Language is an essential method of communication and a very precious tool to transfer knowledge. Ingenuity of words use is one of the key features that distinguish individuals language from some other communication systems utilized by other creatures. Terminology structure is obviously sophisticated which paper would explore some small specific components of the noun saying which really is a part of this complicated structure.
There are some certain types of grammatical products that should be outlined here before speaking about the internal structure of the noun word. These units differ in size and they are combined together to construct larger units and form significant sentences. These grammatical units are morphemes, words, phrases, clauses and phrases. They can be clarified briefly by looking at the next example:
From the previous example, a word can consist of one or even more words and there will vary types of phrases. The verb expression is where the verb is the head (e. g. must stop) and the adjective word is in which the adjective is the head (e. g. much bag). The top is meant to be the primary or the principle term in the expression and each phrase has only 1 head.
The head of the NP is the noun which might be preceded by the determiner like the, a, her, etc. and can be combined with modifiers, elements which express or classify whatever the head refers to. The cases below show the head in bold and its determiner in a noun phrase.
The man I observed yesterday.
I like his job. It is easy.
Look compared to that picture; it is beautiful.
Also, the NP can be accompanied by complements which used to complete the meaning of the noun such as that-clause and to-clause. (Biber, 2002) For example:
The book that I bought last week is interesting.
You must pass this exam to finish the course.
These determiners, modifiers and complements are called dependents of the NP. This newspaper will deal with two types of the dependents which can be determiners and modifiers and then will attempt to compare them with similar elements in Arabic also to find out the down sides that may face Arab learners of English.
The determiner is one kind of dependents used only in the NP which is an obligatory factor in NPs with some certain types of singular noun as brain. Also, determiners are used before the noun nonetheless they are not considered as adjectives. The term "determiner" requires words such as the, this, some, either, my, no, one, etc. and below are a few examples in which determiners are employed:
I love this booklet.
Would you prefer some tea?
No is allowed to smoke here.
Two or even more determiners are sometimes combined together to create what's called the determinative saying (DP). The first component of this phrase functions as a modifier for the main determiner and the order of these determiners cannot be improved (i. e. they have a fixed order). The determiner that precedes the central one is called "predeterminer" and the one which employs the central determiner is called "postdeterminer". In the next examples the predeterminer is written in daring as the postdeterminer is underlined:
All the other six instructors are approaching to the meeting.
The previous two hours of this party were really amazing.
All these vehicles are mine.
It is important to classify the determiners to discover their functions and uses. They arise in different contexts plus they can't be usually used interchangeably because each determiner suggests a particular meaning. In fact, it is not always accessible to put any determiner before any noun (i. e. plural, singular, uncountable nouns require different types of determiners). Therefore, it's important to recognize the classes of determiners and the stand below shows these classes with some examples.
This essay will first go through the articles, the most frequent type of determiners, to look at their uses and functions in British noun phrases. Then will compare them with the articles used in Arabic to recognize the area of difficulty Arab learners may face when learning British.
Articles are usually used at the start of the noun saying and they are very short words but with great significance. These articles are the, a and an. Also, zero article is put into the list to indicate that there is no article found in a particular context. These articles are categorized in terms of definiteness into two types: the certain article (the) and the indefinite articles (a and an).
"The indefinite articles are being used only with singular countable nouns plus they narrow down the guide of the head noun to one indefinite person in the class. " (Biber, 2002: p. 67) This sort of articles could be utilized to speak about a specific thing or a particular person but it might be unnamed or unknown by both the loudspeaker and the hearer. For instance, a student of my school broke the home window. It is apparent that this scholar is from her school but it is not clear which university student broke the windows and maybe it is not important to learn him. Also, the indefinite article (a/an) is used to discuss unspecific things. For example, I am buying a car. Another use of the indefinite article is to classify or specify people or things as with I am a teacher which is a booklet. Additionally, a/an is usually used when explaining people or things; for example, he is a good boy and she is a beautiful woman.
Zero article and the indefinite article a/an have an identical function. They both suggest indefiniteness. (e. g. she actually is reluctant of rats) However, zero article have some other uses. It really is usually used in combination with meals, method of transportation and communication, days, months, seasons, proper names and in some other contexts. Here are some examples in which zero article is applied ( is utilized to show the positioning where the article is omitted)
I love sport.
I will go back in March.
I noticed jack on Sunday.
What are we going to for evening meal?
They used to travel by car.
Where is Nancy?
On the other palm, the certain article (the) can be used with countable and uncountable nouns when the noun is known by the loudspeaker and the hearer. (I purchased a carrier and a pen case yesterday; the tote is quite big). The listener is aware of which bag is being talked about; it is definite. Here are two more samples: (the bank is open today) and (I'd like to visit the museum). Also, the definite article can be used when the noun is clarified by the presenter such as (is it possible to see the guy for the reason that shop?) Furthermore, the particular article is used with the superlatives (e. g. this is the tallest building in the town. )
These are the most typical uses of the articles in British. It is apparent that the learner would come across some difficulty hoping to identify the right use of the certain and indefinite articles. Arabs may transfer the utilization of articles in L1 to L2 while learning British. There is one certain article in Arabic which is ("al" = the) and its use is quite adaptable. Generally, nouns in Arabic, countable and uncountable ones, accept the particular article. For example, the expressions such as (the life span, the love, the kindness etc. ) are widely used in Arabic unlike British. Such clear difference may lead to making some flaws regarding using the correct article.
The second type of determiners is the demonstrative determiners which can be this, these, that and those. "They are similar to the distinct article the in conveying the certain meaning. " (Biber, 2002: p. 73). Demonstrative determiners reveal if the noun is singular or plural if the individual or that which is being discussed is near or very good. This and this are being used with singular while these and the ones are used with plural. The stand below shows the utilization of the determiners (written in striking) with a few examples:
this \ that
Used with singular nouns
Near / distant
- This car is mine.
- I liked that car we saw in the city.
these \ those
Used with plural nouns
Near / distant
- Look to these books; they are simply cheap.
- Did the thing is those guys down avenue?
Also, this kind of determiners can be used indicate time. This and these refer to actions that are happening or close to commence whereas that and those refer to some events that have just finished or they done in the past.
Listen to the song.
That presentation was really excellent.
Moreover, demonstrative determiners are occasionally used to show one's attitudes toward something or an individual. This and these can communicate interest or authorization while that and those would show dislike or negative response.
I didn't like that educator.
Tell me concerning this man you fulfilled last night.
Generally, this and they are more common in British. Arabic has more demonstrative determiners and every one of these determiners has a certain use. They cannot be utilized interchangeably. Just like British, singular and plural nouns take different determiners. Also, distance is suggested through demonstrative determiners. Arabic sound system use special determiners with womanly and dual nouns. However, Arab learners do not have difficulty in understanding or using this determiners in British because these determiners share similar features and uses with people in their first language.
The third type of determiners is the possessive determiners such as my, you, his, her, etc. "They specify the noun phrase by relating it to the presenter or other entities. " Possessive determiners come at the start of the NP and make it particular. Each one of these determiners is employed in several contexts plus they correspond to the non-public pronouns (e. g. I/my, you/your, he/his, etc. ) These determiners can be considered pronouns as well. Below are a few examples of using these determiners in British:
My youngest brother is naughty.
I should talk to your dad; it is immediate.
Do not speak with her child.
In the first example, the loudspeaker discusses his youngest brother and it is obviously distinct and exact. Also, as noted from the illustrations when the possessive determiner is used, this article is dropped.
In Arabic, the utilization of possessive determiners differs from English. Such determiners will be mounted on the finish of the noun (i. e. they act like suffixes). For example, the word (ketab = booklet) changes to (ketabi = my e book) following the addition of the possessive determiner. As it is the situation in British, these determiners correspond to the personal pronouns as well. Arabic has a dual pronoun, so there's a special possessive determiner for dual nouns. It not mentioned that Arab learners have difficulty in using British possessive determiners because their guideline is clear and not complicated. The learner only must know when each determiner is used.
The fourth kind of determiners is quantifiers which are being used to "specify nouns in conditions of variety or amount". (Biber, 2002: p. 74) All, both, some, any, neither, either, many, much, every, each, few and little are among the most frequent quantifiers in English. Every one of them has a special function and use. For instance, both many and far mean a sizable quantity but the former can be used with plural countable nouns as the latter can be used with uncountable.
Many kids love soccer.
Not a lot of women like wrestling.
He should pay much focus on his analysis.
Much money is allocated to sport.
Each and every are very similar in interpretation. Each refers to all the customers of a group of two or more and every refers to all the associates of several three or even more. They are both usually used with singular nouns.
Every student must bring his book to course.
I have two children and every one of them has different needs.
Also, all and both are famous types of English quantifiers. All can be used with three or even more items while both is utilized to refer to two people or things.
All the rooms are fully painted.
Both vehicles were sold, mine and yours.
Another important common quantifier is some. Some identifies an amount or lots of something that's not explained or known. This determiner is used with countable and uncountable nouns.
Would you prefer some tea?
I have some books about this topic.
Moreover, there are some quantifiers that signify a tiny amount or amount like a few, a little and several. A couple of and several are used with countable nouns while just a little is employed with uncountable nouns. Also, sometimes few and little (without this article a) are used to mean few.
There were a few automobiles in leading of the hospital.
Very few students attend the assembly.
The food needs a little sodium.
Any, either, no, neither are well-known quantifying determiners as well. Any can be used to refer one member or thing of a group, but it is not important which one. Either has a similar interpretation but it refers to one between two things and it used only with singular countable nouns. No can be used with countable and uncountable nouns and it includes a negative interpretation. Neither is employed to signify 'not either of two things'.
Hurry up! Take any glass.
We can go either now or after the class.
Sorry, there is no chocolate is kept.
I like neither soccer nor baseball.
These are some famous common types of quantifiers and their use and function in English. Learners should identify their meanings and practice with them. Arab learners as well would have to spend some time to comprehend and use these quantifiers appropriately because in Arabic many quantifiers are usually used with all nouns, countable and uncountable. The use of these quantifiers in Arabic is quite adaptable and easier. For instance, kul (all), ay (any), bathroom (some) and la (no) are being used widely by indigenous speakers in various many contexts. However, it is noted that those learners have a genuine problem regarding this point because in many cases the use of the quantifiers in English is clearly mentioned.
The second element of the NP which will be dealt with in this newspaper is the modifiers. Generally, there are two main types of modifiers. In the event the modifier occurs before that head, it is named pre-modifier and when it comes after the top, it is named post-modifier. Modifiers can be used with determiners to create one sophisticated noun word as the next example:
that my deceased father
Obviously, the NP can get more technical while placing more modifiers and determiners. Pre-modifiers might take different forms; it could be adjectives, participles and nouns. Below are a few examples to help make the point clear:
A beautiful young lady (the top is preceded by an adjective)
A big house
Written excuse (the top is preceded by way of a participle)
The university day (the top is preceded with a noun)
The World Cup
In truth, adjectives are the most typical kind of pre-modifiers. In addition, this type of modifiers can be multiple. (i. e. using more than one or two words as pre-modifiers) as with the following example:
Two main clear convincing reasons
In the previous example, the pre-modifiers are structured in a specific way and perhaps it is not always acceptable to place them in any order. Some words can work as a very successful pre-modifier sine they can precede the top nouns in various contexts or phrases. (Biber, 2001) For instance, the term family occurs frequently with many head nouns (family affair, family car, family size, family friend, etc. )
Post-modifiers can take the proper execution of relative clauses, to-clauses, ing-clauses. For example:
the hotel where we stayed last holiday
the scholar who threw the ball back over the fence
enough information to find your way out
the man located under the tree
Post-modifier can be considered a phrase and it is called in this case phrasal modifier which take the form of prepositional word and appositive noun phrase. (Biber, 2001). Here are two examples of phrasal modifiers:
The scene at the start of the film
The American article writer, Mark Twine
As most learners of British, Arab students would start forming simple noun key phrase maybe without using any modifier in first stages. Arab learners can use more technical structures moving from one level to some other. Adjectives are the usually among the first attained modifiers because they are being used broadly in Arabic. Arabic native speakers wish to use several or two adjective to spell it out one individual or thing although these adjective they use are will often have virtually identical meanings. For instance, (the unhappy depressing unpleasant inhumane condition) is a familiar regular appearance in Arabic. People may people use such big volume of adjectives (also verbs and nouns) to stress their ideas. Therefore, Arab learners are usually fond of using pre-modifiers attempting to produce percussive and effective vocabulary as they certainly in their mother tongue. Also, Arab learners may face difficulty when using complicated noun phrases. They may order the determiners and pre-modifiers improperly because of L1 disturbance.
In conclusion, terminology is a sophisticated system that includes different grammatical items which work altogether to form a very sophisticated and advanced communication method. The noun key phrase is one of the main and common constructions of English word. Determiners, modifiers and complements are crucial regions of this kind of phrases and very element has its rules which have to be studied and analyzed carefully by dialect learners.