397. 4p, its least expensive close value since October. A lot of Tesco's investors have developed full have confidence in Leahy during his age and have respected his strategic plans due to their successful outcomes. This I believe changes after he retires. There is currently uncertainties how Philip Clarke would perform or if he is the best man for the job. Regarding to David McCarthy, an analyst of Evolution Securities, said: "We aren't stunned by Phil's session or the restructure, but our company is surprised Terry is certainly going early, we had expected an announcement stating he would step down in 2013, not 2011. " This confirms that the news of his early on resignation from Tesco arrived to most as a great shock and unexpectedly. He went further declaring that: "In shedding Terry, Tesco is dropping its best player and therefore the team is weakened. The competition will be happy. " This I believe holds true because his background as Tesco's CEO has been exceptional. For instance, when Leahy required over from his coach, Tesco's UK market share was just 14. 5% but 10 years later the company is well above its rivals (Asda, 16. 8%) with 30. 6% market talk about.

If Tesco's talk about prices continue to fall, some traders might be forced to sell off their stocks which wouldn't normally be favourable to the company. The possibility of this happening can't be ruled out because since Leahy had taken over as CEO, many buyers have committed to Tesco because they have confidence in his strategic programs which were successful and today that he's departing scepticism would arise if Philip Clarke is able to deliver as he performed.

After Leahy's exit, Tesco financial performance would be afflicted in conditions of revenue and earnings. During his term, Leahy achieved revenue income of over 30 billion and income of over 1 billion, which most believe was only possible due to his early on strategic ideas and ongoing development. When he leaves, the realisation of such abnormal profits would take time to achieve. Hence, a far more realistic earnings and profits goal would be establish which most imagine would be far less than what Leahy achieved during his tenure.

Sir Terry Leahy did most of the work, as some market analyst would say; therefore, Philip Clarke should have a fairly easy take before him. However, this may be totally incorrect because the management of Leahy's success might be more difficult than him obtaining his own. Every new chairman would always want to leave their tag or feature their accomplishment if care is not taken, focus might be lost.

Philip Clarke is currently less popular and popular by Tesco's investors, but given his already long job at Tesco and success in growing the international business, many market analysts consider his appointment as the new CEO to take-over from Leahy to be a good one. Furthermore, many analysts believe his strategic strategy as the new CEO would be evolutionary but wouldn't normally make any radical departures from the current organisational strategy performed by Leahy.

Market analyst forecast that UK like-for-like sales development will probably stay downcast in the medium term anticipated to low level of food price inflation somewhat than due to the command change.

According to market experts, "Trading in international market segments is likely to gradually improve as economical recovery little by little comes through. Long-term profits growth prospects stay good, with international and Tesco Lender apt to be key drivers. Given our expectation that the group will deliver at least low double-digit development in underlying profits per talk about and dividends in each one of the next 3 years, we consider the valuation attractive. The suggestion remains 'accumulate'. " (Guardian, 2010)

In summary, regardless of the fall in show prices, no severe result is expected when Leahy resigns as Tesco's CEO.

Organisational Culture

According to Pettinger, 2007, the culture associated with an organisation is the foundation because of its management style, and individual and collective attitudes, principles, behaviours and values. It is therefore essential that the ways that things are required to be achieved are clearly established, realized, and accepted by all worried. During Leahy's routine, he launched a culture that focussed on raising specifications and providing value to its customers. The change of such culture might be devastating to the business businesses of Tesco.

Organisational culture could posses both strong and weakened qualities on the company itself and these could determine its working human relationships with employees or stakeholders, conditions and production. For instance, Strong culture is thought to exist where staff react to stimulus because of their alignment to organisational prices. In such conditions, strong ethnicities help firms operate like well-oiled machines, cruising along with spectacular execution as well as perhaps slight tweaking of existing techniques here and there. Conversely, you can find fragile culture where there is little position with organizational values and control must be exercised through comprehensive steps and bureaucracy.

Leahy emphasises the importance of perspective, value and culture in his 10 business commandment. In his words, "Visions, values and culture are critical to the success of Tesco". Regarding to Leahy, Tesco's perspective is to create a host where customers could profit in order to earn their lifetime loyalty. This is actually the vision that offered birth to Tesco Clubcard which includes shown to be an effective customer commitment or retention plan. The continuation of the vision by the near future CEO is important and any attempt to quickly introduce a new one may have negative effects on the company.

It is particularly important that culture was created, shaped and strengthened by those in top and senior positions, Pettinger, 2007. In order to do this, standards of attitudes, ideals, behaviours and performance much be establish by those in control in an company and employees must be asked to follow these benchmarks. (Pettinger, 2007, p. 342), travelled further to claim that, if organisation culture is permitted to emerge, the effect is that individuals or employees think, imagine, behave and action according with their own priorities and the procedure of their peers; which brings about the inclination to pursue their own agenda.

Evidently, regarding to Pettinger's discussion, Leahy resignation will trigger a big change in the organisational culture of Tesco. The new CEO (Philip Clarke) might try to expose his own working culture but it is vital that he knows the prevailing culture at first before any try to change it. This process might be expensive and lead to waste products of resources because he'd prefer to bring in his own team or hire new one rather than working with the old players in the professional level. Also, those who are devoted to Sir Terry Leahy might finish up resigning, seek career elsewhere or select him, meaning talent would be lost during and after his resignation. A significant re-organisation at the top level will see half the plank customers change their duties to reflect the business's increasingly international dynamics. However, some market experts are worried until this may cause disruption further down the organisation which is not favourable to the complete change process.

Organisational culture is a robust and effective way of life that organisations adopt in order to run their business, however, relating to Pettinger, 2007; culture should be transformed and developed. The ongoing changes in technology, markets and customers needs means that organisations must be prepared to develop new working culture to meet this. Some market leaders or managers who had been successful in a single organisation might are unsuccessful in another because of their organisational culture. Therefore, it is vital for new leaders to learn, change or recognize an existing culture in the company. However, culture change can be long and costly, especially where people withstand, Pettinger, 2007, p. 359. In any case, it is vital that any culture an company adopts must create a solid and positive marriage using its employees because this induces positive view of the organisation and its works.


In the present business environment, the word 'management' becomes ever more important to the organisational development and success of organisations (Eisenbach et al. 1999). This is due to the uncertainty of the business environment of most industries which can be globally connected. For this reason, many organisations now be based upon the abilities, knowledge and experience of their leaders to become successful and competitive.

The aptitudes of leadership and management are evidently the most crucial things to consider when the organisations are experiencing market downfall (Graetz 2000). In that situation, the skills and connection with the first choice and management would be put to test in devising the best strategy that could be adopted to defeat the troubled times. Besides, where trust is accessible in the abilities and features of market leaders, employees or workers would have high targets from the market leaders and management. Employees will expect to see an efficient and realistic strategy, as well as good communication skills from the leaders during the critical amount of the company.

Matching to Adair, 2004, a leader must illustrate certain attributes in order to effectively exercise his or her control functions. These characteristics are:

Group Effect - a leader must have the ability to generate the willingness to accomplish a desired goal or objective.

Command - a leader must be able to make quick and effective decisions every time a situation calls for it and must have the ability to stand by this decisions

Coolness - a innovator must always remain constructed under criticism.

Judgment - a head must possess the capability to utilise available resources and information in a reasonable and reasonable way to create effective results.

Responsibility - a innovator must exhibit continued effort combined with a degree of reliability in order to complete a task or achieve an objective (Kermally 2005).

Despite the fact that leadership trait ideas are popular, it is looked at by many academics as an extremely one-dimensional hypothesis. Some academics claim that theories attribute the success of leadership solely to his / her personality and physical features or characteristics without regard to the situational framework. Hence, the characteristic approach is known as too simplistic as a justification of the complicated leadership sensation.

During Leahy's time, he has exhibited the above mentioned attributes and proven to be a true innovator. His resignation would mean that his successor must have the ability to portray such capabilities which some think would produce unnecessary pressure. In addition, some analyst dispute that for Philip Clarke to be successful, he must establish Leahy is second best and he can do a much better job which most consider is a hardcore job to do. Leahy leave signifies a management change and organisational re-structure, his 13 years tenure as CEO could have created a rigid leadership style which most can be used to hence might be difficult for existing team to adapt to the new CEO's (Philip Clarke) control style.

Tesco is considered as the most successful retail business in the United Kingdom with market show of over 30%. The success of Tesco was fast-tracked by the appointment of Terry Leahy as the company's CEO. Leahy is considered by many as a visionary leader who led the business into some organisational changes that aimed for the business to become more customer-focused and to develop the business's workforce. Leahy believes that the success of a innovator depends upon retaining a happy workforce and making the support of the labor force. Relating to him, there are four things that a leader must have the ability provide his staff and followers in order to gratify and encourage them. They are:

A job that is interesting to do

A chance to get on in life

To be treated with respect

A supervisor who helps and cares

After Leahy's exit, his successor's ideas might be contrary to his, hence a clear organisational vision would not be sent out to the entire Tesco labor force. The 'dread of the Unknown' might de-motivate Tesco's employees and make sure they are less employed, although, few of these employees are aware of the way the new CEO's authority style might impact them.



Impacts of Leadership Styles on the Organization

According to Rosen (1989), control style refers to the trait style exhibited by way of a leader on the process of decision-making and working out authority. There will vary types of authority styles, for example, there are autocratic and participative leaderships. Under an autocratic management style, the group or company is maintained under an authoritarian leader who leads by drive or with fear. A participative leader in contrast, offers the same electricity as the autocratic one; however, he chooses to exercise his vitality differently during the decision, policy-making and work-role assignment. He's more diplomatic and engaging when coming up with decisions.

Leahy modified a participative design of leadership in which the employees receive tone of voice in the decision-making process. The CEO also provides emphasis on the importance of appointing many leaders to handle organisational process. The organisational structure therefore became more smooth where the functions and responsibilities of everybody are clearly stated. Leahy delegates leadership functions to individuals in the business in order to ensure that the company, with an increase of than 300, 000 employees, manages effectively. The management trend that is manifested by Terry Leahy and is imitated by the market leaders in the business has modified the structure of the company. The company has designed an organic form of organization. An organic system is characterized by low to average use of formal regulations, decentralized and distributed decision making, broadly defined job duties, and a flexible authority composition with fewer levels in the hierarchy. An organic structure is more appropriate to prospects organizations where there's a have to be impressive. The pressure of invention suggests a framework that can respond to environmental variations rapidly so that it is actually loosely defined and flexible. The business tends never to be formalized nor are assignments too closely structured (Salaman 2001, p. 106). Organic organizations are stratified generally in terms of knowledge, and command accrues to those who find themselves the best up to date and able. There is much more determination to the business, with the result that formal and casual systems become indistinguishable. A construction of prices and beliefs, much like those characterizing an occupation, produces that becomes an efficient replacement for formal hierarchy (Miner 2002, p. 449). The business has adapted an easier and flatter organizational structure.



In order to remain successful in today's highly competitive business environment, many organizations are discovering strategies to tap the full potential of their human resources. A company's people can be a source of competitive advantage. This is philosophy behind worker empowerment and participative management. Employees are actually seen as companions. As a result of this, organizations are offering more power and responsibilities with their people. Staff empowerment and participative management will increase productivity, give rise to better decisions, improve worker morale and job satisfaction, elicit higher determination among employees, encourage flexibility, make employees adjust to changes faster, improve communication and increase worker trust.

Among the current requirements of control in Tesco is the introduction of participative management skills in leaders. The leaders at Tesco need to have the required skills in order for them to practice participative leadership properly. The skills that the market leaders must own are:

1. Interest and concern

2. Communication

3. Issue resolution

4. Negotiation

5. Compromise

6. Synergy

7. Flexibility

Participative control is a leadership style which involves members of an organization, sub-unit or corporation identifying essential goals and developing procedures or strategies to reach those goals. Putting into action participative management will also help the company to develop people in the organization to become leaders. Through participative management, people in the organization are encouraged to take part in decision-making, point out their ideas and also to showcase their talents and skills. The discovery of hidden skills and skills will not only help the group, sub-unit or company reach their goals it will also alert the business to the people within the organization who have the potential to become leaders.


Future Requirements

One famous contemporary writer on command is Warren Bennis (1994). He feels that a innovator will need to have a direction, he must earn the trust of his supporters, he must kindle wish and optimism, and he must be results-driven. On the other hand, James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner (1987) is convinced that a innovator must seek to issue and improve the process, encourage a share vision, enable other to do something, become s role-model, and encourage the heart and soul of the enthusiasts. The future head should never only concentrate of achieving the task. He must also figure out how to develop his people. He needs to learn the value of motivation. The near future leader must know how to encourage using monetary rewards and he must also use psychological and emotional rewards to inspire his people. The future innovator must find the balance between task-orientation and relationship-orientation. On the main one hand, he must lead his people in achieving their shared goals and goals and on the other side, he must have the ability to build strong interactions with the folks around him. The need for emotions must also be known.


Proposals for the introduction of Leadership

1. On-the-Job Learning

The business must know that the principal place for market leaders to learn is on the job and at risk. In order to the company to help market leaders learn within the business, universities must be established inside the business. The company must appoint educators that will inform and develop leaders in a variety of countries and places where Tesco is operating. The organization must institute a Commercial Education department that will be under the HRM section. Within the Corporate Education, an enterprise Management Development (BLD) must be set up. This group will concentrate on executive development and overall leadership development, and it will also be in charge of all training specific to authority. Business Authority Development should be utilized to create systematic ways to build the capacities of Tesco's business leaders. The emphasis of the BLD process must be to provide development opportunities at key changeover factors in individuals' occupations. To do this goal, a curriculum must be designed and must be operate under the next principles:

Based on real problems and proper initiatives

Linked to business objectives and company values

Segmented by customer needs

Sponsored by CEO and senior executives

Comprised of global content and supplied worldwide

Based on validated competencies for success


2. Innovator Sponsorship

Another strategy to effectively develop market leaders is through sponsorship. Through sponsorship, older professionals in Tesco will sponsor and will actively take part in leadership development. Example of head sponsorship activities are participation of senior executives in management conferences and facilitating dialogue sessions after a leadership development program. Senior professionals can also help panel conversations. Through sponsorship, Tesco's successful market leaders can share also to instil the characteristics, skills and qualities of effective market leaders to the future generation of market leaders.

3. Leadership Development and Review

To be able to identify, evaluate, and develop future leaders, Tesco must come up with a list of competencies that is needed to become an efficient Tesco head. These competencies can be used as requirements in command development. These criteria will also be helpful in providing content for the authority and management examination processes, through pursuits like self-assessment, multi-score responses, and evaluation simulations. They'll help identify and be eligible external professional development resources.

4. Commercial Universities

It's important for Tesco to realize that their most significant assets are real human capital and the know-how that reside in the intellects of the employees. With this realization, the business needs to establish a corporate school. A corporate school links employee understanding how to overall company strategy, and consequently a corporate college or university can be a connective tissue for the business.

5. Developing Emotional Intellect among Leaders

One important development area which must be centered on is emotional intellect. Future successful market leaders need to recognize and figure out how to influence the feelings of the people around them. A highly effective leader will need to have a high degree of Emotional Brains. Dubrin et al (2006) recognizes five factors of emotional intelligence. These are:

1. Self-awareness - the first choice of the future must be able to understand his or her emotions and exactly how these affect other folks.

2. Self-regulation - the leader into the future must be able control his thoughts and react with appropriate sentiment atlanta divorce attorneys given situation.

3. Motivation - money or position is not the sole motivating factor for a successful leader in the foreseeable future. He discovers fulfilment and satisfaction in performing his tasks.

4. Empathy - the first choice into the future responds to the unspoken feelings of others.

5. Public skills - having effective cultural skills is important. The first choice into the future must build associations and networks of support. He must build positive associations with the individuals around her or him.

In overview organisations should think about adopting management styles that best fit their goal and goals, and organisational culture. No best control style can be easily devised; hence what is most effective in one organisation might be disastrous in another.

Management Role

Beardwell and Claydon (2007) argued that the tasks of management are the following:

Planning: The managers have to create objectives and aim for, make predictions and on the whole make plans. It's important for managers to set target and what they expect to be able to know what sort of outcome they want to get from employees and what they have to do to attain such aims.

Organising: The professionals have to choose what activities employee department or employees should take on and organise their activities. This can involve delegating authority, co-ordinating the work of others, and establishing communication stations and expert (Beardwell & Claydon, 2007).

Leading: Managers must ensure they provide the required leadership and assistance for their employees by preparing good examples (Using themselves as the cases).

Controlling: It is vital for the managers to control employee activities. This can be done by contrasting daily or weekly employee performance with the designed or expected results.

Motivating: Motivation can be an important factor managers could employ to be able to increase employee performance, morale and influence them to put their best work toward work.

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