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Detailed models of strategic change management

  1. Task 1: Discuss the Types of Strategic Change
  2. JOHN KOTTER: Eight steps to transforming an organization (Kotter. J, 1995)
  3. Prosci's ADKAR
  4. Action Research
  1. Task 1. 2
  2. Evaluate the relevance of models of strategic change to organizations in today's economy
  3. Teambuilding Consensus
  4. Strategic interventions
  5. Decision Making
  6. Contingency Theory of Decision Making
  7. Proactive and Reactive (Whitehead 2006)
  8. Task 1. 3
  9. Assess the value of using proper involvement techniques in the organization
  10. Human Process Interventions:
  11. Techno-structural Interventions:
  12. Human Resource Management interventions:
  13. Task 2. 1
  14. Examine the need for tactical change in the chosen organization
  15. Reasons for change
  16. Task 2. 2
  17. Assess the factors that are travelling the necessity for proper change within an organization
  18. Task 2. 3
  19. Assess the resource implications of the business not giving an answer to strategic change
  20. Task 3. 1
  21. Develop systems to require stakeholders in the planning of change in the chosen organization
  22. Input-output change model
  23. Steps Involved
  24. The Cultural Web
  25. Multiple Cause Diagrams
  26. Influencing skills
  27. Task 3. 2
  28. Develop an alteration management strategy with stakeholders in the chosen organization
  29. The Stakeholder Circle
  30. Task 3. 3
  31. Evaluate the systems used to require stakeholders in the planning of change in the chosen organization
  32. Task 3. 4
  33. Create a technique for managing resistance to improve in the chosen organization
  34. Direct vs Indirect
  35. Task 4. 1
  36. Develop appropriate models for change in the chosen corporation that will indicate their circumstances
  37. Task 4. 2
  38. Plan to put into practice a model for change taking into consideration the internal and exterior circumstances impacting on the organization
  39. Kaizen Method
  40. Matrix Organizations
  41. Task 4. 3
  42. Develop appropriate methods to monitor improvement of the developed model
  43. Goal Based mostly Evaluation
  44. .

This product helps would-be-managers to comprehend the type of change and manage it. It gives a knowledge about change and the ways to control with it without disturbing the working of the organization. In this unit we have talked about the different explanations and types of change which have been given by thinkers in the past which helps in assessing the relevance of models of strategic change to organizations in today's economy. Once we proceed, we examine the necessity for change and determine the factors that are generating the need for this. Also, the resource implications are mentioned which do not respond to strategic change. The theories distributed by Kotter, Prosci, Lewis as well as others are milestones of the research on change management. Their theories have helped in thorough understanding of change management. As this issue develops, it offers vital information on the reason why of change in marketplaces, budget pressures, new technology and other new programs such as TQM and re-engineering. Overall, the topic is an important learning resource on the factors and implications that bring change. Another unavoidable and inseparable source of information of the organization is stakeholders of the company. The topic discusses about systems modelling, divergence and convergence and ways of concerning them into organization. It is also quite obvious that change brings amount of resistance; therefore this device enables us to manage resistance giving ways to strategies such as marketing communications, education, forums, etc.

The complete work gives a clear picture of change management. All a administrator needs is to understand the standards and manage with a notable difference on the rules of the analysts.

Task 1: Discuss the Types of Strategic Change

There are extensive theories about how exactly to control change. Most of the ideas originate with control and change management expert, John Kotter who is a professor at Harvard Business College and world renowned change expert. The next eight steps in the change process are his contribution.

JOHN KOTTER: Eight steps to transforming an organization (Kotter. J, 1995)

Establishing a feeling of urgency

Forming a robust guiding coalition

Creating a vision

Communicating the vision

Empowering others to do something on the vision

Planning and creating short term wins

Consolidating advancements and producing still more change

Institutionalising new approaches

Kotter's research offered a whole new way to handling change.

A program of planned change and improved performance developed by Lewin consists of the management of any three-phase process of behaviour modification.

Lewin's Change Management Model

Source: http://www. infed. org/thinkers/et-lewin. htm

Unfreeze- Lowering those pushes which behavior in its present form, recognition of the need for change and improvement that occurs.

Movement - Development of new attitudes or behaviour and the implementation of change.

Refreezing - Stabilising change at the new level and encouragement (Hardy 1996)

A new culture should be created within the business such that professionals look to change as an opportunity and conform their business system to continuously emerging conditions. (Hussey 2000)

Prosci's ADKAR

Effective change management demands five key goals to form the basic ADKAR model:

Awareness of the need to change

Desire to take part and support the change

Knowledge of how to change (and what change appears like)

Ability to put into action the change over a day-to-day basis

Reinforcement to keep the change set up (Hiatt 2003)

Prosci's ADKAR

Source: http://techotoys. com/qwxDnJu0J/

Action Research

Action research refers to ways to check out one's own work practically and check as he would like it to be. Because research is done by the individual himself or the practitioner, it is named practitioner based research. It is also referred to as a kind of do it yourself reflective practice since it involves the person himself and his own work. (Hardy 1999)

Action research

Source: http://www. llas. ac. uk/projects/2837

Task 1. 2

Evaluate the relevance of models of strategic change to organizations in today's economy

Teambuilding Consensus

Strategic change models, as talked about above will be the tips to success of any corporation provided they are really applied in a complex way. To attain effective team decision making command, (Franzen 1994) describes Consensus Team Decision Making CTDM model which has three key pillars.

Maintain high conceptual level

Strive towards consensus

Manage your choice making process

Strategic interventions

Types of interventions chosen for a task although be based upon variety; they can be highly concentrated in a task. Strategic interventions are of help in situations like

Rapid changes in the external environment

Rapid or stagnant sales

Increased competition

Rapid growth of markets

Mergers and acquisitions (Lewin 2005)

Decision Making

Contingency Theory of Decision Making

Decision participative contingency theory or the Normative Decision Theory is a model which says that the efficiency of any decision procedure is determined by lots of aspects of the situation: the value of decision quality and approval; the number of relevant information possessed by the first choice and subordinates. (Fiedler 1999)

In the autocratic style, the first choice calls for decisions without consulting others. (Lewin 2005)

The participative style command, also known as participative democratic command style does the job of creating and preserving healthy relationships between the employees and their leaders. (Kotter 2007)

Proactive and Reactive (Whitehead 2006)



Needs to obtain and use own answers

Understands the power of and uses team in solving problems

Makes decisions by self

Requests that associates make decisions

Pushes for results

Shares a eye-sight so powerful the team desires to move towards it

Reacts to change

Foresees and affects change

Teaches team to anticipate direction

Teaches team to be self reliant

Focuses on finding and mending problems

Focuses on achieving performance outcomes

Quick to punish on mistakes

Lets the team learn by errors

Task 1. 3

Assess the value of using proper involvement techniques in the organization

The most important property of any firm is human source and strategic treatment helps these to adjust with the changing strategies of the organization and understand it. (George 1999). At Sapphire Beauty Field, it is essential to have a peaceful brain and sound behaviour as this job deals with immediate clientele.

The approach to strategic intervention assists the employees of Sapphire to find meanings with their life, uncover what, and why they are doing and how to meet their needs in negative and positive ways which helps to promote sustainable change. (Hiatt 2006)

Human Process Interventions:

These are helpful in particular during change job in organizations where there are some combinations of several new employees, different cultures, working jointly, many conflicts, etc.

Activities: Coaching, counseling, delegating, group learning, virtual clubs, etc. ( Hiatt and Creasey 2003)

Techno-structural Interventions:

These interventions are helpful in particular for rapid progress but few inner systems to support growth, many complaints from customers, etc.

Activities: Balanced scorecard, downsizing and out inserting, ISO 9000, Six sigma, etc. (Kurt 2005)

Human Resource Management interventions:

These interventions are helpful in situations like establishment of new organizational goals, implementation of technology for a short time, low productivity, etc.

Activities: Staffing, analyzing performance, profession development, employee wellbeing programme (George 1999)

Task 2. 1

Examine the need for tactical change in the chosen organization

Reasons for change

Change in market: The United Kingdom is certainly going through downturn and there's been recession and the CPI gross annual inflation has rose to 3. 3%. (London Business Times 2009). There has been upsurge in prices, job loss, bankruptcy and what not. Every business has gone through deficits and must cover up their bills. (Fiedler 1999). At this time of their time, Sapphire needs to change accordingly to help ease customers at their bag and still keep them approaching.

Economic downturns: Because of price surge, the raw materials needed at the store is also become expensive. It's important to cover the expenses by bringing about change in the business. (Paul 1996)

Customer Prospects: There is a very difficult competition on the market especially in the wonder field. Customers get attracted to offers which is not easy to get their confidence. To get into customers, It's important to change the strategies consequently. (Kotter and Cohen 2002)

Competitive Border: Competition is healthy but can be fatal if the strategies become too monotonous and obsolete. There is dependence on change to handle competition. (Kotter 1995) Sapphire needs to be modified with products and material being used by competitors and try to do better than other turning the furniture towards them. (Kotter 2007)

Mergers: The merger of the business with another can result in change in strategy as the new staff can have better ideas and strategies to help make the company a success. (Paul 1996). If Sapphire merges with another company to make it a success, it may have to revise the ways to do things.

Change in mission: In the event the mission of the company changes, definitely there should be a different strategy to deal with it. The objective of Sapphire is to combat ageing and make people look beautiful however now the market demands more of stress liberating treatments. So Sapphire needs to rethink about its strategy. (Franzen and Hardaker 1999)

Task 2. 2

Assess the factors that are travelling the necessity for proper change within an organization

The Shifting Economy - The market is so very changing and vibrant. Because of the unpredictability of computer, the organization is in continuous need of change in the strategy and economical plan. That is more prevalent since recession

Environmental factors - There are specific environmental changes which have an impact on the production and sales. These changes should be checked and the demand of change arises.

Financial pressure - There occur financial stresses on the organizations, to be able to meet deadlines and targets. In order to handle funds, there must be a big change in finance strategies. This is where the necessity for change management occurs.

Technological advancements - There has been major change in development, marketing, outsourcing and other fields scheduled to technology. The organization needs changing and has to keep in rate with the technological advances to succeed in its quest and make method for growth. Keeping in mind the factors mentioned above, there's a need for change.

Funding cuts - While using recession in the economy, the business has cut down on costs and money. There is dependence on change in financial technique to keep the balance.

Competition - Competition is a healthy asset for any business. To maintain to the expectations and do better than others is vital, hence it is essential to keep a watch at what others are doing and bring change in the company accordingly.

Task 2. 3

Assess the resource implications of the business not giving an answer to strategic change

Restructuring of HR- If the company does not react to the changes as mentioned above, it could have to face severe outcomes and lose in the process. The organization will have to restructure the HR making way for a new beginning. There have to be market leaders chosen again and staff useful for the smooth working of the company.

Interview and work with of new employees - Interviewing and hiring of new personnel will have to be done which is a time consuming and costly process for just about any business.

Redundancies - The organization will have redundancies if proper steps for the change aren't taken in time. This can have an impact on the working and time management of the strategy of work.

Training - Training is another costly and time taking process. It takes a lot to teach the employees and endure the costs. If the need for strategic change is understood, there is no need for the business to carry costs or deficits.

Task 3. 1

Develop systems to require stakeholders in the planning of change in the chosen organization

A stakeholder is person who has something to gain or lose through the outcomes of your planning process or job. These are also known as interest categories and can have a solid bearing on the final results of political operations. It is helpful for research projects to identify and analyse the needs and concerns of different stakeholders, particularly when these projects have an effect on policy

Input-output change model

Operations management transforms inputs (labour, capital, equipment, land, buildings, materials and information) into outputs (goods and services) offering added value to customers. Change System is the critical factor in the model that can determine how well the company produces goods and services that meet consumer needs. No matter whether the company is a for-profit company, a non-profit firm (spiritual organizations, hospitals, etc. ), or a authorities firm; all organizations must make an effort to maximize the quality of their transformation steps to meet customer needs.

Steps Involved

Step 1: Clarify the study or policy change aim (Problem Tree Analysis or objectives evaluation will help with this. )

Stap 2: Identify all the stakeholders or interest groups associated with this goal, problem or issue. Stakeholders can be organizations, categories, departments, structures, networks or individuals.

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Step 3: While using grid organise the stakeholders in several matrices according with their interest and electricity. 'Interest' measures from what degree they could to be influenced by the study project. 'Power' steps the influence they may have over the project or policy, and to what degree they can help achieve, or block, the required change.

The Cultural Web

The Cultural Web

http://www. mindtools. com/pages/article/newSTR_90. htm

The Cultural Web identifies six interrelated elements Johnson and Scholes (2002) call it the "paradigm" - the routine or model - of the work environment. By examining the factors in each, you can start to see what is working, what isn't working, and what needs to be altered. The six elements are:

The past situations and people talked about outside and inside the business. Who and what the business chooses to observe say a great deal in what it prices, and perceives as great behaviour.

The daily behavior and actions of individuals that indicate acceptable behaviour. This can determine what is likely to happen in given situations, and what is valued by management.

The visible representations of the company including logos, how delightful the office buildings are, and the dress codes.

Multiple Cause Diagrams

Multiple cause diagrams

http://ilearn. cto. int/login/index. php

Multiple cause diagrams are a means of using interconnectedness to shape up a intricate situation.

They signify both satisfactory and casual cause without making a difference between them.

This system is pictured as an interconnected band of events or effects to cause an effect as an objective. Sometimes, if the type cause is removed, the productivity cause continues to occur, may be because opinions loops can be found or other causes drive the result.

Influencing skills

The careless reception of authority is becoming increasingly less common on the planet. To get things done, it is better to count on commitment alternatively than authority. For instance, attaining co-operation from other departments.

Task 3. 2

Develop an alteration management strategy with stakeholders in the chosen organization

Developing a winning strategy is messier than books suggest. Most insights that are important for formulating strategies snooze in the minds of operating managers. (Kotter 2007)

The Stakeholder Circle

This was created to put stakeholders on the 'job management radar'. It really is a proven method supported by a hardcore, easy to use tool that courses us through five simple actions namely:

Identify your projects stakeholders and understand their needs

Prioritize the stakeholders based on power, closeness and urgency.

Visualize the key stakeholders using the Stakeholder Group.

Engage with the stakeholders because they build and implementing an effective communication


Monitor changes as you revise and review your stakeholders at key points in the project.

Public Hearings: There can be occasions where stakeholders are permitted to give proof or question public specialists about decisions.

Public hearings: Regulated, formal arrangements for times and places at which members of the general public and other styles of stakeholders can provide information or question open public government bodies about decisions.

Deliberative Polling: This gathers views when people are created to the issue and consider it. It also includes a feedback session.

Task 3. 3

Evaluate the systems used to require stakeholders in the planning of change in the chosen organization

The stakeholder model is effective in explaining the guidelines of the economical game and the hyperlink between stakeholder value and competitive benefit. The stakeholder strategy plan guides us on how to interact and talk to each stakeholder during different levels of a job. It also really helps to identify who should take part, in what ways and on what level of the project. It gives thorough knowledge of the problem and suits better to most organizations. Different ways such as polling, workshops and workshops are also perfect ways to handle change in an effective manner.

Task 3. 4

Create a technique for managing resistance to improve in the chosen organization

Selective Belief: People's self applied interpretation of stimuli presents a distinctive image of the real world and ends in selective understanding. This leads to biased view of the situation that fits into the perception of fact.

Habit: People are used to the same manner to do things making a behavior. It becomes acts as a source of comfort. Causing change brings amount of resistance.

Loss of Liberty: In the event the change sometimes appears as a hassle, it reduces independence of action or ends up with increased control, there will be resistance.

Direct vs Indirect

There is personnel that may avoid directly as well as others that may be indirect in level of resistance. Direct resistance is to oppose in a direct manner and fighting in a straight line but indirect amount of resistance is to show resistance by making excuses such as resigning.

Task 4. 1

Develop appropriate models for change in the chosen corporation that will indicate their circumstances

The best model for change that applies to Sapphire Beauty Field is Prosci's Five BLOCKS change management model which include the ADKAR

The first thing Sapphire needs is the Awareness of the necessity for change. If the necessity for change is understood, half the job is performed. Planned communication is essential for understanding. Sapphire needs change as there is a need for it.

Next is the Desire to participate and help the change. The employees of Sapphire need to produce a personal decision to aid the change and sustain it too. The CEO declared incentives for folks creating a desire to be an integral part of the change.

The third building block is providing Knowledge. Sapphire organised a seminar for imparting awareness for change, how to undergo change and how to execute it. Prosci (2003) recommended community forums and mentoring for understanding of change.

Ability to implement required skills and habit is another foundation of the ADKAR model. It's the difference between theory and practice. Once knowledge is imparted on change, the performance of the average person must be reinforced. Sapphire can do this by practice, coaching and feedback.

Lat, but not minimal comes Reinforcement. It's the last and essential stage of the model where attempts to maintain the change is accentuated. It is to be guaranteed that changes stay static in place and people do not revert to old ways. The ways to do it are positive responses, reputation, rewarding, etc. Sapphire helps it be a point to have feedback of the customers as well as the employees to keep both factors balanced. There is a 'Best Employee of the Month' award structure at Sapphire Beauty Pack which inspires employees to do their best.

Prosci's Change Management Model

http://www. change-management. com/tutorial-adkar-overview. htm

Task 4. 2

Plan to put into practice a model for change taking into consideration the internal and exterior circumstances impacting on the organization

Kaizen Method

This is a Japanese way for constant incremental improvement. It really is an idea for gradual, continuous improvement. It assumes that every aspect of life must be constantly improved. The main elements of Kaizen are effort, quality, and determination to change, communication and involvement of employees. Its five founding elements are


Personal Discipline

Improved Morale

Quality Circles and

Suggestions for Improvement.

The Kaizen method is best for Sapphire Beauty Package as it is people focused, requires long-term self-discipline and easy to implement.

Matrix Organizations

This kind of firm offers the advantages of flexibility, higher security and control of job information. It establishes a grid with a two way flow of authority and responsibility.

Task 4. 3

Develop appropriate methods to monitor improvement of the developed model

Goal Based mostly Evaluation

To focus on goal based analysis, there may be two main questions we can ask for

How gets the programme made a difference

Are the participants of the program feeling better consequently of the program?

Outcome based analysis is a way that determines if the task at Sapphire Beauty Field have achieved its goals. The organized process using OBE really helps to establish clear final results, to assess benefits, clarify groups for which benefits are targeted.

Other ways to monitor improvement in Sapphire Beauty Box are regular studies of the actions being practiced within. Conferences are also carried out by higher government bodies to manage the changes and keep a watch about them. Quality Circles appear simple and easy but need to be viewed in regard to Japanese culture and management systems. Quality circles are do work and are used successfully by British organizations.




It can be concluded that tactical change is the main element factor in any group. Change is a pervasive impact. We all have been subject to change in a single form or the other which is continuous. The steps to change from Kotter give essential knowledge about making change Kotter is called the Expert in terms of change management. Prosci's ADKAR blocks give deep understanding and advice for applying change and monitoring it to support change. Kurt Lewin's change model is also an important one. The freeze, refreeze and transition periods develop new behaviour and behavior.

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